For many entries, the title should be fairly self explanatory about the finding, methods and/or relevance. This accounts for most entries which are not annotated with additional explanation regarding their relevance and/or other comments.
1651. Hobbes T. Leviathan
>>Most well-known for a justification of state authority under the assumption of generally being more secure and better off while accepting a leviathan that at least mostly returns the favour in exchange for complicity in upholding the state, this book also includes a great many chapters which try to present the links between perception and cognition.
1748. Hume D. An enquiry concerning human understanding
>>Numerous earlier chapters try to reason through the chain from events and perception to cognition, enroute to trying to understand society from its fundamental constituents such as individuals, families, etc.
1898 (Jun). Thorndike EL. Animal intelligence: An experimental study of the associative processes in animals, The Psychological Review: Monograph Supplements, 2(4):i-109.
>>This is most included for historical interest as an indication of active research and interest in associative processes, viewed through the lens of animal studies.
1913. Pintner R. Inner speech during silent reading, Psychological Review, 20(2).
>>Suggestive of an interest to eliminate subvocal speech when reading, with a belief that this would increase reading speed. (Retention does not appear to have entered into the consideration.)
1935. Liebesny, P. Short and ultrashort waves in biology: Urban & Schwarzenberg, Munich.
>> This title is included for historical interest.
1938. Liebesny, P. (1938) Athermic short wave therapy. Arch. Phys. Ther. (Chicago) 19: 736.
>> This title is included for historical interest, namely, that human "therapies" using microwave radiation were already a subject of research interest on both sides of the Atlantic prior to the onset of WW2.
1941 (Jul 20). Cole KS and RF Baker. Longitudinal impedance of the squid giant axon, The Journal of General Physiology, 24(6):771.
1946 (Jul). Roberts S and A Von Hippel. A new method for measuring dielectric constant and loss in the range of centimeter waves, Journal of Applied Physics. 17)7):610-616.
1947 (Feb 1). Barlow et al. Visual sensations aroused by magnetic fields, American Journal of Physiology, 148(372-375):
1948 (Dec). Rosenblueth A et al. An account of the spike potential of axons, Journal of Cellular Physiology, 32(3):275-317.
1949. Doob LW. The strategies of psychological warfare, Public Opinion Quarterly, 13(4):635-644.
>> Discussion of structures of thinking to systematically consider possible responses of the target audience in order to limit the number of variables to be considered and identify the course of action most likely to achieve objectives. The need to inventory strategies in a manner conducive to examining major assumptions behind strategies is addressed.
1949. Silver S. Microwave antenna theory and design: McGraw-Hill. TK6565 .A6 S5
1950 (Sep 16). England TS. Dielectric properties of the human body for wave-lengths in the 1–10 cm range, Nature, 166:480-481.
1951 (Oct). Peirson DH and E Franklin. The dielectric behaviour of some types of human tissues at microwave frequencies, British Journal of Applied Physics, 2(10):295-299.
>>Mostly of interest as a topic of study that produced relevant principles which proliferated in a variety of relevant areas.
1952. Hodgkin AL and AF Huxley. A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve, The Journal of Physiology, 117(4):500-544.
1954. Schwann HP et al. The absorption of electromagnetic energy in body tissues. A review and critical analysis. Part 1: Biophysical aspects, American Journal of Physical Medicine, 33(6):374:404.
1954. Dawson GD. A summation technique for the detection of small evoked potentials, Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, (6):65-84.
>>Presents an automated method of making and adding measuring small responses to stimuli which may not have otherwise been identifiable using technologies of the day.
1955. Schwann HP et al. The absorption of electromagnetic energy in body tissues. A review and critical analysis. Part 2: Physiological and clinical aspects, American Journal of Physical Medicine, 34(3):425-448.
1956. Fricke H et al. A dielectric study of the low-conductance surface membrane in E. coli, Nature, 177:134-135.
1957 (May). Barlow JS. An electronic method for detecting evoked responses of the brain and for reproducing their average waveforms, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 9(2):340–343.
>>An early technique in using EEGs to measure how neural activity responds to stimuli. In this case, averaged responses across many instances were used to find the effect. The fact of some automated aspects in the calculation were perhaps impressive at the time.
>>Among other things, early EEG findings indicate that surely much more lies down that road, so the main interest might often be what is being looked for, more so than techniques.
1957. Schwan HP. Electrical properties of tissue and cell suspensions, Advances in Biological and Medical Physics, 5:147-209.
1958. Faaborg-andersen et al. Electromyography of intrinsic and extrinsic laryngeal muscles during silent speech: Correlation with reading activity: Preliminary report, Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 49(1):478-482.
>>"During “silent speech” an increase in electrical activity was found in the vocal and the mylohyoid muscle...".
1961 (Jan 7). Leites FL and LA Skurikhina. The effect of microwaves on the hormonal activity of the adrenal cortex, Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine, 52(6):1387–1390.
>>Following an initial stress response after a single exposure to microwave radiation, within 1.5-2 weeks a "distinct and statistically significant change in hormonal activity was noted in the adrenal cortex".
1961. Michaelson SM et al. Physiologic aspects of microwave irradiation of mammals, American Journal of Physiology, 201:351-356.
>>A variety of longer-term physiological changes (and lack thereof) noted in several mammal species after microwave radiation.
1962 (Jul). Frey AH. Human auditory system response to modulated electromagnetic energy, Journal of Applied Physiology, 17(4):689-692.
>> Potentially the first experimental demonstration of the microwave auditory effect to beam sounds into people’s heads remotely (several hundred feet) by use of pulse modulations of microwaves.
1962 (Nov). Furshpan EJ and T Furukawa. Intracellular and extracellular responses of the several regions of the Mauthner cell of the goldfish, Journal of Neurophysiology, 25(6):732-771.
1963 (Jun). Nakayama T et al. Thermal stimulation of electrical activity of single units of the preoptic region, American Journal of Physiology, 204:1122-1126.
>>Neural activity stimulated in pre-optic region of brain upon microwave radiation, with the effect thought to be due to heating.
1963 (Oct 1). Robertson JD et al. The ultrastructure of Mauthner cell synapses and nodes in goldfish brains, Journal of Cell Biology, 19(1):159.
1963. White RM. Generation of elastic waves by transient surface heating, Journal of Applied Physics, 34(12):3559.
1964 (Jul 1). Nicholls JG and SW Kuffler. Extracellular space as a pathway for exchange between blood and neurons in central nervous system of leech: ionic composition of glial cells and neurons, Journal of Neurophysiology, 27(4):645-671.
1964 (Jul 10). Davis H. Enhancement of evoked cortical potentials in humans related to a task requiring a decision, Science, 145(3628)L182-183.
>>At this stage, the experimental subject had to be required to make a rather difficult auditory discrimination for the response to be identified through EEG readings.
1964 (Aug). García-Austt E, J Bogacz and A Vanzulli. Effects of attention and inattention upon visual evoked response, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 17(2):136–143.
>> Establishes patterns related to visually evoked potentials which are related to inattention. This may demonstrate a very early awareness of the likely ability to influence attentiveness by mimicking evoked potentials associated with inattention. (Which is perfectly consistent with stated MKULTRA research objectives to reduce the cognitive abilities of a target.)
1964 (Sep 12). Chapman RM and HR Bragdon. Evoked responses to numerical and non-numerical visual stimuli while problem solving, Nature, 203:1155-1157.
>> Shows that event-related potential (P300) responses to visual stimuli differed depending on whether the stimuli had meaning or not by comparing responses to two kinds of visual stimuli: numbers and flashes of light. They were able to distinguish between the fact of sensory perception and the meaningfulness of the perception – the meaningful stimulus elicited a neural response which peaked at 300 ms, and hence called the P300 ERP.
1964. McGuigan F et al. Covert language responses during silent reading, Journal of Educational Psychology, 55(6):339-343.
>>3 possible measures of "covert language behaviour" (!?) during silent reading were obtained. Perhaps fortunately for some, it took a while longer for something to pan out on this front.
1965 (Jun). Plonus MA and H Inada. Closed form expression for the Mie series for large, low density, dielectric spheres, Proceedings of the IEEE, 53(6):662-663.
>>Presents some theoretical equations for dialectric calculations.
1965 (Dec). Rodieck RW. Quantitative analysis of cat retinal ganglion cell response to visual stimuli, Vision Research, 5(12):583-601.
>>This finding appears much earlier than probably most people might have thought.
1965. Ramo S et al. Fields and waves in communication electronics: Wiley. QC670 .R29
1966 (Jul). Donchin E. A multivariate approach to the analysis of average evoked potentials, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-13(3):131-139.
>>"... An average evoked potential is assumed to be a sample from a multivariate normal distribution. ...". If you know where the technology is now, and have some vague notion of how it got there, you might easily understand how this common statistics assumption of a "multuvariate normal distribution' would be utterly fatal to effots to use such methods in related areas of research.
1966. Gournay LS. Conversion of electromagnetic to acoustic energy by surface heating, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 40(6):1322.
1966. Kholodov YA. The Effect of Electromagnetic and Magnetic Fields on the Central Nervous System: Nauka, Moscow, p. 283 (NASA TT-F-465).
>>"Electrophysiological and conditioned reflex methods for determining effect of electromagnetic and magnetic fields on central nervous system of rabbits, pigeons, and fish."
1967 (Jun). Donchin E and L Cohen. Averaged evoked potentials and intramodality selective attention, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 22(6):537–546.
>> Demonstrates specific differences in evoked potentials depending on whether the subject is attentive or not. I believe this belong to the body of research which ultimately led to remote influencing technologies which interfere with attention.
1967. Brienza MJ and AJ DeMaria. Laser-induced microwave sound by surface heating, Applied Physics Letters, 11(2):44.
1968 (Oct). Delgado JM et al. Intracerebral radio stimulation and recording in completely free patients, The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 147(4):329-40.
>> Among other things, finds that "Radio Stimulation on different points in the amygdala and hippocampus in the four patients produced a variety of effects, including pleasant sensations, elation, deep thoughtful concentration, odd feelings, super relaxation (an essential precursor for deep hypnosis), coloured visions, and other responses."
1968 (May 24). Mast TE et al. Attention and auditory evoked responses to low-detectability signals, Perception & Psychophysics, 4(4):237–240.
>>Responses to low level auditory stimuli were about double when counting the stimuli as compared to when reading. This was a larger relative increase than previously found, under higher volume sound.
1968 (Sep). Long-range coherence and energy storage in biological systems, International Journal of Quantitative Chemistry, 2:641-649.
>>"...The supplied energy is thus not completely thermalized but stored in a highly ordered fashion. ..."
>>I'm not sure whether this might be related to much study of temperature increases (which by exclusion might give indications of this additional energy storage), but I don't see much mention along this line in further research, so this might be a theoretical dead end. The paper also incorporates many aspects of organic chemistry (related to specific bonding properties, molecular resonance-related, etc.) which are accepted now and would have been cutting edge at the time.
1968. Carpenter RL and CA Van Ummersen. The action of microwave radiation on the eye, Journal of Microwave Power, 3(1):3-19.
>>Finds the cataract formation is in different locations/depths depending on the field type that the microwave is applied within.
1968. Harrington RF. Field computation by moment methods: Wiley-IEEE Press. QC20.2 .H3
1969 (Feb). Hardyck CD and LF Petrinovich. Treatment of subvocal speech during reading, Journal of Reading, 12(5):361-368.
>>Discusses methods existing at that time to record subvocal speech, including inserting needle electrodes directly into the latyngeal muscles in order to record speech.
1969 (Sep 17). Frey AH. Effects of microwaves and radio frequency energy on the central nervous system: Randomline Inc.
>>Summarizes some discussions relating to the state of the art, and along the way mentions that the central nervous system was not completely understood as many might have believed, and so conclusions that RF energy had no neural effects were not sound (no specific claims were made, however).
1969 (Nov). Berkhout J et al. Alterations of the human electroencephalogram induced by stressful verbal activity, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 27(5):457–469.
>>"... it proved possible to separate subjectively stressful from non-stressful verbal stimuli, and to determine distinctive EEG responses to verbal stimuli of similar stress value differing only in semantic content." "Consistent over small populations", which means that with their small subject group, it looks like there is not large divergence in the effects.
1969. Adam SF. Microwave theory and applications: Prentice.
1969. Cohen J. Very slow brain potentials relating to expectancy: The CNV in E Donchin and DB Lindsley (eds). Average evoked potentials: Methods, results, and evaluations: US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 400 pp.
>>Included out of interest that the conference these works were produced for had convened to discuss average potentials specifically, indicating that interest in spike trains, etc., following the identification of the P300, were barely on the horizon.
1970 (Feb). Shwartz G. Cooperative binding to linear biopolymers: 1. fundamental static and dynamic properties, The European Journal of Biochemistry, 12:442-453.
1970 (Feb). Shwartz G et al. Cooperative binding to linear biopolymers: 2. thermodynamic analysis of the proflavine-poly(l-glutamic acid) system, The European Journal of Biochemistry, 12:442-453.
1970 (Mar). Gavalas RJ et al. Effect of low-level, low-frequency electric fields on EEG and behavior in Macaca nemestrina, Brain Research, 18(3):491-501.
1970 (Jun). Engel J and G Schwartz. Cooperative conformational transitions of linear biopolymers, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 9(6):389-400.
1970 (Aug). Bostock H and MJ Jarvis. Changes in the form of the cerebral evoked response related to the speed of simple reaction time, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 29(2):137–145.
>>Reaction time to sound was itself related to another identified difference in neural activity. This did not differ by phase of the cardiac cycle (at what time in between heart beats) under these experimental conditions.
1970. Kryter KD et al. The effects of noise on man: Academic Press. BF205 .N6 K72
1970. Presman AS. Electromagnetic fields and life: Springer. QH656 .P713
1971 (Jan). Keeton WT. Magnets interfere with pigeon homing, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
1971 (Feb 1). Conner JA and CF Stevens. Inward and delayed outward membrane currents in isolated neural somata under voltage clamp, The Journal of Physiology, 213(1):1-19.
1971 (Feb). Frey AH. Biological function as influenced by low-power modulated RF energy, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 16(2):153-164
1971 (Feb). Schwann HP. Interaction of microwave and radio frequency radiation with biological systems, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 16(2):146-152.
>>A survey of thermal and nonthermal effects...
>>"Several important conclusions are made. 1) Field-force effects cannot be enhanced by use of pulsed fields. 2) It is not possible to directly stimulate nerve membranes by microwave fields. 3) It is fluids and tissues..."
1971 (Feb). Shapiro AR et al. Induced fields and heating within a cranial structure irradiated by an electromagnetic plane wave, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 16(2):187-196.
1971 (Apr). Eino EW and WL Castensen. Low-frequency dielectric dispersion in suspensions of ion-exchange resins, The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 75(8):1091-1099.
>>"...the low-frequency dielectric constant of bacteria appears to be correlated with the cell wall conductivity (or the volume charge density within the wall) rather than the surface charge density of the cell".
>>This doesn't mean that cell wall conductivity itself is the explanatory mechanism, since the same properties that cause the conductivity could somewhat separately intermediate on the effect of the EM fields.
1971 (Sep). Othmer HG and LE Scriven. Instability and dynamic pattern in cellular networks, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 32(3):507-537.
1971 (Oct). McGuigan FJ. External auditory feedback from covert oral behavior during silent reading, Psychonomic Science, 25(4):212–214.
>>Describes biofeedback used to suppress subvocal speech: "High speech-muscle amplitude during silent reading produced a slightly noxious tone, and a reduction in amplitude removed the tone...". Point to a desire to have techniques which have more effect in controlling 'covert' speech (subvocalization).
1971. Wulfsohn NL and A Sances (eds). The Nervous System and Electric Currents: Volume 2: Springer.
1972 (Apr). Neumann E and A Katchalsky. Long-lived conformation changes induced by electric impulses in biopolymers, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science.
1972 (May). Curtis GC. Psychosomatics and chronobiology: Possible implications of neuroendocrine rhythms: A review, Psychosomatic Medicine, 34(3):235-256.
>>Generally deals with much longer temporal effects than are most relevant to the topic at hand (although certainly many other rhythms can be interrupted or changed temporarily by means which do not involve altering their underlying causes), but is perhaps indicative of the knowledge in this area at that time.
1972 (Jun). Johnson CC and AW Guy. Nonionizing electromagnetic wave effects in biological materials and systems, Proceedings of the IEEE, 60(6):692-718.
>> Expresses awareness of "a myriad of effects and responses in biological specimens". Seeks to explore if low-level effects are harmful, and reports on awareness of behavioural effects at low energy intensity.
1972 (Jul 28). Paul DD and S Sutton. Evoked potential correlates of response criterion in auditory signal detection, Science 177(4046):362-364.
1972 (Aug). Baranski S. Histological and histochemical effect of microwave irradiation on the central nervos system of rabbits and guinea pigs, American Journal of Physical Medicine, 51(4):182-191.
>>Analyzes EEGs of animals under various pulsed and continuous wave conditions.
1972 (Sep). Appleton B and GC McCrossan. Microwave lens effects in humans, Journal of the American Meidcal Association - Ophthalmology, 88(3):259-262.
1972 (Oct). Blank M. Cooperative effects in membrane reactions, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 41(1):97-104.
1972 (Nov). Aslan E. Broad-band isotropic electromagnetic radiation monitor, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement ( Volume: 21, Issue: 4:421-424.
>>Shows ability to have uniform measurements from all directions from 300 MHz to 18 GHz and 20 W/cm2 to 20 mW/cm2.
1972 (Nov). Glassman WE. Subvocal activity and acoustic confusions in short-term memory, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 96(1):164-169.
>>Degree of subvocalization is manipulated using a self-conditioning procedure. The extent of subvocalization was related to the production of acoustic confusion of short-term memory, but minimization of subvocalization may lead to encoding in other ways.
1972. Elul R. The genesis of the EEG, International Review of Neurobiology, 15:227–272.
>>A basic explainer on the production of electrical activities which are recorded by an EEG.
1973 (Jan). Oberg PA. Magnetic stimulation of nerve tissue, Medical & Biological Engineering, 11(1):55-64.
1973 (Jun 1). Schaefer S and RR Engel. Operant control of autonomic functions: Biofeedback bibliography, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 36(3):863-875.
>>Organizes 280 references on "instrumental or operant learning", which is related to biofeedback, by type of publication.
1973 (Jun). Donchin E et al. Graded changes in evoked response (P300) amplitude as a function of cognitive activity, Perception & Psychophysics, 14(2):319–324.
>>"Using a stepwise discriminant analysis, we demonstrate that the amplitude of P300 is a graded function of the complexity of information processing required of a S following a stimulus. ..."
>>The temporal aspect is now introduced to understanding evoked reactions. They surmise that the P300 is an indicator of "general-purpose cortical processor".
1973 (May 1). Edelman GM et al. Receptor mobility and receptor-cytoplasmic interactions in lymphocytes, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 70(5): 1442-1446.
1973 (Jun 4-6). Chou CK and AW Guy. Effect of 2450-MHz microwave fields on peripheral nerves, IEEE G-MTT International Microwave Symposium.
1973 (Jun 6). Guy AW et al. Microwave interaction with the auditory systems of humans and cats, IEEE G-MTT International Microwave Symposium.
>>"Recordings from elements of the auditory system of cats in response to pulsed microwaves, as well as determinations of thresholds of audibility of humans to the pulses indicate that an auditory sensation may be elicited by pulse energies > 20..."
1973 (Jun 26). Lin JC et al. Microwave selective brain heating, Journal of Microwave Power, 8(3):276-286.
1973 (Jul 27). Frey AH and R Messenger. "Human perception of illumination with pulsed ultrahigh-frequency electromagnetic energy, Science, 181(4097):356-8.
>> A psychophysical study of the perception of "sound" induced by illumination with pulse-modulated, ultrahigh-frequency electromagnetic energy indicated that perception was primarily dependent upon peak power and secondarily dependent upon pulse width. The average power did not significantly affect perception. Perceived characteristics of pitch and timbre appeared to be functions of modulation.
1973 (Aug 30). Bawin SM et al. Effects of modulated very high frequency fields on specific brain rhythms in cats, Brain Research, 58(2):365-384.
1973 (Sep). Adams JC and DA Benson. Task-contingent enhancement of the auditory evoked response, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 35(3):249-257.
1973 (Dec). Kaczmarek LK and WR Adey. The efflux of 45Ca2+ and [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid from cat cerebral cortex, Brain Research, 63:331-342.
1973 (Dec). Lords JL et al. Rate effects in isolated hearts induced by microwave irradiation (short papers), IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 21(12):834-836.
1973. Nicolis JS et al. A frequency entrainment model with relevance to systems displaying adaptive behaviour, International Journal of Control, 18(5):1009-1027.
1974 (Jan). Belkhode ML et al. Thermal and athermal effects of microwave radiation on the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in human blood., Health Physics, 26(1):45-51.
>>"... no athermal effect of microwave radiation on the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was observed."
1974 (Jan). Othmer HG and LE Scriven. Non-linear aspects of dynamic pattern in cellular networks, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 43(1):83-112.
1974 (Jan). Joines WT and RJ Spiegel. Resonance absorption of microwaves by the human skull, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-21(1):46-48.
1974 (Feb). Kaczmarek LK and WR Adey. Weak electric gradients change ionic and transmitter fluxes in cortex, Brain Research, 66(3):537-540.
1974 (May). Blanchard EB and LD Young. Clinical Applications of Biofeedback TrainingA Review of Evidence, Archives of General Psychiatry, 30(5):573-589.
>>Discusses elimination of subvocal speech as among those with evidence supporting efficacy of "biofeedback training", as compared to other physiological and neural activities tested which were not. Also summarizes and reviews applications up to that point.
1974 (May). Sharp JC et al. Generation of acoustic signals by pulsed microwave energy (letters), IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 22(5):583-584.
1974 (May). Skidmore WD and SJ Baum. Biological effects in rodents exposed to 10^8 pulses of electromagnetic radiation., Health Physics, 26(5):391-398.
>>Somewhat higher proportion of malformed (no nucleus) red blood cells in the specific conditions, compared to a non-treatment group.
1974 (Jun 12-14). Lin JC et al. Microwave effect on rabbit superior cervical ganglion, S-MTT International Microwave Symposium Digest.
>>A broad range of power densities failed to significantly impact conduction latencies recorded from post-ganglioic fibres.
1974 (Jun 12-14). Weil CM. Absorption characteristics of multi-layered sphere models exposed to UHF/microwave radiation, S-MTT International Microwave Symposium Digest.
1974 (Jul 1974). Clapman R and C Cain. Absence of heart-rate effects in isolated frog heart with pulse modulated low-level microwave energy, IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Symposium Record.
1974 (Jul 19). Foster KR and ED Finch. Microwave hearing: Evidence for thermoacoustic auditory stimulation by pulsed microwaves, Science, 185(1417):256-258.
1974 (Jul 12). Taylor EM and BT Ashleman. Analysis of central nervous system involvement in the microwave auditory effect, Brain Research, 74(2):201-208.
>>Shows that cochlear damage eliminated auditory-linked neural activity in 3 typically active sites. Theorizes that this means the auditory effects are "mediated at the periphery", but comparisons to normal sound suggest the theoretical basis was not yet pinpointed.
1974 (Aug). Lindauer GA et al. Further experiments seeking evidence of nonthermal biological effects of microwave radiation (short papers), IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 22(8):790-793
>>Contributed to knowledge that non-thermal effects of microwaves on organisms is possible, which was debated at the time. (The specific case involved bettle pupae.)
1974 (Sep). Cory WE and CL Frederick. Effects of electromagnetic energy on the environment - A summary report, IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, AES-10(5):738-742.
1974 (Oct). Romero-Sierra C and JA Tanner. Biological effects of nonionizing radiation: An outline of fundamental laws, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 238:273-272.
>>Studies effects of microwaves on sciatic nerve in rats.
1974 (Oct). Noyes RM and RJ Field. Oscillatory chemical reactions, Annual Review of Physical Chemistry, 25:95-119.
1974 (Oct). Pilla A. Electrochemical information transfer at living cell membrances, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 238:149-170.
>>Even with (or perhaps particularly due to) highly data-oriented modern technologies relating to the sorts of interactions explored in this relatively early work, I hesitate to call this "information transfer". I don't think this was talking about "information" in the data-oriented way we do today, but rather with a focus at the submolecular or subatmoic level with the state of one thing influencing the state of some other thing, through some interaction.
>>Regardless, of historical interest, is the general fact of detailed exploration in this directionm both making use of established organic chemistry principles, data, etc., while making further investigative efforts inclusive of EM field effects on biological stuff.
1974 (Nov). Zimmerman U et al. Dielectric breakdown of cell membranes, Biophysics Journal, 14(11):881-899.
In "plotting the pulse heights versus the electric field strength, a sharp bend in the otherwise linear curve is observed due to the dielectric breakdown of the membranes", in human, bovine and E. coli cell membranes.
1974. Czerski P et al. Microwave irradiation and the circadian rhythm of bone marrow cell mitosis, Journal of Microwave Power, 9(1):31-37.
1974. Picton TW et al. Human auditory evoked potentials. I: Evaluation of components, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 36:179–190.
>>"Fifteen distinct components can be identified in the scalp recorded average evoked potential to an abrupt auditory stimulus...". Followed by details. 1974.
1974. WHO. Biological effects and health hazards of microwave radiation: Polish Medical Publishers.
1975 (Jan). Lin JC. Microwave properties of fresh mammalian brain tissues at body temperature, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-22(1):74-76.
1975 (Feb). Appleton B et al. Investigation of single-exposure microwave ocular effects at 3000 MHz, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 247:235-134.
1975 (Feb). Baranski S and Z Edelwejn. Experimental morphological and electroencephalographic studies of microwave effects on the nervous system, Annals of the New York Acadmey of Sciences, 247:109-116.
1975 (Feb). Bawin SM et al. Effects of modulated VHF fields on the central nervous system, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 247:74-81.
1975 (Feb). Beischer DE and VR Reno. Microwave energy distribution measurements in proximity to man and their practical applications, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 247:473-480.
1975 (Feb). Frey AH et al. Neural function and behaviour: Defining the relationship, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 247:433-439.
>> This article is frequently cited in associated literature and is of general historical interest on this topic .
1975 (Feb). Guy AW et al. Microwave-induced acoustic effects in mammalian auditory systems and physical materials, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 247:194-218.
1975 (Feb). Hiroto DS and ME Seligman. Generality of learned helplessness in man, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31(2):311-327.
1975 (Feb). Lebovitz RM. Detection of weak electromagnetic radiation by the mammalian vestibulocochclear apparatus, Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 247:182-193.
1975 (Feb). Michaelson SM et al. Biochemical and neuroendocrine aspects of exposure to microwaves, Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 247:21-45.
1975 (Feb). Roberti B et al. Preliminary investigations of the effects of low-level microwave radiation on spontaneous motor activity in rats, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 247:417-424.
1975 (Feb). Servantie B et al. Synchronization of cortical neurons by a pulsed microwave field as evidenced by spectral analysis of electrocorticograms from the white rat, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 247:82-86.
1975 (Feb). Taylor EM and BT Ashleman. Some effects of electromagnetic radiation on the brain and spinal cord of cats, Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 247:63-73.
1975 (Feb). Wachtel H et al. Effects of low-intensity microwaves on isolated neurons, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 247:46-62.
1975 (Mar). Justesen DR. Microwaves and behavior, American Psychologist, 30(3):391-401.
>> Discusses the study of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields, especially microwaves, in psychology. Some fundamental principles of wave theory and historical developments in the field are summarized, and methodological and instrumentation issues are examined. It includes evidence and discussion of the demonstration of voice to skull (synthetic telepathy) technologies by researcher Dr. Joseph Sharp in 1973.
1975 (Apr 1). Phillips RD et al. Thermoregulatory, metabolic, and cardiovascular response of rats to microwaves, Journal of Applied Physiology, 38(4):630-635.
1975 (Apr). Fisher KD et al. Sensitivity of Auditory and Vestibular Systems to Stimuli Other Than Sound and Motion: Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
1975 (Apr). Frey A and SR Feld. Avoidance by rats of illumination with low power nonionizing electromagnetic energy, Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 89(2):183-188.
>> Shows that rats, when irradiated with 1.2-GHz microwave energy, spent more time in the shielded portion of a box when the microwaves were pulsed, but not under continuous irradiation. (Apparently even rats don’t like having their minds remotely tampered with, to the extent that the avoid it when they couldn’t possibly have a clue what was going on.)
1975 (May 12-14). Lin JC. Microwave measurement of respiration, IEEE-MTT-S International Microwave Symposium
1975 (May). Donchin E et al. On the independence of the CNV and the P300 components of the human averaged evoked potential, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 38(5):449–461.
>>This represents developments in the ability to discern be identifiably different patterns in event-related potentials. The amplitude of the P300 remained similar in the presence of a warning stimulus, whereas other activity could be separately identified.
1975 (May). Hamid A and SS Stuchly. Microwave doppler-effect flow monitor, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics and Control Instrumentation, IECI-22(2):224-228
>>Capabilities and limitations of microwave Doppler radar for monitoring flow.
1975 (May). Hanna R et al. A Biofeedback Treatment for Stuttering, Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 40:270-273.
>>"Auditory feedback of laryngeal muscle tension was found to reduce stuttering dramatically in an exploratory study of a single patient. ..."
>>I'm not sure if this description implies the ability to measure by detection of surface changes due to subvocally-related muscle movements, as compared to measuring the EMG signal per se.
1975 (May). Lin JC. Interaction of electromagnetic transient radiation with biological materials, IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, EMC-17(2):93-97.
1975 (May). Naatanen R. Selective attention and evoked potentials in humans — A critical review, Biological Psychology, 2(4):237-301.
>> A review of the knowledge on the relationship between evoked potentials and attentiveness by 1975. Discussing existing challenges to fully map out these relationships, inlclduing the lack, at that time, of research on psychological and behavioural phenomena such as importance, task-relevance, interest value, meaningfulness or significance of stimuli, which expressions. It should be rather obvious, to those who have experienced a diversity of applications of remote influencing neuroweapons, that the ability to influence things like attributed importance, task-relevance, interest value, meaningfulness, etc., have clearly been figured out in the non-civilian sector. Clearly someone(s) have filled in those gaps over the last 40 years. But that's not really interesting at all, isn't it? Hey look! A flashing image of genitalia of the opposite sex! I have to go check my Facebook now.
1975 (Jun). Blanchard EB and LD Young. Biofeedback training: A review of evidence, Pediatrics, 55(6).
>>"Alpha wave control by EEG feedback has become a popular executive creativity induction method. In a careful review of the published papers with good controls clinical effectiveness has been established..."
1975 (Jun 25). Justeen DR. Toward a prescriptive grammar for the radiobiology of non-ionising radiations: Quantities, definitions, and units of absorbed electromagnetic energy —an essay, Journal of Microwave Power, 10(4):343-356.
1975 (Jun 26). Melville D et al. Direct magnetic separation of red cells from whole blood, Nature, 255:706.
1975 (Jul). Janowitz M. Sociological theory and social control, American Journal of Sociology (The University of Chicago Press Article), 81(1):82-108.
>> Discusses the history of the idea of social control. Classically, this referred to the ability of a society to regulate itself. It came to refer to either socialization or social repression – if unable to reinforce the classical meaning, he proposes a need for a new term relating to self-regulation or socialization.
1975 (Aug). Courchesne E et al. Stimulus novelty, task relevance and the visual evoked potential in man, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 39(2):131-143.
>> An early demonstration of visually evoked potentials being found to have a degree of specificity. In this study, the waves (amplitudes and delay), of electric potentials were found to have specific features which differed by whether they were similar or novel within the series of images, and whether or not they were related to the task.
>> At that time, filling your hair with a tub of grease to lock it into a particular form had not yet fallen out of fashion, and the ability to insert even extremely low-grade lightening into video was considered as advanced special effects. Mobile phones were considered as science fiction, although Motorola had just produced one of the first models ever, weighing 1.1kg, 30 minutes talk time, taking 10 hours to charge, and with the sole feature of being able to transmit voice.
1975 (Aug). Maret G et al. Orientation of nucleic acids in high magnetic fields, Physical Review Letters, 35:397.
1975 (Oct). Blakemore R. Magnetotactic bacteria, Science, 190(4212):377-379.
1975 (Oct). Lin JC. Noninvasive microwave measurement of respiration, Proceedings of the IEEE, 63(10).
1975 (Oct 31). Brenner D et al. Visually evoked magnetic fields of the human brain, Science, 190(4213):480-482.
>> An early demonstration of knowledge of specific neural activities evoked by visual stimulus. (This is different than the “wave”-based readings via EEG at the time, which I believe are more important to understanding the future development of electronic weapons, no matter that MRIs have been important in development much background knowledge in their more refined applications.)
1975 (Nov). Cole RA and M Young. Effect of subvocalization on memory for speech sounds, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 1(6):772-779.
>>Sequences of 6 consonant-vowel syllables were ordered for recall. Participants were trained to suppress subvocalization which recalling the 6 syllables. Higher memory errors were found in the group that was trained to suppress subvocalization; certain aspects of the results suggested that this was independent of encoding of speech sounds in short-term memory.
1975 (Nov). Frohlich H. The extraordinary dielectric properties of biological materials and the action of enzymes, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 72(11):4211-4215.
1975 (Nov). Gandhi OP. Frequency and orientation effects on whole animal absorption of electromagnetic waves, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-22(6):536-542.
1975 (Dec). Lin JC et al. Transmission of electromagnetic pulse into the head, Proceedings of the IEEE, 63(12):1726-1727.
1975. Barber P and C Yeh. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by arbitrarily shaped dielectric bodies, Applied Optics, 14(12):2864-2872.
1975. Birenbaum L et al. Microwave and infra-red effects on heart rate, respiration rate and subcutaneous temperature of the rabbit, Journal of Microwave Power, 10(1):3-18..
1975. Chou C-K et al. Cochlear microphonics generated by microwave pulses, Journal of Microwave Power, 10(4):361-367. Oscillations in guinea pig brain precede response of auditory nerve suggesting that the microwave auditory effect is accompanied by a mechanical disturbance of the hair cells of the cochlea.
1975. Chou C-W et al. Cochlear microphonics generated By microwave pulses, Journal of Microwave Power, 10(4):361-367.
1975. Michaelson S et al. (eds). Fundamental and applied aspects of nonionizing radiation: Springer. QP82.2 .R3 R58
1975. Ward TR et al. Measure of enzymatic activity coincident with 2450-MHz microwave exposure, Journal of Microwave Power, 10(3):315-323.
1976 (Jan). Lenox RH et al. A microwave applicator for in vivo rapid inactivation of enzymes in the central nervous system (Short Papers), IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 24(1):58-61.
>>Notable for a) in vivo, b) inactivation of enzymes, c) in the central nervous system. All of these are huge.
1976 (Jan). Lin JC. Electromagnetic pulse interaction with mammalian cranial structures, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-23(1):61-65.
1976 (Jan). Tinnery et al. Rate effects in isolated turtle hearts induced by microwave irradiation, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 24(1):18 - 24
1976 (Feb). Baum SJ et al. Biological measurements in rodents exposed continuously throughout their adult life to pulsed electromagnetic radiation., Health Physics, 30(2):161-166.
1976 (Mar). Bhaumik D et al. On the possibility of ‘Bose condensation’ in the excitation of coherent modes in biological systems, Physics Letters A, 56(2):145-148.
1976 (Mar). Gomer FE et al. Evoked potential correlates of visual item recognition during memory-scanning tasks, Physiological Psychology, 4(1):61–65.
>>P300 was unequivocally greater when presented with letters they were supposed to identify as being in the group they had already seen, as compared to the other letters. The effect on the peak of the wave was similar across all set sizes of previously shown letters, suggesting that minimum time to process the new input was involved.
1976 (Mar). Levee JR, MJ Cohen and WH Rickles. Electromyographic biofeedback for relief of tension in the facial and throat muscles of a woodwind musician, Biofeedback and Self-regulation, 1(1):113–120.
>>EMG biofeedback over 20 sessions with a woodwind musician dramatic reductions in tension levels of specific throat and facial muscles (which had been tense due to being a woodwind musician).
>>Presumably, then, some variety and degrees of such effects are possible.
1976 (May). Kaczmarek LK. Frequency sensitive biochemical reactions, Biophysical Chemistry, 4(3):249-251.
1976 (Jun 1). Bawin SW and WR Adey. Sensitivity of calcium binding in cerebral tissue to weak environmental electric fields oscillating at low frequency, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 73(6):1999-2003.
1976 (Jun). Bawin SM and WR Adey. Sensitivity of calcium binding in cerebral tissue to weak environmental electric fields oscillating at low frequency, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 73(6):1999-2003.
>> Electromagnetic fields are demonstrated to affect the calcium flows in chick and cat tissues. Maximum decreases occurred at 6 and 16 Hz (12-15%). Thresholds were around 10 and 56 V/m for chick and cat tissues, respectively.
1976 (Jul). Experimental and theoretical studies on electromagnetic fields induced inside finite biological bodies, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 24(7):433-440.
1976. Roth WT et al. Effects of stimulus probability and task-relevance on event-related potentials, Psychophysiology, 13(4):311-317.
1976 (Aug). Ratner SC. Kinetic movements in magnetic fields of chitons with ferro-magnetic structures, Behavioral Biology, 17(4):573-578.
1976 (Sep 17). Squires KC et al. The effect of stimulus sequence on the waveform of the cortical event-related potential, Science, 193(4258):1142-1146.
>> The study produces findings conducive to an understanding of specific waveforms of event-related potentials, including negative components, positive components and slow-wave forms. A quantitative model was developed relating the waveform changes to changes in event expectancy. For stimuli relevant to the task, the less expected the stimulus the larger the amplitudes of late components of the event-related potentials.
1976 (Sep). Spiegel RJ. ELF coupling to spherical models of man and animals, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-23(5):387-391.
1976 (Oct). Voss W. Biological effects of electromagnetic waves: A review of current research, Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium.
1976 (Nov). Malinin GI et al. Evidence of morphological and physiological transformation of mammalian cells by strong magnetic fields, Science, 194(4267):844-846.
1976 (Nov). McCarthy G and E Donchin. The effects of temporal and event uncertainty in determining the waveforms of the auditory event related potential (ERP), Psychophysiology, 13(6):581-590.
>>Observed differences between when a subject pressed a button to turn on a tone and when it came on automatically were used to identify a negative component with about 140 ms latency.
1976 (Nov). Squires KC and E Donchin. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 41(5):449-459.
>>Used data from single auditory stimulus to build a model that could accurately predict the instance of the single auditory stimulus 84% of the time, using stepwise discriminant analysis.
1976. Hiebert B. Biofeedback therapy: An overview, Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 10(4).
>>"The major therapeutic claims of biofeedback training and the respective methodologies used, are outlined, along with some of the research difficulties that are encountered in biofeedback training..."
1976. Cope FW. Superconductivity—A possible mechanism for non-thermal biological effects of microwaves, Journal of Microwave Power, 11(3):267-269.
>>Theorizes that non-thermal effects of microwaves on biological systems may occur by a superconductive mechanism
1976. Grodsky IT. Neuronal membrane: a physical synthesis, Mathematical Biosciences, 28(3-4):191-219.
1976. Lin JC. Microwave auditory effect—A comparison of some possible transduction mechanisms, Journal of Microwave Power, 11(1):77-81.
1976. Lin JC. Microwave-induced hearing: Some preliminary theoretical observations, Journal of Microwave Power, 11(3):296-298
1977 (Jan). Baranski S and P Czerski. Biological effects of microwaves: Dowden. QP82.2 .M5 B37
1977 (Jan/Mar). Heller JW. Review of Clinical Applications of Electromyographic Biofeedback, Journal of Clinical Engineering, 2(1):21-28.
>>In addition to discussion of use of EMG in biofeedback, it includes "a description of muscle potential measurement and processing as well as computerized signal analysis and stimulus presentation".
1977 (Jan). Wormsbecher RF, et al. A model for ground-state and excited-state microwave optical double resonance, Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy, 64(1):86–97
1977 (Mar). Achimowicz J et al. Quantum cooperative mechanism of enzymatic activity, Physics Letters A, 60(4):383-384.
1977 (Mar). Stuchly SS et al. Advances in monitoring of velocities and densities of particulates using microwave Doppler effect, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 26(1):21-24.
1977 (Apr). Adey WR. Models of membranes of cerebral cells as substrates for information storage, Biosystems, 8(4):163-178.
1977 (Apr 29). Norman RJ et al. Classical conditioning with auditory discrimination of the eye blink in decerebrate cats, Science, 196(4289):551-553.
>>Considering that cats are not normally big on learning, if they can 'learn' certain kinds of things from certain kinds of stimuli without the back part of the brain, then clearly such learning does not require the back part of the brain (which leaves the brainstem intact).
1977 (May 6). Oscar KJ and TD Hawkins. Microwave alteration of the blood-brain barrier system of rats, Brain Research, 126(2):281–293.
>>Finds temporary changes in blood-brain barrier permeability for small molecular weight saccharides (but not several other substances) which differed between pulsed and continuous energy of the same average power.
1977 (Jun). Pearne DH et al. Biofeedback-assisted EMG relaxation for urinary retention and incontinence, Biofeedback and Self-regulation, 2(2):213–217.
>>8 months of biofeedback training was sufficient to 'train' a women to have bladder control after chronic incontinence since infancy.
1977 (Jul). Lin JC. On Microwave-induced hearing sensation, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 25(7):605-613.
1977 (Jul). Zuckerman DN and P Diament. The method facilitates the analysis of waveguide discontinuity problems that resist ordinary methods of solution, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 25(7):613-619
1977 (Aug 19). Kutas M et al. Augmenting mental chronometry: the P300 as a measure of stimulus evaluation time, Science, 197(4305):792-795.
1977 (Sep 5). Mamouni A. A modified radiometer for temperature and microwave properties measurements of biological substances, Microwave Conference, 7th European.
1977 (Sep 12). Garrity LI. Electromyography: A review of the current status of subvocal speech research, Memory & Cognition, 5(6):615–622.
>> Presents the ability to measure subvocalization by EMG, with controls for nonspeech muscle artifacts associated with speech. Outlines existing knowledge on the subject in 1977.
1977 (Sep 28). Seaman RK and H Wachtel. Slow and rapid response to CW and pulsed microwave radiation by individual aplysis pacemakers, Journal of Microwave Power, 13(1):77-86.
>> "Specific absorption rates (SARs) of microwave energy that altered firing rates were determined for individual pacemaker neurons in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia californica. ...". Humans are not sea slugs, but interestin in-principle demonstration regardless.
1977 (Sep). Barnes FS and C-LJ Hu. Model for some nonthermal effects of radio and microwave fields on biological membranes, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 25(9):742-746.
1977 (Sep). Duncan-Johnson CC and E Donchin. On quantifying surprise: The variation of event-related potentials With subjective probability, Psychophysiology, 14(5):456-467.
>>"...The amplitude of the P300 and Slow Wave components was inversely proportional to the a priori probability of task-relevant events", with some special features depending on the recent prior experience.
1977 (Oct). Lin JC et al. Thermographic and behavioral studies of rats in the near field of 918-MHz radiations, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 25(10):833-836.
>>Finds thresholds for certain (reversable) feeding-related changes.
1977 (Nov). Ho HS and WP Edwards. Oxygen-consumption rate of mice under differing dose rates of microwave radiation, Bioelectromagnetics, 12(6S):131-138.
>>This basically shows that direct heating effects of the radiation are not the only thing going. Metabolism (and/or thermoregulatory behaviour) are also influenced in this study.
1977 (Nov). Barrett AH et al. Detection of breast cancer by microwave radiometry, Radio Science, 12:167–171.
1977 (Nov). Gandhi OP et al. Deposition of electromagnetic energy in animals and in models of man with and without grounding and reflector effects, Radio Science, 12(6S):39-47.
1977 (Nov). Jervis BW. Microwave Doppler effect particle flow measurement, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics and Control Instrumentation, IECI-24(4):322-327.
1977 (Nov). Lin JC. Further studies on the microwave auditory effect, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 938-943.
1977 (Nov-Dec). Chou C-K et al. Characteristics of microwave-induced cochlear microphonics, Radio Science, 12(6S):221-227
1977 (Nov-Dec). D'Andrea JA et al. Behavioral and thermal effects of microwave radiation at resonant and nonresonant wavelengths, Radio Science, 12(6S):251-256.
1977 (Nov-Dec). Lebovitz RM and RL Seaman. Microwave hearing: The response of single auditory neurons in the cat to pulsed microwave radiation, Radio Science, 12(6S):229-236.
1977 (Nov-Dec). Liburdy RP. Effects of radio-frequency radiation on inflammation, Radio Science, 12(6S):179-183.
1977 (Nov-Dec). Lin JC. Theoretical calculation of frequencies and thresholds of microwave-induced auditory signals, Radio Science, 12(6S):237-242.
1977 (Nov-Dec). Lu S-T et al. Thermal and endocrinological effects of protracted irradiation of rats by 2450-MHz microwaves, Radio Science, 12(6S):147-156.
1977 (Dec). Cole CS and JC Coyne. Situational specificity of laboratory-induced learned helplessness, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 86(6): 615-623.
1977 (Dec). Schwan HP. Field interaction with biological matter, Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 303:198-213.
1977. Cleary SF and DE Janes. Biological effects of microwave and radiofrequency radiation, C R C Critical Reviews in Environmental Control, 7(2):121-166.
1977. Dodge CH and ZR Glaser. , Journal of Microwave Power, 12(4):320-334.
>>"There is some recent evidence in the West which supports traditional Soviet and some European claims that EM fields can affect nervous system function and morphology in small mammals, birds and invertebrates at power levels below those defined as thermogenic in the West ..."
>>Of interest is the relative positioning with respect to Soviet Bloc claims.
1978 (Jan). Becker JF. A linear dichroism study of the orientation of aromatic protein residues in magnetically oriented bovine rod outer segments, Photochemistry and Photobiology, 27(1):51-54.
>>Dichroism relates to different absorption, etc., in two-place polarized substances (especially crystals). Residues of certain cow eye rod proteins are compared; the dichroistic changes in one dichroism under bleaching are sufficient to account for observations of the protein's orientation in a homogenous magnetic field. This study demonstrates both that specific finding as well as knowledge of methods relating to determining specific absorption, etc., properties of biologically relevant molecules under photonic radiation.
1978 (Feb). Abramson LY et al. Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, (1):49-74/
1978 (Feb). Paul F et al. Differential blood cell separation using a high gradient magnetic field, British Journal of Haematology, 38(2):273-280.
1978 (Mar 1). Lotz WG and SM Michaelson. Temperature and corticosterone relationships in microwave-exposed rats, Journal of Applied Physiology, 44(3):438-445.
1978 (Mar). Choi C-W and AW Guy. Effects of electromagnetic fields on isolated nerve and muscle preparations, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 26(3):141-147.
1978 (May). Cain CA and WJ Rissman. Mammalian auditory responses to 3.0-GHz microwave pulses, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-25(3):288-293.
1978 (Jun). Moore WH. Some effects of progressively lowering electromyographic levels with feedback procedures on the frequency of stuttered verbal behaviors, Journal of Fluency Disorders, 3(2):127-138.
>>Biofeedback from EMG recording was used to decrease subvocal speech in three stutterers, and was able to have effect in changing their stuttering towards not stuttering.
1978 (Jun). Pockard WF and FJ Rosenbaum. Biological effects of microwaves at the membrane level: two possible athermal electrophysiological mechanisms and a proposed experimental test, Mathematical Biosciences, 39(3-4)235-253.
1978 (Jul). Åhrlin U. Medical effects of environmental noise on humans, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 59(1):79-87.
1978 (Jul). Krichagin VJ. Health effects of noise exposure, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 59(1):65-71.
1978 (Sep). Ueno S et al. Capacitive stimulatory effect in magnetic stimulation of nerve tissue, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 14(5):958-960.
1978 (Oct 25). Bernhardt J. The direct influence of electromagnetic fields on nerve- and muscle cells of man within the frequency range of 1 Hz to 30 MHz, Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 16(4):309-323.
1978 (Oct). Subramanian N et al. Regional levels of histamine in rat brain after microwave irradiation: Evidence for artifacts in the enzymatic-isotopic assay, Agents and Actions, 8(5):488-490.
1978 (Nov). N'Guyen et al. Simultaneous microwave local heating and microwave thermography. Possible clinical applications, Journal of Microwave Power, 14(2):135-137.
1978 (Dec 1). Bawin SM et al. Ionic factors in release of 45Ca2+ from chicken cerebral tissue by electromagnetic fields, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 75(12):6314-6318.
1978 (Dec). Berman E et al. Observations of mouse fetuses after irradiation With 2.45-GHz microwaves, Health Physics, 35(6):791-801.
1978. Bawin SM et al. Possible mechanisms of weak electromagnetic field coupling in brain tissue, Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, 5(1):67-76.
1978. Bini M et al. Analysis of the effects of microwave energy on enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), Journal of Microwave Power, 13(1):95-99.
>>This is included as an in-principle demonstration that enzymes can be affected, in at least some cases, by the appropriate frequency and intensity of microwave irradiation.
1978. Gould JL. Bees have magnetic remanence, Science, 201(4360):1026-1028.
1978. Katkin ES et al. Clinical applications of biofeedback: Current status and future prospects, in HL Pick et al (eds) "Psychology: From research to practice": Springer.
>>Reviews state of research relating to commercial claims and in professional journals with regard to biofeedback. No surprise then that the bibliograph is worth mining for those with more interest in the subject.
1978. Lin JC. Microwave auditory effects and applications, Charles C Thomas: Springfield USA. ISBN 0-398-0370403.
>> A fairly comprehensive presentation of the state of knowledge in 1978 relating to the microwave auditory effect. Also includes many references to other bioeffects of microwave radiations known at that time.
1978. Schulten KS et al. A biomagnetic sensory mechanism based on magnetic field modulated coherent electron spin motion, Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, 111:1-5.
1979 (Jan 10). Lin JC et al. Microwave-evoked brainstem potentials in cats, Journal of Microwave Power, 14(3):291-296.
1979 (Feb). Berkowitz GC and FS Barnes. The effects of nonlinear membrane capacity on the interaction of microwave and radio frequencies with biological materials, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 27(2):204-207.
1979 (Mar 30). Thomas JR et al. Microwave radiation and chlordiazepoxide: Synergistic effects on fixed-interval behavior, Science, 203(4387):1357-1358.
1979 (Mar). Frankel RB et al. Magnetite in freshwater magnetotactic bacteria, Science, 203(4387):1355-56.
1979 (Mar). Gaffey CT. Changes in the electrocardiograms of rats and dogs exposed to dc magnetic fields: Berkley.
1979 (Mar). Stuchly MA. Interaction of radiofrequency and microwave radiation with living systems, Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 16(1):1-14.
>>"A comprehensive review of basic biophysical interaction mechanisms between RF and microwaves in the frequency range between 10 MHz and 300 GHz and biological systems..."
1979 (Mar). Takashima S et al. Effects of modulated RF energy on the EEG of mammalian brains, Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 16(1):15–27.
1979 (Apr). Schwartz J-L. Influence of a constant magnetic field on nervous tissues: II. Voltage-clamp studies, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-26(4).
1979 (Jun). Chan ACN et al. Brain evoked potentials are functional correlates of induced pain in man, PAIN, 365-374.
>>In case it was not clear that pain is processed in the brain and that that can be measured ... an "evoked potential" study.
1979 (Sep). Walcott C. Pigeons have magnets, Science, 205(4410):1027:1029.
1979 (Sep). Hagmann MJ et al. Head resonance: Numerical solutions and experimental results, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 27(9):809-813.
>>Among other things, finds greatest absorption at 375MHz, (whereas tinfoil hats tend to increase 'reception' around 2GHz - citation needed).
1979 (Jun). Lin JC et al. Microwave apexcardiography, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 27(6):618-620.
1979 (Oct 12). Frey AH and E Coren. Holographic assessment of a hypothesized microwave hearing mechanism, Science, 206(4415):232-234.
1979 (Nov). Blackman CF et al. Induction of calcium-ion efflux from brain tissue by radio-frequency radiation: Effects of modulation frequency and field strength, Radio Science, 14(6S):93-98
1979 (Nov). Lin JC et al. Effects of repeated exposure to 148-MHz radio waves on growth and hematology of mice, Radio Science, 14(6S):173-179.
1979 (Nov-Dec). Chou C-K and AW Guy. Microwave-induced auditory responses in guinea pigs: Relationship of threshold and microwave-pulse duration, Radio Science, 14(6S):193-197
1979 (Nov-Dec). Frey AH. Studies of the blood-brain barrier: Preliminary findings and discussion, Radio Science, 14(6S):349-350.
1979 (Nov-Dec). Gandhi OP et al. Partbody and multibody effects on absorption of radio frequency electromagnetic energy by animals and by models of man, Radio Science, 14(6S):15-21.
1979 (Nov). Thomas JR and G Maitland. Microwave radiation and dextroamphetamine: Evidence of combined effects on behavior of rats, Radio Science, 14(6S):253-258.
>Changes in training/reward behaviour (delay required to get food) in presence of different doses of a drug and/or microwave radiation explored for thresholds and effects.
1979 (Nov-Dec). Allis JW and ML Fromme. Activity of membrane-bound enzymes exposed to sinusoidally modulated 2450 MHz microwave radiation, Radio Science, 14(6S):85-91.
1979 (Nov-Dec). Sheppard AR et al. Models of long-range order in cerebral macromolecules: Effects of sub-ELF and of modulated VHF and UHF fields, Radio Science, 14(6S):141-145
1979 (Nov-Dec). Tyazheloc VV et al. Some peculiarities of auditory sensations evoked by pulsed microwave fields, Radio Science, 14(6S):259-263.
1979 (Dec 1). Lotz WG and SM Michaelon. Effects of hypophysectomy and dexamethasone on rat adrenal response to microwaves, Journal of Applied Physiology, 47(6):1284-1288.
>Finds some indications of thresholds relating to how microwave effects on cortisol (adrenaline response-related) are influenced by other compounds (one with known pharmaceutical effects).
1979 (Dec 7). Stern S et al. Microwaves: effect on thermoregulatory behavior in rats, Science, 206(4423):1198-1201.
1979 (Dec). Berhnhardt J. The direct influence of electromagnetic fields on nerve- and muscle cells of man within the frequency range of 1 Hz to 30 MHz, Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 16(4):309-323.
1979 (Dec). Adey WR. Neurophysiological effects of radiofrequency and microwave radiation, Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 55(11):1079-1093.
>> A fairly concise summary of the state of knowledge in 1979 relating to effects of electromagnetic radiation on processes in the brain.
>> Addresses the effects of electromagnetic radiation at certain frequencies and amplitudes on communication ion gradients and flows which are key for communication between cells in the brain. Hones in on the oscillations (“waves”) associated with neural processes, as measured via EEG, and questions whether this reflects “noise of the motor” of processes in the brain or whether the “waves” themselves (their frequency and magnitude) are important in how those processes function. Presents relevant frequencies and intensities (including pulse modulations thereof) of such phenomena in a number of species. Also, explores the specific effects at cell surfaces in the brain which are likely to be involved in administering these influences on brain processes. Demonstrates the ability to administer these effects by radiowaves rather than direct stimulation (via electrode implant).
>> Presents evidence of a pain-reward system wherein failure to give the “desired” response to a stimulus within a given timeframe leads to rapid “learning” after which the pain-reward system is no longer necessary and the “desired” response is achieved without administering the reward – the effect largely disappears within about a day, except if a radiofrequency signal modulated at the frequency of the particular brain signature is applied, in which case the “learning” effect is shown to persist at two months. Also, the ability to involuntarily move the focus of eyes by stimulation of the brain is cited.
1979 (Dec). Frey AH and S Gendleman. Motor coordination or balance degradation during microwave energy exposure, Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 14(6):442–444.
1979. Adey WR. Long-range electromagnetic field interactions at brain cell surfaces, in TS Tenforde (ed) Magnetic field effect on biological systems: Springer.
>>A good indication of the division between what was fact and speculation in understanding the mechanisms underlying neural effects of microwaves.
1979. Begin M. White nights: The story of a prisoner in Russia: Harper & Row. DS125.6 .B33 A313
1979. Begleiter H. Evoked brain potentials and behavior: Springer. QP360 .C66
>>An indication of the state of literature regarding the measure and/or manipulation of neural behaviour, as relates to methods involving evoked potential, event-related potentials, etc.
1979. Chou C-K and R Galambos. Middle-ear structures contribute little to auditory perception of microwaves, Journal of Microwave Power, 14,(4):321-326.
1979. Davydov AS. Solitons in molecular systems, Physica Scripta, 20(3-4):387.
1979. Foster KR et al. Dielectric properties of brain tissue between 0.01 and 10 GHz, Physics in Medicine and Biology, 24(2):1177.
1979. Gage MI. Microwave irradiation and ambient temperature interact to alter rat behavior following overnight exposure, Journal of Microwave Power, 14(4):389-398.
1979. O'Keefe J and L Nadel. Précis of O'Keefe & Nadel's 'The hippocampus as a cognitive map', The Behavioral and Bran Sciences, 2:487-533.
>>Focused on the possibility that spatial perception and memory involves a Euclidean (i.e. 3-D point-specific) framework, this literature review and theoretical model (spatial maps in one hemisphere and sematic in another) identifies the hippocampus as the locus of these 3-D maps. It seems that quite a lot of details are imprecise and bordering towards incorrect. However, it may be a useful indication of the fairly large amount of research being produced on such questions at the time.
1979. Sutton S. P300 -- Thirteen years later, in H Begleiter (ed) Evoked Brain Potentials and Behavior: Springer.
>>Outlines the range (hundreds) of studies using P300-related approaches since initial observation of it 13 years earlier.
1979. Tenforde TS (ed). Frequency and power windowing in tissue interactions with weak electromagnetic fields, Proceedings of the IEEE, 68(1):119 - 125
1980 (Jan). Durney CH. Electromagnetic dosimetry for models of humans and animals: A review of theoretical and numerical techniques, Proceedings of the IEEE, 68(1):33-40.
1980 (Jan). Iskander MF and CH Durney. Electromagnetic techniques for medical diagnosis: A review, Proceedings of the IEEE, 68(1):126-132.
1980 (Jan). Justesen DR. Microwave irradiation and the blood-brain barrier, Proceedings of the IEEE, 68(1):60-67.
1980 (Jan). Lin JC. The microwave auditory phenomenon, Proceedings of the IEEE, 68(1):67-73.
1980 (Jan). Lu S-T et al. Advances in microwave-induced neuroendocrine effects: The concept of stress, Proceedings of the IEEE, 68(1):73-77.
1980 (Jan). Schwan HP and KR Foster. RF-field interactions with biological systems: Electrical properties and biophysical mechanisms, Proceedings of the IEEE, 68(1):104-113
1980 (Feb). Cain CA. A theoretical basis for microwave and RF field effects on excitable cellular membranes, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 28(2):142-147.
1980 (Mar 21). Adair ER and BW Adams. Microwaves induce peripheral vasodilation squirrel monkeys, Science, 207(4437):1381-1383.
1980 (Mar). Edrich et al. Imaging thermograms at centimeter and mililimeter wavelengths, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 335:456–474.
1980 (Apr 1). Berman E et al. Observations of rat fetuses after irradiation with 2450-MHz (CW) microwaves, Journal of Microwave Power, 16(1):9-13.
1980 (Apr 7). Liboff RL. Neuromagnetic thresholds, Journal of Theoretical Biology.
1980 (Apr 14). Wilson BS et al. Alterations in activity at auditory nuclei of the rat induced by exposure to microwave radiation: Autoradiographic evidence using [14C]2-deoxy-d-glucose, Brain Research, 187(2):291-306.
1980 (May 28-30). Carr KL et al. Dual mode microwave system to enhance early detection of cancer, Microwave symposium Digest, 1980 IEEE MTT-S International.
1980 (May 8). Presti D and JD Pettigrew. Ferromagnetic coupling to muscle receptors as a basis for geomagnetic field sensitivity in animals, Nature, 285:99-101.
1980 (May). Lovsund et al. Magnetophosphenes: a quantitative analysis of thresholds, Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 18(3):326-334.
1980 (May). Olcerst RB et al. The increased passive efflux of sodium and rubidium from rabbit erythrocytes by microwave radiation, Radiation Research, 82(2):244-256.
>>While effects on blood cells or production thereof are not generally included here, the specific work on membrane transport of salts/ions (which relates to initiation of neural signals) is of interest.
1980 (Jun). McRee DI and W Wachtel. The effects of microwave radiation on the vitality of isolated frog sciatic nerves, Radiation Research, 82(3):536-546.
1980 (Jul 24). Blakemore RP. South-seeking magnetotactic bacteria in the Southern Hemisphere, Nature, 286:384-385).
>> This was relevant as an early demonstration of magnetic aspects of (or relations to) biological function at the cellular level.
1980 (Sep). Chou C-K et al. Holographic assessment of microwave hearing, Science, 209(4461):1143-1145.
>>Disagreement that thermoelastic effects in skull and other tissues can be rejected as the explanation for microwave hearing, a conclusion that had suggested that this effect occurred within the cochlea itself.
1980 (Nov). Lovsund et al. Magneto- and electrophosphenes: A comparative study, Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 18(6):758-764.
1980 (Dec). Chatterjee I et al. Electromagnetic-energy deposition in an inhomogeneous block model of man for near-field irradiation conditions, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 28(12):1452-1460.
>>Among other things, in studying effects of phase variations, find that worst case scenario (maximum energy deposition) is always from the constant phase in the fields.
1980 (Dec). Wikswo JP and JP Barach. An estimate of the steady magnetic field strength required to influence nerve conduction, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-27(12):722-723.
1980. Adair ET and BW Adams. Microwaves modify thermoregulatory behavior in squirrel monkey, Bioelectromagnetics, 1(1):1-20.
1980. Berman E et al. Tests of mutagenesis and reproduction in male rats exposed to 2,450-MHz (CW) microwaves, Bioelectromagnetics, 1(1):65-76.
1980. Blackman CF et al. Induction of calcium-ion efflux from brain tissue by radiofrequency radiation: Effect of sample number and modulation frequency on the power-density window, Bioelectromagnetics, 1(1):35-43.
1980. Chou CK et al. Microwave Radiation and Heat-Beat Rate of Rabbits, Journal of Microwave Power, 15(2):88-93.
1980. D'Andrea JA et al. Physiological and behavioral effects of prolonged exposure to 915-MHz microwaves, Journal of Microwave Power, 15(2):123-125.
1980. De Lorge JO and CS Ezell. Observing-responses of rats exposed to 1.28- and 5.62-GHz microwaves, Bioelectromagnetics, 1(2):183-198.
>>The behavioural response required higher total energy at 5.62 GHz than 1.28 GHz.
1980. Frohlich H. The biological effects of microwaves and related questions, Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, 53:85-152.
1980. Lin JC. Studies on microwave and blood-brain barrier interaction, Bioelectromagnetics, 1(3):313-323.
>>In short, it doesn't look like microwaves have relevant effect on blood-brain barrier permeability.
1980. Olsen RG and WC Hammer. Microwave-induced pressure waves in a model of muscle tissue, Bioelectromagnetics, 1(1):45-54.
Scrot J et al. Modification of the repeated acquisition of response sequences in rats by low-level microwave exposure, Bioelectromagnetics, 1(1):89-99.
1980. Shepps JL and KR Foster. The UHF and microwave dielectric properties of normal and tumour tissues: variation in dielectric properties with tissue water content, Physics in Medicine and Biology, 25(6):1149-1160.
1980. Uslenghi PLE (ed). Nonlinear electromagnetics: Springer. QC760 .N66
1981 (Feb). Milberg ... Role of subvocal motor activity in dichotic speech perception and selective attention, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 7(1):231-239.
>>Presents consonant and vowel sounds in right and left ears at the same time, and uses EMG to measure intentional efforts to reduce subvocalization which is elicited as a result.
1981 (Feb). Pickard WF and YH Harsoum. Radio-frequency bioeffects at the membrane level: Separation of thermal and athermal contributions in the characeae, The Journal of Membrane Biology, 61(1):39-54.
1981 (winter). Myers RD and DH Ross. Radiation and brain calcium: A review and critique, Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 5(4):503–543.
1981 (Apr). Adey WR. Tissue interactions with nonionizing electromagnetic fields, Physiological Reviews, 61(2):435-514.
1981 (Apr). Kohli M et al. Calculated microwave absorption of double-helical B-conformation poly(dG)·poly(dC), Biopolymers, 20(4):853-864.
1981 (Apr). McLaughlin S and MM Poo. The role of electro-osmosis in the electric-field-induced movement of charged macromolecules on the surfaces of cells, Biophysical Journal, 34(1):85-93.
1981 (May 29). Gould JL and KP Able. Human homing: An elusive phenomenon, Science, 212(4498):1061-1063.
1981 (Jun). Smialowicz RJ et al. Chronic exposure of rats to 100-MHz (CW) radiofrequency radiation: Assessment of biological effects, Radiation Research, 86(3):488-505.
>>Relatively high-power doses in frequencies used by local radio stations were adminsitered to rats for extended periods, and a large series of tests did not have notable effects, with the exception of "mean time to eye opening". (No idea what might be up with that eye opening finding ...)
1981 (Jul). Cairnie AB and RK Harding. Cytological studies in mouse testis irradiated with 2.45-GHz continuous-wave microwaves, Radiation Research, 87(1):100-108.
1981 (Aug 4). Illinger KH. Biological effects of nonionizing radiation, ACS Symposium Series, 157.
1981 (Aug 6). Mamouni A et al. New correlation radiometer for microwave thermography, Electronics Letters, 17(16):554-555.
1981 (Sep). Cacioppo JT and RE Petty. Electromyographic specificity during covert information processing, Psychophysiology, 18(5):518–523.
>>"...depth of processing was associated with enhanced EMG activity of the speech muscles, but was unrelated to cardiac and nonoral EMG activity. Moreover, this association was observed only when subjects were covertly analyzing the stimuli."
1981 (Oct). Loewenstein WR. Junctional intercellular communication: the cell-to-cell membrane channel, Physiological Reviews.
1981 (Oct). Olsen RG and JC Lin. Microwave pulse-induced acoustic resonances in spherical head models, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 29(10):1114-1117.
1981 (Nov). Edenhofer P. Electromagnetic remote sensing of the temperature profile in a stratified medium of biological tissues by stochastic inversion of radiometric data, Radio Science, 16(6):1065–1069.
1981 (Nov). Hoff AJ. Magnetic field effects on photosynthetic reactions, Quarterly Review of Biophysics, 14(4):599-665.
1981 (Nov). Lovsund P et al. Influence on frog retina of alternating magnetic fields with special reference to ganglion cell activity, Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 19(6):679-685.
1981 (Dec). Raymond H et al. Studies on acute in vivo exposure of rats to 2450-MHz microwave radiation: II. Effects on thyroid and adrenal axes hormones, Radiation Research, 88(3):448-455.
1981. Allis JW and BL Sinha. Fluorescence depolarization studies of red cell membrane fluidity. The effect of exposure to 1.0-GHz microwave radiation, Bioelectromagnetics, 2(1):13-22.
1981. Athey TW. Comparison of RF-induced calcium efflux from chick brain tissue at different frequencies: Do the scaled power density windows align?, Bioelectromagnetics, 2(4):407-409.
1981. Baddeley A et al. The role of subvocalisation in reading, The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A - Human Experimental Psychology, 33(4):439-454.
>>"...when subjects were required to suppress articulation while reading, their ability to detect anomalous words or errors of word order in prose was markedly impaired although speed of reading was unaffected". A similar effect was found when trying to notice errors in prose while also suppressing subvocal speech and also in the presence of acoustic interference. "It is concluded that subvocalisation allows the creation of a supplementary articulatory code ..."
1981. Cain CA. Biological effects of oscillating electric fields: Role of voltage-sensitive ion channels, Bioelectromagnetics, 2(1):23-32.
1981. Eibeck JC et al. Pulse evolution on coupled nerve fibres, Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 43(4):389–400
1981. Gaffey CT and TS Tenforde. Alterations in the rat electrocardiogram induced by stationary magnetic fields, Bioelecgtromagnetics, 2(4):357-370.
1981. Joines WT. Field-induced forces at dielectric interfaces as a possible mechanism of rf hearing effects, Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 43(4):401-413
1981. Olsen R and W Hammer. Evidence for microwave-induced acoustical resonances in biological matérial, Journal of Microwave Power, 16(3):263-269.
1981. Shelton WW and JH Merritt. In vitro study of microwave effects on calcium efflux in rat brain tissue, Bioelectromagnetics, 2(2):161-167.
1981. Smialowicz RJ et al. Biological effects of long-term exposure of rats to 970-MHz radiofrequency radiation, Bioelectromagnetics, 2(3):279-284.
>>Notable effects (in cell phone frequency band) in a variety of molecules from blood tests including indications of non-specific stress response, but easily observed aggregate measures were not changed.
1981. Way WI et al. Comparison of the efficacy of pulsed versus CW microwave fields in evoking body movements, Bioelectromagnetics, 2(4):341-356.
1981. Taylor LS. The mechanisms of athermal microwave biological effects, Bioelectromagnetics, 2(3):259-267.
1982 (Jan). Bromm B and E Scharein. Principal component analysis of pain-related cerebral potentials to mechanical and electrical stimulation in man, Neurophysiology, 53(1):94-103.
>>Principle component analysis was used to analyze the separate parts of the EEG reading in response to various levels and brief durations of electric pain stimuli. I believe Fourier transforms and other techniques are now more common in processing such readings.
1982 (Jan 1982). Lin JC and MF Lin. Microwave hyperthermia-induced blood-brain barrier alterations, Radiation Research, 89(1):77-87.
1982 (Feb 5). Basseett CA et al. Pulsing electromagnetic field treatment in ununited fractures and failed arthrodeses, Journal of the American Medical Association, 247(5):623-628.
1982 (Mar 1). Yao KTS. Cytogenetic consequences of microwave irradiation on mammalian cells incubated in vitro, Journal of Heredity, 73(2):133-138.
>>Genetic effects are not generally covered here, but a quick review of the methods should provide convincing evidence of the deleterious effects with respect to genetic integrity, in the experimental conditions.
1982 (Mar). Polson MJR et al. Stimulation of nerve trunks with time-varying magnetic fields, Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 20(2):243-244.
1982 (Apr 1). Adair ER and BW Adams. Adjustments in metabolic heat production by squirrel monkeys exposed to microwaves, Journal of Applied Physiology, 52(4):1049-1058.
1982 (Jun 15-17). Seaman RL et al. Changes in cardiac-cell membrane noise during microwave exposure, Microwave Symposium Digest, IEEE MTT-S International.
1982 (Jun). Chou C-K et al. Auditory perception of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 71(6):1321-1334.
1982 (Jul 22). Milham S. Mortality from leukemia in workers exposed to electrical and magnetic fields, The New England Journal of Medicine, 307:249.
1982 (Jul). McRee DI and H Wachtel. Pulse microwave effects on nerve vitality, Radiation Research, 91(1):212-218.
1982 (Aug). Storm FK et al. Clinical RF hyperthermia by magnetic-loop induction: A new approach to human cancer therapy, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 30(8):1149-1158.
>> Attempts the use of magnetrode magnetic-loop induction to heat deep tumours.
1982 (Sep). Adey WR and SM Bawin. Binding and release of brain calcium by low-level electromagnetic fields: A review, Radio Science, 17(5S):149S-157S.
1982 (Sep). Brown PVK and NC Wyeth. Laser interferometer for measuring microwave-induced motion in eye lenses in vitro, Review of Scientific Instruments, 54(1):85-89.
1982 (Sep 13-17). Caspers F and J Conway. Measurement of power density in a lossy material by means of electro-magnetically induced acoustic signals for non-invasive determination of spatial thermal absorption in connection with pulsed hyperthermia, 12th European Microwave Conference, 1982.
>>"For non-invasive determination of the spatial power density distribution during RF- and microwave..."
1982 (Sep). Guy AW and C-K Chou. Effects of high-intensity microwave pulse exposure of rat brain, Radio Science, 17(5S):169S-178S.
1982 (Sep). Kaplan J et al. Biological and behavioral effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to 2450-MHz electromagnetic radiation in the squirrel monkey, Radio Science, 17(5S):135S-144S).
1982 (Sep). Adey WR and SM Bawin. Binding and release of brain calcium by low-level electromagnetic fields: A review, Radio Science, 17(5S):149S-157S).
1982 (Sep-Oct). Chou C-K et al. Effects of continuous and pulsed chronic microwave exposure on rabbits, Radio Science, 17(5S):185S-193S.
1982 (Sep-Oct). Guy AW and C-K Chou. Effects of high-intensity microwave pulse exposure of rat brain, Radio Science, 17(5S):169S-178S.
1982 (Sep-Oct). Lin JC et al. Comparison of measured and predicted characteristics of microwave-induced sound, Radio Science, 17(5S):159S-163S.
1982 (Sep-Oct). Justesen DR. Scientific and hygienic issues in biological research on microwaves: Toward rapprochement between East and West, Radio Science, 17(5S):1S-12S.
1982 (Oct). Oleson JR. Hyperthermia by magnetic induction: I. Physical characteristics of the technique, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, 8(10): 1747-1756.
>> As opposed to approaches which used non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation for localized heating to try to treat tumours, this approach used magnetic fields. Power densities and frequencies alternations in the fields are relevant, as they are with electromagnetic radiation.
1982 (Nov 26). Kalmijn AJ. Electric and magnetic field detction in elasmobranch fishes, Science, 218(4575):916-918.
1982 (Nov). Biological effects and medical applications of RF electromagnetic fields, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 30(11):1831-1847.
1982 (Dec 1). Lotz WG and RP Podgorski. Temperature and adrenocortical responses in rhesus monkeys exposed to microwaves, Journal of Applied Physiology, 53(6):1565-1571.
>>".... It was concluded that the temperature and adrenocortical responses to microwave exposure of the rhesus monkey are similar to the corresponding responses of other animals."
>>Presumably, this would mean no need to do lots of tests on monkeys under some assumption that this would make a big difference in getting a more accurate picture of the case for humans.
1982 (Dec). Blackman et al. Effects of ELF fields on calcium-ion efflux from brain tissue in vitro, Radiation Research, 92(3):510-520.
1982. Adey WR et al. Effects of weak amplitude-modulated microwave fields on calcium efflux from awake cat cerebral cortex, Bioelectromagnetics, 3(3):295-307.
1982. Barsoum YH and WF Pickard. The vacuolar potential of characean cells subjected to electromagnetic radiation in the range 200–8200 MHz, Bioelectromagnetics, 3(4):393-400.
1982. Berman E et al. Reduced weight in mice offspring after in utero exposure to 2450-MHz (CW) microwaves, Bioelectromagnetics, 285-291.
1982. Berman E et al. Observations of Syrian hamster fetuses after exposure to 2450-MHz microwaves, Journal of Microwave Power, 17(2):107-112.
1982. Buchwald JS and NS Squires.Endogenous auditory potentials in the cat: A P300 model, in CD Woody (ed) Conditioning: Springer. QP416 .C66
>>Endogenous evoked potentials are those determined by the psychological context rather than the stimulus itself. "For example, if a subject is asked to count a click of one intensity which occurs only infrequently during a series of clicks of another intensity, only the rare, unexpectedclick produces endogenous wave forms."
1982. Dixey R and G Rein. 3H-noradrenaline release potentiated in a clonal nerve cell line by low-intensity pulsed magnetic fields, Nature, 296:253-256.
1982. Guy AW et al. Determination of electric current distributions in animals and humans exposed to a uniform 60-Hz high-intensity electric field, Bioelectromagnetics, 3(1):47-71.
>>Presents a method to test 60 Hz fields (this the frequency of changes in power distribution systems), namely, the effects on electric behaviours in physical models across a a spectrum of properties (including good prediction of effects in ankles).
1982. Lawrence AF and WR Adey. Nonlinear wave mechanisms in interactions between excitable tissue and electromagnetic fields, Neurological Research, 4(1-2):115-153.
1982. Lin-Liu S and WR Adey. Low frequency amplitude modulated microwave fields change calcium efflux rates from synaptosomes, Bioelectromagnetics, 3(3):309-22.
>> Rates of calcium (45Ca2+) flows between neural tissues were studied. When 16-Hz sinusoidally amplitude modulated 450-MHz microwave field (maximal incident intensity 0.5 mW/cm2, modulation depth 75%) was applied during the second phase, the rate constant increased by 38%. Unmodulated or 60-Hz modulated signals were not effective.
1982. Marsh JL et al. Health effect of occupational exposure to steady magnetic fields, American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 43(6):387-394.
1982. Merritt JH et al. Attempts to alter 45Ca2+ binding to brain tissue with pulse-modulated microwave energy, Bioelectromagnetics, 3(4):475-478.
1982. Olsen RG. Generation of acoustical images from the absorption of pulsed microwave energy in JP Powers (ed) Acoustical Imaging: Springer.
1982. Smialowicz RJ et al. Assessment of the immune responsiveness of mice irradiated with continuous wave or pulse-modulated 425-MHz radio frequency radiation, Bioelectromagnetics, 3(4):467-470.
1982. Thomas JR et al. Comparative effects of pulsed and continuous-wave 2.8-GHz microwaves on temporally defined behavior, Bioelectromagnetics, 3(2):227-235.
1983 (Winter). Chang FR. Mental Processes in reading: A methodological review, Reading Research Quarterly, 18(2):216-230.
>>Reviews methodological procedures that have been used to study mental processes in reading. This is related to works on subvocalization, but primarily studies memory processes and coded memory representation.
1983 (Jan). Stewart-DeHaan PJ et al. In vitro studies of microwave-induced cataract: Separation of field and heating effects, Experimental Eye Research, 36(1):75-90.
1983 (Jan). Armitage DW et al. Radiofrequency-induced hyperthermia: computer simulation of specific absorption rate distributions using realistic anatomical models, Physics in Medicine and Biology, 28(1):31.
>> Relatively early foray in using computer assistance to model temperature effects of microwave radiation on humans.
1983 (Mar). Gaffey CT and TS Tenforde. Bioelectric properties of frog sciatic nerves during exposure to stationary magnetic fields, Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 22(1):61-73.
1983 (Apr 1). Adey WR. Tissue interactions with nonionizing electromagnetic fields, Physiological Reviews, 61(2):435-514.
1983 (Apr 7). Iskander MF and CH Durney. Microwave methods of measuring changes in lung water, Journal of Microwave Power, 18(3):265-275.
1983 (Apr 28). Mamouni K et al. Introduction to correlation microwawe thermography, Journal of Microwave Power, 18(3):285-293.
1983 (Apr). Oleson JR et al. Hyperthermia by magnetic induction: II. Clinical experience with concentric electrodes, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, 9(4):549-556.
1983 (May). Lebovitz RM. The influence of chronic exposure to low level pulsed microwave radiation on performance and cognitive behavior: Texas University Health Science Center.
>>"...the aim of our effort was to develop a consistent set of conclusions regarding the dose/response relationships between MWR exposure and behavioral alterations".
1983 (May). Olsen RG and JC Lin. Microwave-induced pressure waves in mammalian brains, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-30(5):289-294.
1983 (Jun). Goodman R et al. Pulsing electromagnetic fields induce cellular transcription, Science, 220(4603):1283-1285.
>>This is on a somewhat longer timeframe than relevant to the sort of pulses which almost directly cause neural effect, but plausibly in some "biochemically medium-term" (range of seconds to hours) this could be relevant.
1983 (Jul). Genzel L et al. Relaxation processes on a picosecond time scale in hemoglobin and poly(L-alanine) observed by millimeter-wave spectroscopy, Biopolymers, 22(7):1715-1729.
1983 (Sep). Adams AJ. Nonionizing radiation: Appropriate topic in a physics curriculum, American Journak of Physics, 9:807.
>>Among other things, suggests that the microwave auditory effect is suitable for a physics curriculum.
1983 (Sep). Grundler W and F Kellman. Sharp Resonances in Yeast Growth Prove Nonthermal Sensitivity to Microwaves, Physical Review Letters, 51:1214-
>>So, that settles that. The theoretical possibilities in this direction are not zero.
1983 (Oct). Gordon CJ. Behavioral and autonomic thermoregulation in mice exposed to microwave radiation, Journal of Applied Physiology, 55(4):1242-1248
1983. Adair E. Microwaves and thermoregulation: Springer. QP135 .M465
1983. Basar E et al (eds). Synergetics of the brain, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Synergetics at Schloß Elmau, Bavaria.
1983. Epstein BR and KR Foster. Anisotropy in the dielectric properties of skeletal muscle, Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 21:51
1983. Frohlich H and F Kremer. Coherent excitations in biological systems: Springer. QP363 .C57
1983. Gandolfo G (ed). Biological effects and dosimetry of nonionizing radiation - radiofrequency and microwave energies, NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series (49). QP82.2 .M5 N37
>> This book is a fairly comprehensive compilation of literature already existing in 1983 on how electromagnetic waves affect the brain and the body. I am not aware of a better compilation of the existing level of knowledge on these technologies in the early 1980s.
1983. Genzel L et al. Millimeter-wave and far-infrared spectroscopy on biological macromolecules, in H Frohlich and F Fremer (eds) Coherent excitations in biological systems: Springer.
>>This is much higher frequency (mm waves and infrared) than are likely to be relevant for neural effects of interest here, but of interest is the specific identification of a bond-type within proteins that may be the sub-molecular mechanism behind observed effects.
1983. Lyle et al. Suppression of T-lymphocyte cytotoxicity following exposure to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated fields, Bioelectromagnetics, 4(3):281-292.
1983. Olsen RG and JC Lin. Acoustical imaging of a model of a human hand using pulsed microwave irradiation, Bioelectromagnetics, 4(4):397-400.
1983. Petersen RC. Bioeffects of microwaves: A review of current knowledge, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 25(2):103-109.
1983. Tenforde TS et al. Cardiovascular alterations in macaca monkeys exposed to stationary magnetic fields: Experimental observations and theoretical analysis, Bioelecgtromagnetics, 4(1):1-9.
1984 (Jan). Gibbs FA et al. Regional hyperthermia with an annular phased array in the experimental treatment of cancer: Report of work in progress with a technical emphasis, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-31(1):115-119.
>> The annual phased array technology shows developments in abilities to lined up multiple origins of radiofrequency to have a specific outcome which is related to their phase.
1984 (Jan). Samaras GM. Intracranial microwave hyperthermia: Heat induction and temperature control, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-31(1):63-69.
>>While this article is on microwave heating, it appears to be an early foray which required development of regionally specific microwave irradiation (e.g., depth and location) into the brain.
1984 (Feb). Sperber et al. Magnetic field induced temperature change in mice, Naturwissenschaften, 71(2):100-101.
1984 (Mar 29). Enel L et al. Improved recognition of thermal structures by microwave radiometry, Electronics Letters, 20(7):293-94.
1984 (Mar). Berman E and HB Carter. Decreased body weight in fetal rats after irradiation with 2450-MHz (CW) microwaves, Health Physics, 46(3):537-542.
1984 (Apr 19). Nishizuka Y. The role of protein kinase C in cell surface signal transduction and tumour promotion, Nature, 308:693:698.
1984 (Apr 26). Schaller G. Inversion of radiometric data from biological tissue by an optimisation method, Electronics Letters, 20(9):380-382.
1984 (May). Williams WM et al. Effect of 2450-MHz microwave energy on the blood—brain barrier to hydrophilic molecules. A. Effect on the permeability to sodium fluorescein, Brain Research Reviews, 7(2):165-170.
>>Under the experimental conditions, microwave irradiation had an impact (greater than that of an equivalent heat treatment) on a certain type of molecule traversing the blood-brain barrier.
1984 (May). Williams WM et al. Effect of 2450-MHz microwave energy on the blood—brain barrier to hydrophilic molecules. B. Effect on the permeability to HRP, Brain Research Reviews, 7(2):171-181.
>>did not raise permability of the blood brain barrier to HRP.
1984 (May). Williams WM et al. Effect of 2450-MHz microwave energy on the blood-brain barrier to hydrophilic molecules. C. Effect on the permeability to [14C]sucrose, Brain Research Reviews, 7(2):183-190.
>>In this third experiment, microwaves decreased permability to sucrose (a small molecule) in a 30 minute treatment without apparent decrease in 90 minute treatment.
1984 (May). Williams WM et al. Effect of 2450-MHz microwave energy on the blood-brain barrier to hydrophilic molecules. D. Brain temperature and blood-brain barrier permeability to hydrophilic tracers, Brain Research Reviews, 7(2):191-212.
>>In this fourth experiment, temperature dependence on changes to blood-brain barrier permability were found.
1984 (May). ZeckerMichael SG, MK Tanenhaus, AG Glaros and RD Whitman. Subvocal motor activity and contextual processing, Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 13(3):177–193.
>> Absence or presence of trying to suppress subvocal speech when with or without presence of a contextual contraint showed differences. Which suggests that subvocal activity is related to processing context. With a minor contextual contsraint, detection of mispronounced words may be slower but more accurate.
1984 (Jun 1). Fildes et al. Human orientation with restricted sensory information: No evidence for magnetic sensitivity, Perception, 13(3):229-248.
1984 (Jun). Lin-Liu S et al. Migration of cell surface concanavalin A receptors in pulsed electric fields, Biophysical Journal, 45(6):1211-1217.
1984 (Jun). Serpersu EH and TY Tsong. Activation of electrogenic Rb+ transport of (Na,K)-ATPase by an electric field, The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 259(11):7155-7162.
>>Shows that electric fields (and presumably thus also EM waves in some manner or another) can have specific effects on membrane transport protein functions.
1984 (Jul). Bernardi P and G D'Inzeo. A nonlinear analysis of the effects of transient electromagnetic fields on excitable membranes, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 32(7):670-679.
1984 (Jul). How is linguistic memory accessed? A psychophysiological approach, The Pavlovian journal of biological science : official journal of the Pavlovian, 19(3):119–136
>>Presents several reasons that several previous understandings related to the role of subvocalization are in fact wrong. "Rather, data support the generalization that covert speech is present during all cognitive functioning and that its specific topography is discriminatively related to the class of phoneme being processed...". They theorize about how this could be linked to memory-related processes, included other-than-commonly-anticipated ones.
1984 (Jul). Peterson C and ME Seligman. Causal explanations as a risk factor for depression: theory and evidence, Psychological Review, 91(3):347:74.
>>I'm just leaving this one here until I get some better references for this aspect.
1984 (Aug). Guo TC et al. Microwave-induced thermoacoustic effect in dielectrics and its coupling to external medium-A thermodynamical formulation, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 32(8):835-843.
1984 (Aug). Haslam NC et al. Aperture synthesis thermography-A new approach to passive microwave temperature measurements in the body, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 32(8):829-835.
1984 (Aug). Lin JC and KH Chan. Microwave thermoplastic tissue imaging-system design, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 32(8):854-860.
1984 (Aug). Kraszewski A et al. Specific absorption rate distribution in a full-scale model of man at 350 MHz, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 32(8):779-783.
>>Emphasis on "distribution", in understanding what broader technical relevance such work might have.
1984 (Aug). Slaney M et al. Limitations of imaging with first-order diffraction tomography, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 32(8):860-874.
>> Demonstrates availability of hardware and also software abilities for 3D imaging to model diffraction tomography.
1984 (Aug). Turner PF. Hyperthermia and inhomogeneous tissue effects using an annular phased array, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 32(8):874-875.
>> Shows ability to achieve uniform heating under 70Mhz and local heating above 70 MhZ, with orientation (e.g. perpendicularity) of low-dialectic (low insulating) internal and surface anatomical features found to cause field perturbations.
1984 (Sep). Ueno S et al. Magnetic nerve stimulation without interlinkage between nerve and magnetic flux, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 20(5):1660-1662.
1984 (Sep-Oct). O'Neill WD and JC Lin. An information channel model of a neuron encoder and possible microwave radiation effects on capacity, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC-14(5):717-725.
1984 (Oct 1). Aristizabal SA and JR Oleson. Combined interstitial irradiation and localized current field hyperthermia: Results and conclusions from clinical studies, Cancer Research, 44(10S):4757s-4760s.
>> This line of research demonstrates, among other things, the existence of known heating responses to microwave radiation.
1984 (Oct). Gandhi OP et al. Impedence method for calculation of power deposition patterns in magnetically induced hyperthermia, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-31(10):644-651.
>>I'm not sure of the relevance of the impedence method for this, but it should be noted that the ability to model energy deposition would be informative from the perspective of thermoacoustic wave origination.
1984 (Oct). Milligan AJ. Whole-body hyperthermia induction techniques, Cancer Research, 44(Supp):4869s-4872s.
>> Heat from non-ionizing radiation distributed to first few cm of surface and then heat is distributed by blood flow, with the benefit of less extreme surface temperature differences required to achieve a given total amount of heating.
1984 (Oct). Ruggera PS and G Kantor. Development of a family of RF helical coil applicators which produce transversely uniform axially distributed heating in cylindrical fat-muscle phantoms, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-31(1):98-106.
>>Is able to achieve uniform effects at distances under the surface, without excessive surface heating.
1984 (Dec). Berman E et al. Growth and development of mice offspring after irradiation in utero with 2450-MHz microwaves, Teratology, 30(3):393-402.
1984 (Dec). Maffeo S et al. Lack of effect of weak low frequency electromagnetic fields on chick embryogenesis, Journal of Anatomy.
1984. Adey W (ed). Nonlinear electrodynamics in biological systems: Springer. QP341 .I58
1984. Byus et al. Alterations in protein kinase activity following exposure of cultured human lymphocytes to modulated microwave fields, Bioelectromagnetics, 5(3):341-351.
1984. Casaleggio et al. Evaluation of ionic fluxes in a cell, with non linear membrane. Stimulated by an electric field, Journal of Bioelectricity, 3(1-2):305-328.
1984. Chiabrera A et al. Interaction between electromagnetic fields and cells: Microelectrophoretic effect on ligands and surface receptors, Bioelectromagnetics, 5(2):173-191.
1984. De Lorge JO. Operant behavior and colonic temperature of Macaca mulatta exposed to radio frequency fields at and above resonant frequencies, Bioelectromagnetics, 5(2):233-246.
>>"Observing-response performance was impaired at increasingly higher power densities as frequency increased from the near-resonance 225 MHz to the above-resonance 5.8 GHz. The threshold power density of disrupted response rate at 225 MHz was...". In short, their actions while hungry to perform a task which indicated food availability was reduced.
1984. Dutta SK et al. Microwave radiation-induced calcium ion efflux from human neuroblastoma cells in culture, Bioelectromagnetics, 5(1):71-78.
1984. Hill DA. The effect of frequency and grounding on whole-body absorption of humans in E-polarized radiofrequency fields, Bioelectromagnetics, 5(2):131-146.
>>Absoprtion rates of EM waves differed by orientation (much smaller when grounded, indicating that electric current is somehow related), with effecting varying as a function of wave frequency (for a same total energy absorption).
1984. Millar DB et al. The effect of exposure of acetylcholinesterase to 2450-MHz microwave radiation, Bioelectromagnetics, 5(2):165-172.
1984. Schwann HP. Frequency selective propagation of extracellular electrical stimuli to intracellular compartments, in AH Frey (ed) Nonlinear electrodynamics in biological systems: Springer.
1984. Yee KC et al. Effect of microwave radiation on the beating rate of isolated frog hearts, Bioelectromagnetics, 5(2):263-270.
1985 (Jan). Lacourse JR et al. Effect of high-frequency current on nerve and muscle tissue, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-32(1)82-86.
>>"...There was no frequency below tissue destruction threshold values where excitable tissue cannot be stimulated if the cufrent intensity is great enough." This suggests that it's total energy amounts more so than frequency dependency which can have effects on nerve and muscle tissues, although this may not be relevant in cases where stimulation of the brain itself is the primary means of end effects.
1985 (Feb). Hill DA and JA Walsh. Radio-frequency current through the feet of a grounded human, IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, EMC-27(1):18-23.
>>In particular, just looking at the title from this high quality source, you can see that the nature of energy diffusion/circulation/current/..., well, this shows that a number of related debates were not yet settled. (E.g., radiofrequency can affect current, but does not itself constitute a "current".)
1985 (Feb). Lin JC. Frequency optimization for microwave imaging of biological tissues, Proceedings of the IEEE, 73(2):374-375.
1985 (Feb). Saha AR and BC Mazumder. A microprocessor-based frequency-to-code converter, Proceedings of the IEEE, 73(2):375-377.
>>An indication of processing abilities at that time.
1985 (Mar). Scott RS et al. Transient microwave induced neurosensory reactions during superficial hyperthermia treatment, International Journal of Radiation Oncology *Biology* Physics, 11(3):561-566.
1985 (Apr). Taflove A and KR Umashankar. Distributions in finely discretized inhomogeneous models of biological bodies (comments), IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 33(4):345-346.
1985 (May). Blinowska KJ and W Lech. Cell membrane as a possible site of Fröhlich's coherent oscillations, Physics Letters A.
1985 (May). Delgado et al. Embryological changes induced by weak, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields, Journal of Anatomy, 134(Pt3):533-551.
1985 (May). Ioale P and D Guidarini. Methods for producing disturbances in pigeon homing behaviour by oscillating magnetic fields, Journal of Experimental Biology, 116:109-120.
>>"...initial orientation was strongly affected when the oscillation of the artificial magnetic field was square-shaped, whereas a triangular or sine-shaped variation had no effect"
>>I believe similar effects to have been reported in other papers with regard to microwave pulses, but will have to check back on this.
1985 (Jun 4-6). Bardati F et al. Inversion of microwave thermographic data by the singular function method, Microwave Symposium Digest, 1985 IEEE MTT-S International.
1985 (Jun). Arber SL and JC Lin. Extracellular calcium and microwave enhancement of membrane conductance in snail neurons, Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 24(2):149-156.
1985 (Jun). Edwards GS et al. Microwave-field-driven acoustic modes in DNA, Biophysical Journal, 47(6):799-807.
1985 (Jun). Guo TC et al. Microwave induced thermoelastic process in dielectrics - Theory and experiments, International Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, 6(6):405–422.
1985 (Jul). Maskell SJ. RF susceptibility of an EEG and considerations for attenuating RFI in hospitals, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, IA-21(4):876-881.
>>Findings reject the need for shielding in hospitals in order to have good EEG readings, but presents an inexpensive system developed by the US Veterans Administration.
1985 (Aug 1). Tenforde TS and TF Budinger. Biological effects and physical safety aspects of NMR imaging and in vivo spectroscopy, Conference: American Association of Physicists in medicine summer school.
1985 (Aug). Bottomley et al. Estimating radiofrequency power deposition in body NMR imaging, Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 2(4):336-349.
1985 (Aug). Carstensen EL et al. Sensitivity of the human eye to power frequency electric fields, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-32(8):561-565.
1985 (Aug). Liburdy RP and RL Magin. Microwave-stimulated drug release from liposomes, Radiation Research, 103(2):266-275.
>>While this may be of specific interest for specific applications, it is also indicative of the ability to have subcellular effects. I believe that the more specific type of finding presented is of more medical than security relevance.
1985 (Sep). Stuchly MA et al. Exposure of human models in the near and far field - A comparison, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-32(8):609-616
1985 (Sep). Bernardi P et al. Response of a neuronal membrane to applied sinusoidal currents, Cell Biophysics, 7(3):185-195.
1985 (Oct). Barregard et al. Cancer among workers exposed to strong static magnetic fields, The Lancet, 326(8460):892.
1985 (Oct). Seaman RL. Biological effects of electromagnetic radiation, Proceedings of the IEEE, 73(10):1532-1532.
1985 (Nov). Hagmann MJ et al. A comparison of the annular phased array to helical coil applicators for limb and torso hyperthermia, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-32(11):916-927.
>>The specific applications for studying hyperthermia may not be of huge interest, but the study of the different effects between annular phased array and coils may be relevant. (The second of these, I believe, is related to what is now called 'transcranial magnetic stimulation', and my understanding is that this is only effective at proximate distances and that control from a distance would be essentially impossible for most practical purposes.
1985 (Dec). Liboff AR. Geomagnetic cyclotron resonance in living cells, Journal of Biological Physics, 13(4):99-102.
1985. Arber SL and JC Lin. Microwave-induced changes in nerve cells: Effects of modulation and temperature, Bioelectromagnetics, 6(3):257-270.
1985. Blackman CF et al. A role for the magnetic field in the radiation-induced efflux of calcium ions from brain tissue in vitro, Bioelectromagnetics, 6(4):327-337.
1985. Blackman et al. Effects of ELF (1–120 Hz) and modulated (50 Hz) RF fields on the efflux of calcium ions from brain tissue in vitro, Bioelectromagnetics, 6(1):1-11.
1985. Blackman et al. Calcium-ion efflux from brain tissue: Power-density versus internal field-intensity dependencies at 50-MHz RF radiation, Bioelectromagnetics, 1(3):277-283.
1985. Chiabrera A (ed). Interactions between electromagnetic fields and cells: Springer. QH656 .I57
1985. Chou C-K, et al. Auditory response in rats exposed to 2450-MHz electromagnetic fields in a circularly polarized waveguide, Bioelectromagnetics, 6(3):323-326.
>>Tests different pulse lengths and energy intensities, and energy absorption from them.
1985. Davydov AS. Solitons in molecular systems: Springer. QC174.26 .W28 D38
1985. Fren AH. Psychophysical analysis of microwave sound perception, Journal of Bioelectricity, 4(1):1-14.
1985. Grandolfo M et al. Biological effects and dosimetry of static and ELF electromagnetic fields: Springer. QP82.2 .E43 I58
1985. Oleson JR et al. Results of a phase I regional hyperthermia device evaluation: Microwave annular array versus radio frequency induction coil, International Journal of Hyperthermia, 2(4):327-336.
>>Compares effects of microwave annular arrays and magnetic induction coils - the microwave array is found to be more effective in having its effect in deep pelvic tumours.
1985. Wilson BS and WT Jiones. Mechanisms and physiologic significance of microwave action on the auditory system, Journal of Bioelectricity, 4(2):495
1986 (Jan 30). Bocquest et al. Visibility of local thermal structures and temperature retrieval by microwave radiometry, Electronics Letters, 22(3):120-22.
1986 (Jan). Stuchly MA et al. Exposure of man in the near-field of a resonant dipole: Comparison between theory and measurements, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 34(1):26-31.
1986 (Feb). Gandhi OP and A Riazi. Absorption of millimeter waves by human beings and its biological implications, IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, 34(2):228-235.
>>"...This paper gives the millimeter-wave absorption efficiency for the human body with and without clothing."
1986 (Apr). Peterse N et al. Fossil bacterial magnetite in deep-sea sediments from the South Atlantic Ocean, Nature, 320:611-615.
>>One of many papers showing that at least some life on earth has had magnetic interplay for a very long time.
1986 (May). Franconi C et al. Low-frequency RF twin-dipole applicator for intermediate depth hyperthermia, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 34(5):612-619.
1986 (May). Jouvie F et al. Discussion of capabilities of microwave phased arrays for hyperthermia treatment of neck tumors, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 34(5):495-501.
>>Explores numerical modelling techniques for microwave phased arrays to calculate the power deposited by complete or limited annular arrays in cylindrical neck cross sections. Among other things, phased arrays provide better uniformity and larger penetration depths (this knowledge of penetration depth would later be relevant for neuro effects of microwaves).
1986 (May). Sathiaseelan V et al. Theoretical analysis and clinical demonstration of the effect of power pattern control using the annular phased-array hyperthermia system, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 34(5):514-519.
>>At 60MHz radiofrequency, finds that 30 degree phase changes and 20 percent amplitude changes have relevant impacts on the total received bioeffect of the microwave radiation.
1986 (May). Turner PF. Mini-annular phased array for limb hyperthermia, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 34(5):508-513.
>> Explores issues related to power density in different methods of using phantom (fake) limbs or bodies to test for effects of frequency and tissue conductivity on the final power density in the targeted regions.
1986 (Jun 26). Stolz JF et al. Magnetotactic bacteria and single-domain magnetite in hemipelagic sediments, Nature, 321:849-51.
1986 (Jun). Adey WR. The sequence and energetics of cell membrane transductive coupling to intracellular enzyme systems, Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, 15(3):447-456.
1986 (Jun). Fitzsimmons RJ et al. Embryonic bone matrix formation is increased after exposure to a low-amplitude capacitively coupled electric field, in vitro, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 882(1):51-56.
1986 (Jun). Larsen LE and JH Jacobi. Medical applications of microwave imaging: IEEE. RC78.7 .M53 M43
1986 (Jul). Byrne W, P Flynn and R Zapp. Adaptive filter processing in microwave remote heart monitors, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-33(7).
1986 (Jul). Chen K-M et al. An X-Band microwave life-detection system, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-33(7).
1986 (Jul). O'Neill WD et al. Estimation and verification of a stochastic neuron model, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-33(7):654-666.
1986 (Jul). Stuchly SS. Energy deposition in a model of man: Frequency effects, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-33(7):702-711.
1986 (Jul). Tousignant J et al. Discrepancy detection and vulnerability to misleading postevent information, Memory and Cognition, 14(4):329-33.
>> Shows that when people are exposed to misleading details after a witnessed event, they often claim that they saw the misleading details as part of the event. This is referred to as the misinformation effect. Experimental evidence shows greater resistance to misinformation when reading more slowly.
1986 (Aug). Kok A. Effects of degradation of visual stimuli on components of the event-related potential (ERP) in go/nogo reaction tasks, Biological Psychology, 23(1):21–38.
>>Presented clear and unclear stimuli in a go / nogo situation to press a button. Reactions to clear stimuli had identifiably larger late-positive components and smaller slow wave components, with the effect being more clear in the nogo condition.
1986 (Aug). Stuchly MA. Human exposure to static and time-varying magnetic fields., Health Physics, 51(2):215-225.
>>Magnetic fields have not turned out to be as easily used in neural manipulation than some might have thought, but regardless, this is an indication of the state of development at that time in fields of frequency zero to hundreds of kHz.
1986 (Sep 8-12). Bernardi P et al. Effects of modulated microwave and RF fields on the membrane of neuronal cells, 16th European Microwave Conference.
1986 (Oct). Liburdy et al. Magnetic field-induced drug permeability in liposome vesicles, Radiation Research, 108(1):102-111.
1986 (Oct). Röschmann P and R Tischler. Surface coil proton MR imaging at 2 T, Radiology: 161(1):251.
1986 (Nov 27). Past G et al. Loss of mouse fibroblast cell response to phorbol esters restored by microinjected protein kinase C, Nature, 324:375-77.
1986 (Dec). McRee DI and H Wachtel. Elimination of microwave effects on the vitality of nerves after blockage of active transport, Radiation Research, 108(3):260-268.
>>If it doesn't have the effect when a particular means of that effect happening is blocked, then that particular means starts to stand out. This confirms much research relating to effects on ion transport (related to ion balances, etc., involved in neural signals).
1986. Baroncelli P et al. A health examination of railway high-voltage substation workers exposed to ELF electromagnetic fields, American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 10(1):45-55.
1986. Blackwell RP and RD Saunders. The effects of low-level radiofrequency and microwave radiation on brain tissue and animal behaviour, International Journal of Radiation Biology and Related Studies in Physics, Chemistry and Medicine, 50(5):761-787.
1986. Caddemi A et al. Microwave effects on isolated chick embryo hearts, Bioelectromagnetics, 7(4):359-367.
1986. Cohen BH. The motor theory of voluntary thinking, in RJ Davidson et al (eds) "Consciousness and Self-Regulation": Springer.
>>The existence of relationships between motor activity and neural activity leads to use of EMG methods which record signals sent to the throat for speech, but which remains subvocalized. The bibliography can be used of an indication of the state of knowledge on the subject at that time.
1986. D'Andrea JA et al. Physiological and behavioral effects of chronic exposure to 2450-MHz microwaves, Bioelectromagnetics, 7(1):45-56.
1986. Hand JW and RH Johnson. Field penetration from electromagnetic applicators for localized hyperthermia, Recent Results in Cancer Research, 101:7-17.
>> That electromagnetic propagation into a medium decreases with angular frequency and permittivity of a medium. This was done for localized heating as a part of cancer research, but more generally relates to figuring out how about electromagnetic waves diffusing through materials and fields.
1986. Galvin MJ et al. Influence of pre- and postnatal exposure of rats to 2.45-GHz microwave radiation on neurobehavioral function, Bioelectromagnetics, 7(1):57-71.
1986. McDowall ME. Mortality of persons resident in the vicinity of electricity transmission facilities, British Journal of Cancer, 53:271-279.
1986. McLeod BR and AR Liboff. Dynamic characteristics of membrane ions in multifield configurations of low-frequency electromagnetic radiation, Bioelectromagnetics, 7(2):177-89.
1986. Neilly JP and JC Lin. Interaction of ethanol and microwaves on the blood-brain barrier of rats, Bioelectromagnetics, 7(4):405-414.
1986. Roberts NJ et al. The biological effects of radiofrequency radiation: A critical review and recommendations, International Journal of Radiation Biology and Related Studies in Physics, Chemistry and Medicine, 50(3):379-420.
1986. Santi T et al. Effects of continuous low-level exposure to radiofrequency radiation on intrauterine development in rats, Helath Physics, 51(4):489-499.
1986. Spiegel RJ et al. Measurement of small mechanical vibrations of brain tissue exposed to extremely-low-frequency electric fields, Bioelectromagnetics, 7(3):295-306.
>>Finds some interesting vibrational properties of (after death) brain tissues at very low frequencies (especially under 200Hz).
1986. Tenforde TS. Thermoregulation in rodents exposed to high-intensity stationary magnetic fields, Bioelectromagnetics, 7(3):341-346.
1986. Thomas JR. Low-intensity magnetic fields alter operant behavior in rats, Bioelectromagnetics, 7(4):349-357.
1987 (Jan 1). Amassian VE and RQ Cracco. Human cerebral cortical responses to contralateral transcranial stimulation, Neurosurgery, 20(1):148-155.
>>For those not inclined to follow "do not try this at home" sort of advice, this might not be a bad point of reference if interested in transcranial mangnetic stimulation.
1987 (Jan). Albert EN et al. Effect of amplitude-modulated 147-MHz radiofrequency radiation on calcium ion efflux from avian brain tissue, Radiation Research, 109(1):19-27.
1987 (Jan). Besson M and F Macar. An event-related potential analysis of incongruity in music and other non-linguistic contexts, Psychologphysiology, 24(1):14-25.
>>Four experimental conditions: "1) sentences, 2) geometric patterns of increasing or decreasing size, 3) scale-notes of increasing or decreasing frequency, and 4) well-known French melodies. An N400 appeared only following semantic incongruities within sentences".
1987 (Jan). Chan KH and JC Lin. Microprocessor-based cardiopulmonary rate monitor, Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 25(1):41-44.
1987 (Feb). Su J-L and JC Lin. Thermoelastic signatures of tissue phantom absorption and thermal expansion, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-34(2):179-182.
1987 (Mar). Lai H et al. A review of microwave irradiation and actions of psychoactive drugs, IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, 6(1):31-36.
1987 (May 14). Newmark P. Oncogenes and cell growth, Nature, 327:101-102.
1987 (May). Lawrence AF et al. The nature of phonons and solitary waves in alpha-helical proteins, Biophysical Journal, 51(5):785-793.
1987 (Jul 9). Gabriel C et al. Microwave absorption in aqueous solutions of DNA, Nature, 328:145-146.
1987 (Jul). Papp MAD et al. Doppler microwave: A clinical assessment of its efficacy as an arterial pulse sensing technique, Investigative Radiology, 22(7):569–573.
1987 (Oct 18-22). Guo TC and WW Guo. Dielectric acoustic response to microwave pulses through thermoacoustic and electrostrictive effects, Conference on Date of Conference Electrical Insulation & Dielectric Phenomena - Annual Report 1987.
1987 (Oct). Cain CD et al. Evidence that pulsed electromagnetic fields inhibit coupling of adenylate cyclase by parathyroid hormone in bone cells, Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 2(5):437-441.
1987 (Nov). Guy AW et al. Measurement of shielding effectiveness of microwave-protective suits, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 35(11):984-994.
>>Presents a method for testing suits, including use of a phantom model to meaure effectiveness.
1987 (Nov). Roschmann P. Radiofrequency penetration and absorption in the human body: Limitations to high-field whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, Medical Physics, 14(6):922-931.
1987 (Dec 10). Foster KR and WF Pickard. Microwaves: The risks of risk research, Nature, 330:531-532.
1987 (Dec)> Guy AW. Dosimetry associated With exposure to non-ionizing radiation: Very low frequency to microwaves, Health Physics, 53(6):569-584.
1987 (Dec). Stuchly MA et al. RF energy deposition in a heterogeneous model of man: Near-field exposures, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-34(12):944-950.
1987 (Dec). Tenforde TS and Kaune WT. Interaction of extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields with humans, Health Physics, 53(6):585-606.
1987. Allis JW and BL Sinha-Robinson. Temperature-specific inhibition of human red cell Na+/K+ ATPase by 2450-MHz microwave radiation, Bioelectromagnetics, 8(2):203-212.
1987. Andersen JB. Electromagnetic power deposition: Inhomogeneous media, applicators and phased arrays, in SB Field and C Franconi (eds) Physics and technology of hyperthermia, NATO ASI Series 127:159-188.
>> This shows efforts to understand how layers and shapes, etc., affect electromagnetic heating, including general backgrounders on some related technologies.
1987. Blank M and E Findl (eds). Mechanistic approaches to interactions of electric and electromagnetic fields with living systems: Springer.
1987. Chiang H and GD Yao. Effects of pulsed microwave radiation pre-and post-natally on the developing brain in mice, Journal of Bioelectricity, 6(2):197-204.
1987. Dimbylow PJ. Finite difference calculations of current densities in a homogeneous model of a man exposed to extremely low frequency electric fields, Bioelectromagnetics, 8(4):355-375.
1987. Lotz WG and JL Saxton. Metabolic and vasomotor responses of rhesus monkeys exposed to 225-MHz radiofrequency energy, Bioelectromagnetics, 8(1):73-89.
1987. Hand JW. A review of RF and microwave applicators for localised hyperthermia, Physics and Technology of Hyperthermia, NATO ASI Series 127:189-210.
>> Outlines microwave heating from 500KHz to 2-3GHz and ultrasound heating using 500 KHz to 5 MHz. Refers to "non-invasive techniques" as being those of "a few MHz or higher", suggesting knowledge that lower frequencies are not bioeffective (at least in many relevant senses).
1987. Kaune WT et al. Residential magnetic and electric fields, Bioelectromagnetics, 8(4):315-335.
1987. Kempen G. Natural language generation: New results in artificial intelligence, psychology and linguistics: Springer. P98 .N27
>>Mostly included as an indication of early interest in this subject; not sure why NATO would have been interested in artificial language generation in the 1980s.
1987. Michaelson SM and JC Lin. Biological effects and health implications of radiofrequency radiation: Springer. QP82.2 .R33 M53
1987. Seaman RJ and RM Lebovitz. Auditory unit responses to single-pulse and twin-pulse microwave stimuli, Hearing Research, 26(1):105-116.
>>Finds energy thresholds for effects, with response amplitude being proportional to pulse energy under a threshold. Observations are contrary to theory of head-level resonance as explanation.
1987. Smith SD et al. Calcium cyclotron resonance and diatom mobility, Bioelectromagnetics, 8(3):215-227.
1988 (Feb 1). Cox JA. Interactive properties of calmodulin, Biochemical Journal, 249(3):621-629.
1988 (Mar). Bernhardt JH. The establishment of frequency dependent limits for electric and magnetic fields and evaluation of indirect effects, Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 27(1):1-27.
1988 (May 12). Guo TC and WW Guo. Transient interaction of electromagnetic pulses in dielectrics and microwave biophysics: Catholic University of America.
>>Mentions existence of < 0.1 microsecond and GW intensity pulse capabilities. Seems more focused on preventing materials damage.
1988 (Jun 27-30). Guo TC and WW Guo. Generation of acoustic waves at dielectric interface by microwave pulses, Fifth International Conference on Dielectric Materials, Measurements and Applications.
1988 (Jul). Adey WR. Cell membranes: The electromagnetic environment and cancer promotion, Neurochemical Research, 13(7):671-677.
1988 (Aug 1). Byus et al. Increased ornithine decarboxylase activity in cultured cells exposed to low energy modulated microwave fields and phorbol ester tumor promoters, Cancer Research, 48:4222-4226.
1988 (Aug 7). Tenforde TS. Magnetic deformation of phospholipid bilayers: Effects on liposome shape and solute permeability at prephase transition temperatures, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 133(7):385-396.
1988 (Oct). Uzunoglu NK and SI Polycrhonopoulos. Microwave-induced auditory effect in a dielectric sphere, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 36(10):1418-1425.
1988 (Nov 4-7). Wachtel H et al. Single microwave pulses can suppress startle reflexes in mice, Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE.
1988 (Nov-Dec). Lipman RM et al. Cataracts induced by microwave and ionizing radiation, Survey of Ophthalmology, 33(3):200-210.
>>One of a number of articles on this topic, most of which not included because it is peripheral.
1988 (Dec). Lauterborn W and U Parlitz. Methods of chaos physics and their application to acoustics, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 84(6):1975-1993.
>>Introduces a variety of approaches to mathematical modelling of chaotic systems (natural systems not generally being very linear).
1988. Andreuccetti D et al. Analysis of electric and magnetic fields leaking from induction heaters, Bioelectromagnetics, 9(4):373-379.
1988. Dimbylow PJ. The calculation of induced currents and absorbed power in a realistic, heterogeneous model of the lower leg for applied electric fields from 60 Hz to 30 MHz, Physics in Medicine and Biology, 33(12):1453-1468.
1988. Halle B. On the cyclotron resonance mechanism for magnetic field effects on transmembrane ion conductivity, Bioelectromagnetics, 9(4):381-385.
1988. Guy AW. The bioelectromagnetics research laboratory, University of Washington: Reflections on twenty-five years of research, Bioelectromagnetics, 9(2):113-128.
1988. Lai H et al. Comparison of measured and predicted characteristics of microwave-induced sound, Bioelectromagnetics, 9(4):355-362.
1988. Lai H et al. Acute low-level microwave exposure and central cholinergic activity: Studies on irradiation parameters, Bioelectromagnetics, 9(4):355-362.
1988. Liboff AR and BR McLeod. Kinetics of channelized membrane ions in magnetic fields, Bioelectromagnetics, 9(1):39-51.
1988. Lin JC. Microwave-induced thermoelastic pressure wave propagation in the cat brain, Bioelectromagnetics, 9(2):141-147.
1988. Mitchell CL et al. Some behavioral effects of short-term exposure of rats to 2.45-GHz microwave radiation, Bioelectromagnetics, 9(3):259-268.
1988. O'Conner ME and RH Lovely. Electromagnetic fields and neurobehavioral function: Liss.
1988. Toler J et al. Long-term study of 435-MHz radio-frequency radiation on blood-borne end points in cannulated rats. Part II: Methods, results, and summary, Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy, 23(2):105-136.
1988. Yee K-C et al. Influence of microwaves on the beating rate of isolated rat hearts, Bioelectromagnetics, 9(2):175-181.
1989 (May). Barnes FS. Radio-microwave interactions With biological materials, Health Physics, 56(5):759-766.
>>Presents microwave hearing as the best understood bioeffect; says this affects current flows and chemical reaction rates. Discusses possible quantum effects (these are presumably not very relevant at very low levels...)
1989 (May). Hjeresen DL et al. Microwave attenuation of ethanol-induced interactions With noradrenergic neurotransmitter systems, Health Physics, 56(5):
>>This sort of finding is consistent with the legitimacy of interest in microwave effects on blood-brain barrier, despite a general lack of major results.
1989 (May). Nilsson R et al. Microwave effects on the central nervous system - A study of radar mechanics, Health Physics, 56(5):777-779.
1989 (Sep). Linsker R. How to generate ordered maps by maximizing the mutual information between input and output signals, Neural Computation, 1(3):402-411.
1989 (Nov 9-12). Wachtel H et al. Comparison of the efficacy of pulsed versus CW microwave fields in evoking body movements, Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Images of the Twenty-First Century.
1989 (Dec). Brandeis D. Segments of event-related potential map series reveal landscape changes with visual attention and subjective contours, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 73(6):507-519.
>>Differences could be identified in neural activity between paying attention (or not) to an object, with additional differences identified depending on the contours of the object.
1989. Allen MJ et al. Charge and field effects in biosystems—2: Springer. QP517 .B53 I573
1989. Blackman CF et al. Multiple power-density windows and their possible origin, Bioelectromagnetics, 10(2):115-128.
1989. Baumann S et al. Lack of effects from 2000-Hz magnetic fields on mammary adenocarcinoma and reproductive hormones in rats, Bioelectromagnetics, 10(3):329-333.
1989. D'Andrea JA et al. Lack of behavioral effects in the rhesus monkey: High peak microwave pulses at 1.3 GHz, Bioelectromagnetics, 10(1):56-76.
1989. Dutta SK et al. Radiofrequency radiation-induced calcium ion efflux enhancement from human and other neuroblastoma cells in culture, Bioelectromagnetics, 10(2):197-202.
1989. Franceschetti G. Electromagnetic biointeraction: Mechanisms, safety standards, protection guides: Springer. RA569.3 .E54
1989. Lai H et al. Low-level microwave irradiation and central cholinergic activity: A dose-response study, Bioelectromagnetics, 10(2):203-208.
1989. Lin JC. Electromagnetic interaction with biological systems, Springer. QP82.2 .N64 E44
>>This book summarizes much literature relating to the use of microwave radiation in medical diagnostics. The WHO (1993) document in the following section shows that the author was clearly unaware of much existing research at the time this book was published, so in that sense the book is indicative of what was readily available to fairly independent civilian sector researchers at that time. If you are looking for more explanation at the level of biochemistry and physics, this is better than the more widely ranging WHO document below.
1989. Osepchuk JM. Panel discussion on standards, in JC Lin (ed) Electromagnetic Interaction with Biological Systems: Springer.
>>Suggests that power density and exposure duration are simpliest (thus probably best) ways to express standards-making. Now that more knowledge on neural effects as compared to cancer-causing or genetic effects are present, clearly these are an insufficient grounding for sensible regulatory control over the air waves.
1989. Seaman RL and RM Lebovitz. Thresholds of cat cochlear nucleus neurons to microwave pulses, Bioelectromagnetics, 10(2):147-160.
1989. Szmigielski S and T Obara. The rationale for the Eastern European radiofrequency and microwave protection guides, in G Franceschetti et al. (eds) Electromagnetic Biointeraction: Springer.
1989. Tenforde TS. Electroreception and magnetoreception in simple and complex organisms, Bioelectromagnetics, 10(3):215-221.
1990. Dantas RO and WJ Dodds. Effect of bolus volume and consistency on swallow-induced submental and infrahyoid electromyographic activity, Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 23(1):37-44.
>>Apparently EMG can be used to monitor the consistency and quantity of stuff that goes down your throat, e.g., while eating and swallowing saliva.
1990 (Jan 26). Weaver JC and RD Astumian. The response of living cells to very weak electric fields: the thermal noise limit, Science, 247(4941):450-462.
>>Theoretical thresholds are always of interest, especially when they can be assessed empirically.
1990 (May). Gandhi OP. Biological effects and medical applications of electromagnetic fields: Prentice. QP82.2 .E43 B48
1990 (May). Liu D-S et al. Activation of Na+ and K+ pumping modes of (Na,K)-ATPase by an oscillating electric field, The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 265(13):7260-7267.
>>A demonstration of responsiveness of membrane transport proteins to changes in fields. (Presumably EM waves pulses might have related effects.)
1990 (Jun). D'Andrea JA et al. No effects of high-peak-power microwave pulses at 2.36 GHz on behavioral performance in monkeys: Naval Aerospace Medical Research Lab.
>>The finding indicated in the title is later rejected for other frequencies.
1990 (Sep). Kohonen T. The self-organizing map., Proceedings of the IEEE, 78(9):1464-1480
>>An indication of (limited) abilities in semantic mapping at the time.
1990 (Sep). Aarons L. The bilingual-dichotic method for learning a foreign-language vocabulary, Applied Cognitive Psychology, 4(5):383–392.
>>Analyzed learning of new vocabulary in a foreign language, depending on combinations of playing foreign and native language in right, left, both ears, etc. A difference was found, indicating that one was associated with higher vocabulary retention under a particular treatment among the study subjects.
1990 (Oct 1). Walleczek J and RP Liburdy. Nonthermal 60 Hz sinusoidal magnetic-field exposure enhances 45Ca2+ uptake in rat thymocytes: dependence on mitogen activation, FEBS Letters, 271(1-2):157-160.
1990 (Nov). Ruchkin DS et al. Short-term memory storage and retention: an event-related brain potential study, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 76(5):419–439.
>>Recorded ERPs when memorizing 1, 3 or 6 items of a stimulus, and a second condition to search for matches with previous items, in order to discern between ERP effecst associated with a) perceptual complexity and b) retention of information. Idenfitiable differences could be discerned in comparing ERPs during the memory task and during the search task.
1990 (Nov). Wachtel H et al. Comparison of the efficacy of pulsed versus CW microwave fields in evoking body movements, Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society- Images of the Twenty-First Century.,
1990 (Dec 1). Korba RJ. The rate of inner speech, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 7(3):1043-1052.
>>"Rates of inner speech were correlated with physiological measurements of subvocal activity during verbal problem solving ...". The method used EMG. The particular application is not of particular interest to the context; this is included in relation to the literature on subvocal speech and electromyography.
1990 (Dec). Silberstein et al. Steady-state visually evoked potential topography associated with a visual vigilance task, Brain Topography, 3(2):337-347.
1990. Blackman CF et al. Importance of alignment between local DC magnetic field and an oscillating magnetic field in responses of brain tissue in vitro and in vivo, Bioelectromagnetics, 11(2):159-167.
1990. Blackwell RP. The personal current meter-A novel ankle-worn device for the measurement of RF body current in a mobile subject, Journal of Radiological Protection, 10:109:114.
1990. Chive M. Use of microwave radiometry for hyperthermia monitoring and as a basis for thermal dosimetry, in M Gautherie (ed) Methods of Hypothermia Control: Springer.
1990. Grandolfo M et al. Magnetic resonance imaging: Calculation of rates of energy absorption by a human-torso model, Bioelectromagnetics, 11(2):117-128.
>>The specific method is not so much of interest as is the general matter of energy deposition modelling, also related to modelling thermoacoustic waves from pulsed electromagnetic waves.
1990. Misakian M and WT Kaune. Optimal experimental design for in vitro studies with ELF magnetic fields, Bioelectromagnetics, 11(3):251-255.
1990. Schwartz J-L et al. Exposure of frog hearts to CW or amplitude-modulated VHF fields: Selective efflux of calcium ions at 16 Hz, Bioelectromagnetics, 11(4):349-358.
1990. Seaman RL. Model for auditory-neuron thresholds to microwave pulses, Journal of Bioelectricity, 9(2):151-157.
1991 (Jan 1). Porteous W. Membrane transport and information storage, volume 4 in Advances in membrane fluidity: Experimental Physiology.
1991 (Jul). Andrea JA. Microwave radiation absorption: Behavioral effects, Health Physics, 61(1):29-40.
1991 (Jul). Luben RA. Effects of low-energy electromagnetic fields (pulsed and DC) on membrane signal transduction processes in biological systems, Health Physics, 61(1):15-28.
1991 (Sep 9-12). Guo TC and WW Guo. A remote sound source by microwave-induced acoustic effects at medium interface, 21st European Microwave Conference.
>> "It is found that the coupling may arise from thermoacoustic effect, electrostrictive effect, and electronagnetic energy of dielectric polarization."
1991 (Sep 10). Kitchen SS and CJ Partridge. A review of microwave diathermy, Physiotherapy, 77(9):647-652.
1991 (Oct). Roschmann P. Human auditory system response to pulsed radiofrequency energy in RF coils for magnetic resonance at 2.4 to 170 MHz, Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 21(2):197-215.
>>Uses a less common method relating to RF hearing ("optimized surface coils"). Presents some thresholds, including estimates relating to maximum power of MRI machines to avoid sound discomfort (however, I've never heard of successful application of this negative possibility, despites efforts).
1991 (Dec). Hulme C, S Maughan and GDA Brown. Memory for familiar and unfamiliar words: Evidence for a long-term memory contribution to short-term memory span, Journal of Memory and Language, 30(6):685-701.
>> Finds that memory span is shorter for non-word audio memory representation, and also that the memory span of both words and non-words was a linear function of "rehearsal".
1991. Akyel Y et al. Immediate post-exposure effects of high-peak-power microwave pulses on operant behavior of Wistar rats, Bioelectromagnetics, 12(3):183-195.
1991. Blackman CF et al. The influence of temperature during electric- and magnetic-field-induced alteration of calcium-ion release from in vitro brain tissue, Bioelectromagnetics, 12(3):173-182.
1991. Pakhomov AG. Absence of non-thermal microwave effects on the function of giant nerve fibers, Journal of Bioelectricity, 10(1-2):185-203.
>>Earthworm nerves do not appear sensitive to microwave effects, except for temperature effects.
1992 (Jan 1). Boemke W et al. Electromyography of the larynx with skin surface electrodes, Folia Phoniatrica 44(5):220-230.
>>The method was used, and therefore it exits. Also, EMG differences on the left and right side of the larynx mean that the method should not be used to test for paralysis of the larynx.
1992 (Jun). Ruchkin DS et al. Distinctions and similarities among working memory processes: an event-related potential study, Cognitive Brain Research, 1(1):53–66.
>>Was able to differentiate between visual and phonological (related to words) use of short-term memory during a 5-second interval). "The difference emerged during early encoding stages and continued through later retention stages."
1992 (Jun-Jul). Hidaka H and T Ishikawa. Molecular pharmacology of calmodulin pathways in the cell functions, Cell Calcium, 13(6-7):456-472.
1992 (Oct). Ginsburg KS et al. Microwave effects on input resistance and action potential firing of snail neurons, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 39(10):1011-1021
1992 (Oct 29-Nov 1). Raslear TG et al. CW microwave fields evoke body movements in bilaterally cochleotomized rats, 14th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.
>>Positive relationship between one second microwave pulses and power is similar between defeaned and hearing rats, thus eliminating microwave hearing as a possible mechanism.
1992. Allen MJ et al. Charge and field effects in biosystems—3: Springer. QP517 .B53 I573
1992. Bernhardt JH. Non-ionizing radiation safety: radiofrequency radiation, electric and magnetic fields, Physics in Medicine and Biology, 37:807.
1992. Blank M. Na,K-ATPase function in alternating electric fields, Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 6:2434.
>>Demonstrates effects of electric fields on membrane transport proteins
1992. Blank M and L Soo. Threshold for inhibition of Na,K-ATPase by ELF alternating currents, Bioelectromagnetics, 13(4):329-333.
1992. Guy AW. Electromagnetic fields and health: Some thoughts about the past and future, Bioelectromagnetics, 13(6):601-604.
1992. Lai H. Research on the neurological effects of nonionizing radiation at the University of Washington, Bioelectromagnetics, 13(6):513-526.
1992. Lin JC. Microwave sensing of physiological movement and volume change: A review, Bioelectromagnetics, 13(6):557-565.
>> Presents evidence of several remote sensing approaches which consist of a microwave generator, a sampling device, a transmitting-receiving antenna, a set of signal-conditioning and processing devices, and a display unit. They operate at continuous-wave frequencies between 1 and 35 GHz and make use of amplitude and phase information derived from the received signal. The average power density of energy radiated by present systems ranges from approximately 0.001-1.0 mW/cm2. These systems are capable of registering instantaneous changes in fluid volume, pressure pulse, heart rate, and respiration rate in contact with body surface or at distances greater than 30 m, or behind thick layers of non-conductive walls.
>> (The internet didn’t even exist then. Nor did cell phones. And computers on the market were less powerful than the cheapest smartphones on the market today. However, if I understand correctly this involves differences in reflection due to changes in volume – this might be relevant for evaluating certain things involved in electronic harassment, but not remote neural monitoring. Which is not to say that roughly similar technologies have not been applied for different analytical means to read evoked potentials remotely. It may be worth noting that this demonstrates a long-existing capacity to give precise measures of both amplitude and frequencies relating to vital signs – perhaps this would be obvious to someone with long experience in radar though. Significant other research on this question can be easily found, and methods have advanced significantly.)
1992. Polk C. Dosimetric extrapolations of extremely-low-frequency electric and magnetic fields across biological systems, Bioelectromagnetics, 12(S):205-208.
>>"...Systems that are to be compard usually differ substantially in size, chemistry, and physiology. Therefore we must first undrestand how field generated biological effects, such as enhanced cellular transcription and altered polypeptide synthsis [refs], nerve generation [refs], or enhanced intercellular matrix synthesis [refs] are produced, before we can predict how different systems will react to field exposure. ..."
1992. Marsh JH et al. Femtosecond techniques for the characterization of nonlinear and linear properties of waveguide devices and studies of all optical switching, in JH Marsh et al (eds) Waveguide Optoelectronics: Springer. TA1750 .N38
>>In case there is any question about, say, micro or nano scale resolution and/or outgoing pulses, here we have work, a full 25 years ago, which deals with measures already a million times more precise than that.
1992. Schwann HP. Early history of bioelectromagnetics, Bioelectromagnetics, 13(6):453-467.
>>A long time researcher in the field outlines early development in the field of bioelectromagnetics.
1993 (Jan). Reiter RJ. A review of neuroendocrine and neurochemical changes associated with static and extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure, Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 28(1):57-75.
1993 (Jun 1-15). Schwarzkopf SB et al. Concurrent assessment of acoustic startle and auditory P50 evoked potential measures of sensory inhibition, Biological Psychiatry, 33(11–12):815–828.
>> Studies subjects with no diagnosis of abnormal psychology to pinpoint the evoked potentials associated with certain types of sensory inhibition. This was done by measuring reduction of acoustic startle response (ASR) over multiple trials (habituation), prepulse inhibition (PPI) of ASR (decrease in ASR caused by low intensity prepulses) and P50 suppression (P50 midlatency auditory evoked potentials (AEP) amplitude reduction in a paired-click paradigm).
>> Presumably this implies the ability to remotely administer equivalent effects to achieve rapid habituation to a new stimulus (as in, you don't find something out of the ordinary when in fact it is). Also, inhibition of auditory stimulus is shown, which may be applied to reduced interest in a stimulus that one would probably actually do well to pay attention to. Presumably if the effect can be achieved in the one direction, it can also be achieved in the other direction, for the purpose of heightened sensitivity. It seems that stimulating, rather than inhibiting, senses is far more relevant to the current situation of electronic torture, neurowarfare, etc. How, then, is disinhibited interest being achieved?
1993 (Jun). Orlowski S and LM Mir. Cell electropermeabilization: a new tool for biochemical and pharmacological studies, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Biomembranes, 1154(1):51-64.
>>To mention one of the more obvious potential applications of such knowledge ...
1993 (Jul). O'Keefe J and ML Recce. Phase relationship between hippocampal place units and the EEG theta rhythm, Hippocampus, 3(3):317-330.
>>Finds specific patterns of neural activity relating to 1) location within an enviroment, and another type of pattern involving 2) a class of movements that change a rat's location in an environment.
1993 (Jul). Teissie J and MP Rols. An experimental evaluation of the critical potential difference inducing cell membrane electropermeabilization, Biophysics Journal, 65(1):409-413.
1993 (Oct 31). Raslear TG and Y Akyel. Microwave-evoked whole-body movements in rats: Statistical characteristics, Proceedings of the 15th Annual International Conference of the IEEE, Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.
>> Finds that whole body movement is elicited, dependent on power levels.
1993 (Oct). Friederici AD et al. Event-related brain potentials during natural speech processing: effects of semantic, morphological and syntactic violations, Cognitive Brain Research, 1(3):183–192.
>>Identifies differences in neural activity depending on whether a mistake in a sentence is semantic (word choice), morphological (verb usage) or syntactic (phrase structure), which could be specified temporalyl and by wavestream.
>>This may be of particular interest, as it may indicate the extent to which further manipulations away from established language are actually understood in the process of, say, manipulating from calls of "rape" (as in 'he's a rapist' sort of thing) to "rate" (like, say, it's because you're so amazing that we want to rate you, and rate you highly, oh no, would never ever have done such a thing as those previous things people might claim something about.) So, then, the person who was actually believing, a likely extremely strong indicator of brainwashing extent, would then perhaps be highly unresposnive according to these anomalies which might be expected in one whose thought processes had been less manipulated and/or are presently less udner control. Also, for example, with non-auditory semantic microwave to associated with auditory stimulus, some analogue of this finding might indicate the extent to which the pliant puppets/zombies/whatever are readily believing and going along with this reformed way of thinking, speaking, etc., even from the perspective of the most internal workings of their mind.
>>So, perhaps, it could be possible to derive a numerical index of just how brainwashed someone is, with respect to numerous suversion campaigns. However, a proper control data may be difficult to find, since most people have been at least somewhat subjected to these, and data was much more sparse before nefarious usage of such technologies became more widespread (for a time, which is not yet over).
1993. Field AS et al. The effect of pulsed microwaves on passive electrical properties and interspike intervals of snail neurons, Bioelectromagnetics, 14(6):503-520.
1993. Hucho F (ed.). Neurotransmitter receptors, Vol 24 in A Neuberger and LLM van Deenen (eds.) "New Comprehensive Biology": Springer. QD415 .N48
>>Decent for background on a variety of biochemistry concepts relating to neural transmitters. Many biochemistry and any decent human physiology text should have similarly decent treatment.
1993. Raslear TG et al. Temporal bisection in rats: The effects of high-peak-power pulsed microwave irradiation, Bioelectromagnetics, 14(5):459-478.
>>"The effects of high-peak-power, pulsed microwaves on a time perception and discrimination task were studied in rats ... ". A battery of tests across energy levels found effects well under SAR levels, which were independent of covarying sonic or x-ray exposures.
1994 (Feb). Colebatch JG et al. Myogenic potentials generated by a click-evoked vestibulocollic reflex, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 57:190-197.
>> Subjects were exposed to very brief (0.1 ms) clicks at 85 to 100 dB above the perception threshold for sound. The mean latency of the earliest reproducible changes in the EMG recording was 8.2 ms. The earliest change in evoked potential was a biphasic positive-negativity (p13-n23, or 13 ms for positive potential and 23 ms for negative potential difference) that occurred in all subjects, but later potentials were not universal across all subjects.
>> Among other things, this is suggestive of an identifiable evoked potential with very low latency, in the range of 10-40ms, far shorter than the 300ms peak which gives the P300 decision-oriented potential its name.
1994 (Mar). Falkenstein M et al. Effects of choice complexity on different subcomponents of the late positive complex of the event-related potential, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology/Evoked Potentials Section, 92(2):148-160.
>>Identifies specific subcomponents of the 'late positive complex' which vary as a function of choice complexity. Namely, the P-SR (part of the spike train wave linked to simple choices) was not responsive to increased choice complexity and the P-CR (linked to complex choices) was responsive to increased choice complexity (about 100 ms longer). The ability to discern this difference was enhanced by use of visual and auditory stimuli because the P-SR is modality dependent.
1994 (May). Blank M et al. Changes in polypeptide distribution stimulated by different levels of electromagnetic and thermal stress, Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, 33(2):109–114
>>Low frequency EM fields have similar effects to heat shock at orders of magnitude lower energy in terms of distribution of proteins in salivary gland cells of a type of gnat. The effects of heat and EM treatment are not additive.
1994 (Jun). Fujimaki N et al. Event-related potentials in silent speech, Brain Topography, 6(4):259–267.
>>12 scalp measures and three measures of eye and throat movements were used, and one of the measures showed a notable difference in event-related potential (ERP) activity between subvocalization and spoken speech.
1994 (Nov). Pilla AA et al. Gap junction impedance, tissue dielectrics and thermal noise limits for electromagnetic field bioeffects, Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, 35(1–2):63-69.
1994. Blanchard JP and CF Blackman. Clarification and application of an ion parametric resonance model for magnetic field interactions with biological systems, Bioelectromagnetics, 15(3):217–238.
1994. Brown DO et al. Characteristics of microwave evoked body movements in mice, Bioelectromagnetics, 15(2):143-161.
>>Among other things, claims the ability to elicit movements by as much as a single microwave pulse. Also tests for movement in pulsed and continuous wave conditions across various energy levels.
1994. D'Andrea JA et al. Rhesus monkey behavior during exposure to high-peak-power 5.62-GHz microwave pulses, Bioelectromagnetics, 15(2):163-176.
>>Finds levels at which exposure to microwave radiation affects performance on a somewhat complicated task to obtain food.
1994. Lai H. Neurological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation, in JC Lin (ed) Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems: Springer. QP82.2 .E43 A29
1994. Lin JC (ed). Advances in electromagnetic fields in living systems: Springer.
1994. Lai H et al. Microwave irradiation affects radial-arm maze performance in the rat, Bioelectromagnetics, 15(2):95-104.
>>"After 45 min of exposure to pulsed 2450 MHz microwaves (2 microsecond pulses...), rats showed retarded learning...indicating a deficit in spatial “working memory” function"
1995 (Jan). Jacobs WJ and JR Blackburn. A model of pavlovian conditioning: Variations in representations of the unconditional stimulus, Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 30(1):12–33.
1995 (Apr 1). Peterson C et al. Learned helplessness: A theory for the age of personal control: Oxford University Press.
1995 (Apr 25). Astumian RD et al. Rectification and signal averaging of weak electric fields by biological cells, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 92(9):3740:3743.
>>Offers some explanations for how oscillating weak extremely low frequency electric fields can have biological effects (which are surprising for a number of reasons), but acknowledges that "it is difficult to reconcile biological effects with low field strengths".
1995 (Spring). Schiffer F et al. Evoked potential evidence for right brain activity during the recall of traumatic memories, Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 7(2):169-75.
>> Shows specific differences in left-right brain activity in victims of trauma, uncovered by comparing brain activities relating to neutral memories and unpleasant memories. This might be relevant for understanding how mining for potentially traumatized victims who might be susceptible to programming by playing on traumatic memories (real or planted) or manipulating the victim by associating grievances associated with the trauma to broader cross-sections of society, over whom the victim may then wish to assert "power". Among other things, this may be relevant to uncovering whether the memory has had a traumatic effect or not.
1995 (May). Luben RA. Membrane Signal-Transduction Mechanisms and Biological Effects of Low-Energy Electromagnetic Fields, Chapter 24, 437-450 in M Blank (ed) Electromagnetic Fields: Advances in Chemistry: ACS.
>>Tries to understand how the cell membrane can be overcome by very low energy EM fields.
1995. Alekseev SI and MC Ziskin. Millimeter microwave effect on ion transport across lipid bilayer membranes, Bioelectromagnetics, 16(2):124-131.
1995. Del Seppia et al. Exposure to oscillating magnetic fields influences sensitivity to electrical stimuli. I. experiments on pigeons, Bioelectromagnetics, 16(5):290-294.
>>"...findings are in agreement with previous studies showing that magnetic treatments may alter pigeons' emotional state and some of their behavioral patterns."
1995. Papi F et al. Exposure to oscillating magnetic fields influences sensitivity to electrical stimuli. II. experiments on humans, Bioelectromagnetics, 16(5):295-300.
>>Reduced a number of variables related to pain thresholds after two hours of exposure to a weak, oscillating magnetic field, in the "the first piece of evidence that weak alterations of the magnetic field may induce hyperalgesia in humans".
1996 (Jun 1). Wilding EL and MD Rugg. An event-related potential study of recognition memory with and without retrieval of source, Brain, 119:889-905.
>> Demonstrates the ability to identify whether the subject can correctly identify whether they have already been exposed to a word in a previous setting.
1996 (Jul-Aug). Foster KR. Electromagnetic field effects and mechanisms, IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, 15(4):50-56.
1996 (Sep 16). Yan Y. Mass flow measurement of bulk solids in pneumatic pipelines, Measurement Science and Technology, 7:1687.
1996 (Oct 1). Postma A and C Noordanus. Production and Detection of Speech Errors in Silent, Mouthed, Noise-Masked, and Normal Auditory Feedback Speech, Language and Speech, 39(4):375-392.
>>Among other things, results are suggestive that error detection is lower with subvocal speech than with spoken speech.
>>I belief this is consistent with other treatments which are conducive to increasing vulnerability to involuntary thought reform.
1996 (Oct). Wander Vorst A and F Duhamel. 1990-1995 advances in investigating the interaction of microwave fields with the nervous system, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 44(10):1898-1909.
1996. Barbier E et al. Stimulation of Ca2+ influx in rat pituitary cells under exposure to a 50 Hz magnetic field, Bioelectromagnetics, 17(4):303-311.
1996. Engstrom S. Dynamic properties of Lednev's parametric resonance mechanism, Bioelectromagnetics, 17(1):58–70.
1996. Lai H. Spatial learning deficit in the rat after exposure to a 60 Hz magnetic field, Bioelectromagnetics, 17(6):494-496.
Data indicates that "spatial learning deficit is caused by the effect of the field on cholinergic systems". While the microwave radiation frequency is the same as the frequency of fields from power lines, the levels are not the same.
1996. Muehsam DJ and AA Pilla. Lorentz approach to static magnetic field effects on bound-ion dynamics and binding kinetics: Thermal noise considerations, Bioelectromagnetics,
1996. Polk C and E Postow. Handbook of biological effects of electromagnetic fields, 2nd: CRC Press. QP82.2 .E43 C73
1996. Zhongqi N. Mechanism of generating acoustic signals for microwave auditory effects based on electric field stress, Chinese Journal of Biomedical Engineering, 15(1):67-74.
>>An early (English language) indication of knowledge about the microwave auditory effect among Chinese researchers.
1997 (Jan 23). Bezrukov SM and I Vodyanov. Stochastic resonance in non-dynamical systems without response thresholds, Nature, 385:319-323.
>>Having gone to the level of "without response thresholds", this is basically just at the time of entering into the era of quantum exploration.
1997 (Jan 23). Jung P and K Wiensfeld. Too quiet to hear a whisper, Nature, 385:291.
>>Develops a theoretical model to understand the possibility of there being no threshold process in the responses of dynamic systems to noise.
1997 (Jun 1). Gevins et al. High-resolution EEG mapping of cortical activation related to working memory: effects of task difficulty, type of processing, and practice, Cereb Cortex, 7(4):374-385.
>>A 115-channel EEG was combined with data from MRI, and identified differences in memory processes specific to which type of working memory task was being done.
1997 (Sep 30). Makeig S et al. Blind separation of auditory event-related brain responses into independent?components, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 94(20).
1997 (Jun). Kanwisher N et al. The Fusiform Face Area: A Module in Human Extrastriate Cortex Specialized for Face Perception, Journal of Neuroscience, 17(11):4302-4311.
>>The method is not suggestive of equivalent possibilities from single-channel measures related to spike trains (i.e., of electric activity), but if the location where this happens can be identified, future research can be assumed able to probabilistically estimate such activity with a fairly high degree of accuracy. 20 years later, this does not seem like a huge finding, but recall that notions of face recognition software, for example, were barely even in existance at that point.
1997 (Nov). Rushton DN. Functional electrical stimulation, Physiological Measurement, 18(4):241-276.
>>Outlines uses of functional electrical stimulation and functional neurostimulation. In terms of those use to influence cognitive or pscyhological functions, it mentions that "no such devices are clinically available as yet".
1997 (Dec 18). Leroy Y et al. Non-invasive microwave radiometry thermometry, Physiological Measurement, 19(2).
1997. Bersani F et al. Intramembrane protein distribution in cell cultures is affected by 50 Hz pulsed magnetic fields, Bioelectromagnetics, 18(7):463-469.
1997. Binghy VN. Interference of ion quantum states within a protein explains weak magnetic field's effect on biosystems, Electro- and Magnetobiology, 16(3):203-214.
>>Looks entirely plausible to me, but not being in a position to evaluate the math, I'm not sure whether this theoretical work is of empirical relevance and/or readily testable.
1998 (Feb). Maddox L et al. Acoustic wave dosimetry based on diazotized luminol solutions, Microchemical Journal, 58(2):209-217.
Covers the distinction between thermal heating of an incidence microwave pulse and the acoustic wave which may be promulgated from it.
1998 (Mar). Florig HK. The future battlefield: a blast of gigawatts? [microwave-based weapons], IEEE Spectrum, 25(3):50-54.
>> Haven't checked if this is more about things like "zapping weapons" or also more neural sorts of stuff.
1998 (Mar). Frey AH. Headaches from cellular telephones: Are they real and what are the implications?, Environmental Health Perspectives, 106(3):101-103.
>>In addition to a concise outline of cell phone health hazards and microwave hearing, this bit is interesting, especially considering who pointed it out: "The transmitting frequencies are also in the band that has maximal penetration into the head"
1998 (Apr). Meric F et al. Do radiofrequency radiation affect the auditory system of people with occupational exposure, Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 3(1):55–58.
1998 (Jun). Bennett WR. Radio frequency hearing: Electrostrictive detection and bone conduction, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 103(4).
>>Acknowledges diverse bioeffects of microwaves, but suggests that fields commonly encountered "in the environment" should not be of much concern (from a traditional health perspective).
1998 (Jun). Grill-Spector K et al. Cue-invariant activation in object-related areas of the human occipital lobe, Neuron, 21(1):191-202.
>>The location-oriented methods may not be highly relevant to many current potential applications (aside from the curiosity of stimulating the visual perception peripherally, used both in this study and also 'on the ground' these days with varying degrees of intentionality). Regardless, the commonality (without restriction on further specifity) between cue types (light- and motion-related, both of which visual stimuli) is an interesting observation.
1998 (Jul 1). Sienkiewicz Z. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields and radiation, Journal of Radiological Protection, 18:185.
1998 (Jul 17). Tarr MJ and HH Bulthoff. Image-based object recognition in man, monkey and machine, Cognition, 67(1-2):1-20.
>>Perhaps a better indication of what was not established as known at that time than a positive statement of advancement. Works on models relating to 2D and 3D theories.
1998 (Nov 1). Jikang Z and W Baohua. SAR calculation of electromagnetic pulse to a spherical head, Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference of the IEEE, Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.
1998 (Nov). Patel AD et al. Processing syntactic relations in language and music: An event-related potential study, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 717-733.
>> Shows that musical and linguistic incongruities were statistically industinguishable in the P600 event-related potentials. This may be related to the question of whether, or rather the extent to which, relationships between tonality, semantic meaning, etc., are related. Which, of course, is relevant to the manipulative experiences of many victims of electronic terrorism.
1998 (Dec). Lin JC et al. Enhancement of anticancer drug delivery to the brain by microwave induced hyperthermia, Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, 47(2):259–264.
1998. Eichwald C and J Wallczek. Low-frequency-dependent effects of oscillating magnetic fields on radical pair recombination in enzyme kinetics, The Journal of Chemical Physics, 107:4943-4950.
1998. Adair ER et al. Thermophysiological responses of human volunteers during controlled whole-body radio frequency exposure at 450 MHz, Bioelectromagnetics, 232-245.
1998. Llinas R et al. The neuronal basis for consciousness, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 353(1377):1841-1849.
>> Explores evidence that the thamalus represents a hub from which any site in the cortex can communicate with any other such site or sites. Also, how temporal relations between specific and non-specific thalamic activity may generate the functional states that characterize human cognition.
1998. Ohta M and H Ogawa. A methodological trial of regression analysis with higher order correlation between electromagnetic and sound waves leaked by a Vdt in an actual working environment, Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, 12(10):1357-1367.
1998. Jauettem JR. Health effects of microwave exposures: A review of the recent (1995–1998) literature, Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy, 33(4):263-274.
1999 (May 7). Skinner RD et al. Reduced sensory gating of the P1 potential in rape victims and combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder, Depression and Anxiety, 9(3):122–130.
>> The P1 midlatency auditory evoked potential was studied in female rape victims with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and compared to an age-matched female control group; and in male combat veterans with PTSD and compared to three groups of age-matched male control subjects. The study finds reduced sensory gating associated with the P1 potentials.
>> This may be relevant in identifying PTSD victims who may be vulnerable for purposes of programming or manipulation, but my main interest in including this reference is the possibility that such effects may be remotely introduced in others, for example to induce fear, anxiety, paranoia, etc., whether in the immediate moment or in association with some memory (real or planted).
1999 (Sep). Lu S-T et al. Ultrawide-band electromagnetic pulses induced hypotension in rats, Physiology & Behavior, 67(3):463–473.
1999 (Sep). Wang LV et al. Microwave-induced acoustic imaging of biological tissues, Review of Scientific Instruments, 70(9):3744.
1999 (Oct). Ruchkin DS et al. Lexical contributions to retention of verbal information in working memory: Event-related brain potential evidence, Journal of Memory and Language, 41(3):345–364.
>>Memory recall is lower with pseudowords than with words. (Could this mean that recall of manipulated concepted is reduced while using pseudowords compared to words? Then, is it the pseudowords themselves which are less easily recalled, or are the semantic associations alongside them possible retained while less easily remembering the non-word sounds associated with them?)
1999. Bersani F. Electricity and magnetism in biology and medicine: Springer.
Bortkiewicz A et al. ECG abnormalities in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields at different exposure levels, in F Bersani (ed) Electricity and magnetism in biology and medicine: Springer.
>>Evaluate cardiovascular function in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields in an effort to understand effects/symptoms reported by the Soviets in the 1960s such as heart rhythm disturbances, impaired conduction, decreased amplitude of ECG records and blood pressure changes.
1999. Binghy VN. A formula for frequency and amplitude windows of some ELF and null MF bioeffects follows from the Schroedinger equation, in F Bersani (ed) Electricity and magnetism in biology and medicine: Springer.
>>Suggests that physical resonant processes, namely "cyclotron resonance", popular at the time for explaining ELF bioeffects, failed to explain certain observations at subharmonic levels in cyclotron frequencies.
1999. D'Andrea JA. Behavioral evaluation of microwave irradiation, Bioelectromagnetics, 20(S4):64-74.
1999. Engström S. Resonances and magnetic field detection in biological systems, in F Bersani (ed) Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine: Springer.
>>:A resonant transduction mechanism is an appealing idea for explaining effects of weak oscillating fields, especially when the same system is unaffected by (larger) static fields. ..."
1999. Galley PC. Correlation of thermal electrical noise in ion channel arrays, in F Bersani (ed) Electricity and magnetism in biology and medicine: Springer
>>Seeks to apply the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) principle to minimum detection limits of biological systems to weak external signals.
Gustavvson M et al. Independently replicated biological effects of ELF electromagnetic fields: A literature study, in F Bersani (ed) Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine: Springer.
>>I.e., this summarizes some literature which has been replicated. (If you don't know why that's importance in science, look it up.)
1999. Kavaliers M et al. Electromagnetic Fields and Learning: The Importance of Experimental Design and Analysis, in F Bersani (ed) Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine: Springer.
1999. Kiel JL et al. Pulsed microwave induced light, sound, and electrical discharge enhanced by a biopolymer, Bioelectromagnetics, 20(4):216-223.
>>Aims to use the thermoacoustic effect towards mirowave irradiation for purposes including killing microbes. Found biopolymers which enhanced observed chemical effects in the experiment.
1999. Lin JC. Catheter microwave ablation therapy for cardiac arrhythmias, Bioelectromagnetics, 29(S4):120-132.
1999. Luben RA. Effects of extremely low frequency EMF on signal transduction pathways in vitro, in F Bersani (ed) Electricity and magnetism in biology and medicine: Springer.
>>Since electric field attenuation from outside the cell to its centre is about 1000 to 100,000 fold, it is surprising that low energy fields can affect the inside of the cell - signalling mediation across the membrane (e.g., transport proteins) is suggested as an explanation. However, this work may have some disconnect in terms of the differences between an electromagnetic field and (continuous or pulsed) radiated electromagnetic waves.
1999. Markov MS and AA Pilla. Calcium ion binding is emerging as essential in the transduction of exogenous electromagnetic field (EMF) signals into physiological responses, in F Bersani (ed) Electricity and magnetism in biology and medicine: Springer.
>>"Calcium ion binding is emerging as essential in the transduction of exogenous electromagnetic field (EMF) signals into physiological responses...". Four other mechanisms identified from previous expeirmental evidence: 1) electrochemical changes at specific binding sites, 2) membrane-bound proteins signalling into the interior, and 3) coupling with cytoskeleton and other subcellular components. neuron firing.
1999. Mir LM. Biomedical applications of short, intense electric pulses, in F Bersani (ed) Electricity and magnetism in biology and medicine: Springer.
"...there are also interesting biomedical applications of the use of short, intense electric pulses delivered for very short times. These electric pulses result in changes of cell membrane properties that have been termed electropermeabilization or electroporation"
1999. Nair I et al. Biological electron transfer: A possible framework for some of the biological effects of ELF magnetic fields?, in F Bersani (ed) Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine: Springer.
>>Mentions calcium efflux among biological effects of ELF fields (which presumably can be approximated by some modulations, etc., of photon pulses). From physics perspective, highlights 1) responsive to energy levels which are low from thermal collision perspective and 2) the response is selective in manys ways - for example with tinme characteristics seeming more important than the strength of the field.
1999. Nathel H. Laser opt-acoustic imaging: Let there be light that sounds!, Optics and Photonics News, 10(6):27.
1999. Pillia AA et al. EMF Signals and ion/ligand binding kinetics: Prediction of bioeffective waveform parameters, in F Bersani (ed) Electricity and magnetism in biology and medicine: Springer.
>>Includes very brief historical overview relating to the field. "... This work considers the coupling of EMF signals to target kinetics and the choice of optimum waveform parameters using a tissue/cell impedance model7 through evaluation of the frequency response of the signal to thermal noise ratio (SNR) at the binding site. Application is made to Ca2+/CaM-dependent myosin phosphorylation."
1999. Shpinkova VN et al. A weak magnetic field caused the increase of proteins in the brain, in F Bersani (ed) Electricity and magnetism in biology and medicine: Springer.
>>The goal was to find how weak disturbances of natural MF affect the protein metabolism in pyramidal neurons of sensomotor cortex.
>>I think a more interesting observation is "deep suppression of exploratory activity in unknown situation", with a brief external stimulation sufficient for majority of animals to start learning", although I'm not sure whether this is related to the observed changes in protein synthesis under the experimental conditions.
1999. Walleczek J. Low-Frequency-Dependent Magnetic Field Effects in Biological Systems and the Radical Pair Mechanism, F Bersani (ed) in Electricity and magnetism in biology and medicine
>>"...radical pair recombination takes place in the nanosecond time domain, compared to the millisecond time scale of the low-frequency magnetic field oscillations">
>>Well, that limitation isn't relevant in many relevant research labs any more.
1999. Weaver JC et al. Altered cumulative calcium influx for biological cells: An illustration of the theory of signal averaging by rectification of weak extremely low frequency electric fields, in F Bersani (ed) Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine: Springer.
>>"...there is no conceptual difficulty with the idea that a small number of molecules can lead to a biological response, but there is a fundamental limit on the ability of weak fields to create that molecular change. ..."
1999. Ziriax JM et al. High peak power, low sar effects on memory task performance in rhesus monkeys, in F Bersani (ed), Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine: Springer.
2000 (Feb). Foster KR. Thermal and nonthermal mechanisms of interaction of radio-frequency energy with biological systems, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 28(1):15-23.
2000 (Feb). Polk C. Biological applications of large electric fields: some history and fundamentals, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 28(1):6-14.
>>Outlines some literature and definitions of core concepts.
2000 (May 19). Kruger RA et al. Thermoacoustic CT: Imaging principles, Biomedical Optoacoustics, 150
2000 (May). Geng K and WV Lihong. Scanning thermoacoustic tomography in biological tissue, Medical Physics, 27(5):1195-1202.
>>Uses similar principles to that believed to explain mirowave hearing (thermoacoustic expansion) along with an ultrasonic transducer, in a way that can generate multi-dimensional images from a one-dimensional system.
2000 (Jun 11-16). Kruger et al. Thermoacoustic CT, IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest.
2000 (Jun). Donchin E et al. The mental prosthesis: Assessing the speed of a P300-based brain-computer interface, IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering, 8(2).
>> Describes a study designed to assess a brain-computer interface (BCI). The BCI presents the user with a matrix of 6 by 6 cells, each containing one letter of the alphabet. The user focuses attention on the cell containing the letter to be communicated while the rows and the columns of the matrix are intensified. Each intensification is an event in the oddball sequence, the row and the column containing the attended cell are “rare” items and, therefore, only these events elicit a P300. The computer thus detects the transmitted character by determining which row and which column elicited the P300. The authors report an assessment, using a bootstrapping approach, which indicates that an off line version of the system can communicate at the rate of 7.8 characters a minute and achieve 80% accuracy. The system's performance in real time was also assessed. The authors' data indicate that a P300-based BCI is feasible and practical. In the year 2000. 16 years ago. When the most powerful computer on the market was less powerful than most smartphones today, and when computer learning algorithms were in their infancy.
2000 (Jun). Marino C et al. Effects of microwaves (900 MHz) on the cochlear receptor: exposure systems and preliminary results, Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 39(2):131–136.
2000 (Jul). McJury M and FG Shellock. Auditory noise associated with MR procedures: A review, Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 12(1):37-45
>>Mentions RF hearing via pulsed RF radiation as being among the sources of audible sounds during an MRI.
2000 (Sep 18). Friedman D and R Johnson. Event-related potential (ERP) studies of memory encoding and retrieval: A selective review, Microscopy Research Technique, 51(1):6–28.
>>Shows good correspondence between ERP techniques and the results of studies that use imaging techniques.
2000 (Sep 21). Laurence JA et al. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields — Mechanisms for the effects of pulsed microwave radiation on protein conformation, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 206(2):291-298.
2000 (Nov 1). Luck SJ et al. Event-related potential studies of attention, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(11):432–440.
>> Isolates the operation of attention in specific cognitive subsystems such as perception, working memory, and response selection. In addition to a list of specific technical conclusions, it should be highlighted that the ability to identify attention-related event-related potentials implies an ability to influence such attention (whether positively or negatively).
2000 (Nov). Lin JC et al. Computer simulation and experimental studies of SAR distributions of interstitial arrays of sleeved-slot microwave antennas for hyperthermia treatment of brain tumors, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 48(11):2191-2198.
2000 (Nov). Watanabe Y et al. FDTD analysis of microwave hearing effect, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 48(11):2126- 2132
2000 (Dec 14). Bacon C et al. One-dimensional prediction of the acoustic waves generated in a multilayer viscoelastic body by microwave radiation, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 238(5):853-867.
2000. Pakhomov AG et al. Comparative effects of extremely high power microwave pulses and a brief CW irradiation on pacemaker function in isolated frog heart slices, Bioelectromagnetics, 21(4):245-254.
2000. White E. The state of unclassified and commercial technology capable of some electronic mind control ffects.
>> This is a pioneering work in elucidating on many of the more technical and sci-fi like events and technologies defined in this glossary. Namely, it does not just describe abstract scientific experiments, but relates how they are being applied in a highly nefarious manner. A major point of reference for most targeted individuals who have a clue what is going on.
2001 (Jan). Farwell LA and SS Smith. Using brain MERMER testing to detect knowledge despite efforts to conceal, Journal of Forensic Sciences, 46(1):135-143.
>> This experiment examined the accuracy and reliability of the memory and encoding related multifaceted electroencephalographic response (MERMER) technique for detecting information related to events subjects have experienced, despite subjects' efforts to conceal that knowledge. Information obtained through interviews was used to develop stimulus sets consisting of words and phrases presented to subjects visually by computer. Electrical brain responses to the stimuli were recorded and analyzed. MERMERs, (memory and encoding related multifaceted electroencephalographic responses), of which the P300 is a sub-component, were used to determine whether the subject had the relevant information stored in his brain (information present) or not (information absent), thus indicating whether or not each subject had participated in the real-life event in question. (Of course, this probably isn’t sensitive to the difference to trying to refuse elicitation of a planted memory, a bullshit connection, etc., from actual concealment. Or the fact that someone who has been exposed to this repeatedly will have the habit of trying to uphold the privacy of their mind no matter what the cause. And never mind the fact that the right to remain silent is in fact a core principle of justice, at least in the West.)
2001 (Feb). Suaning GJ and NH Lovell. CMOS neurostimulation ASIC with 100 channels, scaleable output, and bidirectional radio-frequency telemetry, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 48(2):248-260.
>>Tests a 100-channel integrated circuit for neurostimulation. Uses a worn transmitter and an implantable stimulator, to be used together in transmitting "data and power across tissue" by photons across these 100 channels. Mentions "paucity of data pertaining to the stimulation thresholds necessary in evoking a physiological response".
2001 (Apr 25). Huang X, A Acero and H-W Hon. Spoken language processing: A guide to theory, algorithm and system development: Prentice.
2001 (Apr). Herrmann CS. Human EEG responses to 1–100 Hz flicker: Resonance phenomena in visual cortex and their potential correlation to cognitive phenomena, Experimental Brain Research, 137(3) 346-353.
>> Demonstrates that flickering visual phenomena are processed more quickly at certain firing rates, namely, in the range of 30-80 times per second. Clear resonancies were found around 10, 20, 40 and 80 Hz, suggesting much more than being processed faster, but that entire potential schematics of brain activity could be entrained on a certain frequency by virtue of applying such frequencies.
>> (Presumably this would be informative on the matter of subliminal programming, whether directly in front of the subject or "beamed in" from elsewhere via pulse modulated microwaves. The matter of neural activity becoming synchronized to firing rates is also likely to have some relevance to understanding the ways in which remote neural influencing technologies are being implemented. I assume that some means of synchronization is applied to increase the effectiveness of more targeted signals or efforts to "force" the brain of the individual into rates of oscillation which are more easily read for remote neural monitoring purposes.
>> Civilian sector technological context of this study: most people had not yet sent an email, and there was not yet any such thing as a smartphone.)
2001 (May 20-24). Droitcour A et al. A microwave radio for Doppler radar sensing of vital signs, IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest.
>>A microwave Doppler vital signs system operating up to one meter.
2001 (May). Adair ER et al. FDTD analysis of microwave hearing effect, Bioelectormagnetics, 22(4):246-259.
2001 (Jun). Lin JC. The blood-brain barrier, cancer, cell phones, and microwave radiation, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 43(3):141-143.
2001 (Jul). Chan ADC, K Englehart, B Hudgins and DF Lovely. Myo-electric signals to augment speech recognition, Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 39(4):500–504
>>Proposes the use of EMG signals to augment speech recognition in noisy environments. Hardware is built into the helmet and data processing methods are outlined, with classificatoin errors in the 3-10% range in the study sample.
2001 (Jul 19). Umilta MA et al. I know what you are doing: A neurophysiological study, Neuron, 31(1):155-165.
>>Same mirror neurons are activated when the final part of an observed action is hidden, suggesting that "mirror neuron activation could be at the basis of action recognition". (This extends somewhat upon simply observing that some same neurons are involved in doing an action and observing it in others, which is the definition of a 'mirror neuron'.
2001 (Aug). Bacon C et al. Acoustic waves generated by pulsed microwaves in viscoelastic rods: Modeling and experimental verification, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 110(3):1398.
2001 (Sep). Adair ER et al. Human exposure to 2450 MHz CW energy at levels outside the IEEE C95.1 standard doesnot increase core temperature, Bioelectromagnetics, 22(6):429-439.
>>Tests continuous wave microwave irradiation above safety standards, but body temperature does not rise. This can be contrasted with some indications from monkey studies (and others) that thermoregulatory behaviour can be affected by microwaves in other conditions.
2001 (Oct 25). Huang J et al. Comparing cortical activations for silent and overt speech using event-related fMRI, Human Brain Mapping, 15(1):39–53.
>>Spoken speech along with subvocal speech interferes with fMRI readings of the subvocalization, so they study techniques to reduce motion, and then conclude that means of data processing are needed to address this.
2001 (Dec). Lin JC. Hearing microwaves: the microwave auditory phenomenon, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, (43)6:166-168.
2001 (Dec). Suffczynski P et al. Computational model of thalamo-cortical networks: Dynamical control of alpha rhythms in relation to focal attention, The International Journal of Psychophysiology, 43(1):25-40.
>> Alpha rhythms modulate as subjects perform certain tasks or respond to certain stimuli. In some instances there is synchronization of alpha waves after an event, and in some instances there is desynchronization, contributing to an observation of changes in amplitude of the alpha wave peaks – this can be differentiated among specific frequencies. Discovery of distinct modules lead them to suggest that “cross-talk” between these distinct modules explains why paying attention to a certain stimulus (the focus) is coupled to inhibition of attention given to another (the surround).
2001 (Dec 21). Harland CJ et al. Electric potential probes - new directions in the remote sensing of the human body, Measurement Science and Technology, 13(2).
>> Demonstrates the ability to measure electric potential in the heart and perform remote EEGs, up to a distance of 1 metre. It takes advantage of advances (by 2001) in ultra-low-noise, ultra-high-input-impedance probes. I highlight two things: a) this was demonstrated over 15 years ago already, and b) this research was performed in the civilian sector, which complies with ethical research standards according to the Nuremberg Code.
2001. Collin RE. Foundations for microwave engineering, 2nd: IEEE Press. TK7876 .C645 2001
2001. Lozano-Rogado J. Measurement of velocities in noisy environments with a microwave Doppler-effect radar, European Journal of Physics, 22(3):249.
2001. Skolnik M. Introduction to radar systems, 3rd: McGraw-Hill. TK6575 .S55
2002 (Feb). Pakhomov AG et al. Comparison of dose dependences for bioeffects of continuous-wave and high-peak power microwave emissions using gel-suspended cell cultures, Bioelectromagnetics, 23(2):158-167.
2002 (May 1). Di Luzio MAM and S Di Luzio. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields, International Journal of IMmunopathology and Pharmacology, 15(2):95-105.
2002 (Jun). Health effects: hearing microwaves: the microwave auditory phenomenon, IEEE Microwave Magazine, 3(2):30-34.
2002 (Jul). Badin P et al. Three-dimensional linear articulatory modeling of tongue, lips and face, based on MRI and video images, Journal of Phonetics, 30(3):533-553.
2002 (Aug 6). Sienkiewic Z. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields, Power Engineering Journal, 12(3):131-139.
2002 (Aug 7). Lin JC. Scientific literature on biological effects of radio frequency radiation: criteria for evaluation, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 44(2):140-142.
2002 (Oct 23-26). Villapecellin-Cid MM et al. Electromagnetic fields induced in anisotropic tissues by myelinated axons, 24th Annual Conference and the Annual Fall Meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society EMBS/BMES Conference.
>>Indicates that direction of axes is not particularly relevant in electromagmetnic field induced in tissues surrounding a myelinated axon. I think this might be related to the question of whether direction/orientation of the head is highly relevant to decoding data streams of amplitude and frequency patterns decodable from the EM bath after interacting with the brain.
2002. Chan ADC, K Englehart, B Hudgins and DF Lovely. Hidden Markov model classification of myoelectric signals in speech, IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, 21(5):143-146.
>>Compares performance of two methods to classify and discriminate within a dataset for speech recognition from EMG.
2002. Herrmann MJ et al. Face-specific event-related potential in humans is independent from facial expression, International Journal of Psychophysiology, 45(3):241–244.
>>Emotional valence in stimuli causes differences in amplitude of spike trains as early as 100ms after a stimuli. This enables to test for whether face-specific EEG potentials are modified by emotional context in an image - they are not.
2002. Morsella E and RM Krauss. Movement facilitates speech production: A gestural feedback model, Columbia University.
>>When speaking, magnitude of muscle activation (measure dby EMG) was predicted by the word's concreteness and spatiality. Also, memory recall was reduced when gesturing was suppressed.
2002. Smith PD and SR Cloude. Ultra-wideband, short-pulse electromagnetics: Springer. TK6573 .U5723
2003 (Jan). Hossman K-A and DM Herrman. Effects of electromagnetic radiation of mobile phones on the central nervous system, Bioelectromagnetics, 24(1):49-62.
2003 (May). Tamaguchi H et al 1439-MHz pulsed TDMA fields affect performance of rats in a T-maze task only when body temperature is elevated, Bioelectromagnetics, 24(4)223-230.
2003 (Dec). Innes M. Understanding social control: Crime and social order in late modernity - deviance, crime and social order, McGraw-Hill Education (UK), 176 pages. HM811 .I56
>> Not reviewed.
2003. Adair ER and DR Black. Thermoregulatory responses to RF energy absorption, Bioelectromagnetics, 24(S6):S17-S38.
2003. Bell V et al. Beliefs about delusions, The Psychologist, 6(8):418-422.
>> Not reviewed.
2003. Chou C-K and JA D'Andrea. Reviews of effects of RF fields on various aspects of human health: Introduction, Bioeletromagnetics, 24(S6):S5-S6.
2003. D'Andrea JD et al. Behavioral and cognitive effects of microwave exposure, Bioelectromagnetics, 24(S6):S39-S62.
2003. D'Andrea JA et al. Microwave effects on the nervous system, Bioelectromagnetics, 24(S6):S107-S147.
2003. Elder JA. Ocular effects of radiofrequency energy, Bioelectromagnetics, 24(S6):S14-S161.
2003. Elder JA and CK Chou. Auditory response to pulsed radiofrequency energy, Bioelectromagnetics, 24(S6):S162-S172.
>>Mentions frequency thresholds and types of sounds, as well as the thermoelastic expansion theory to explain RF hearing. "The auditory response has been shown to be dependent upon the energy in a single pulse and not on average power density".
2003. Lenhardt ML. Ultrasonic Hearing in Humans: Applications for Tinnitus Treatment, International Tinnitus Journal, 9(2):69-75.
>>Among other things, a presentation on ultrasonic hearing includes much scientific documentation on the facts of ultrasonic hearing via bone conduction being possible.
2003. Meltz ML. Radiofrequency exposure and mammalian cell toxicity, genotoxicity, and transformation, Bioelectromagnetics, 24(S6):S196-S213.
2003. Stavroulakis P (ed). Biological effects of electromagnetic fields: Springer. QP82.2 .E43 B5496
2004 (Apr). Lin JC. Studies on microwaves in medicine and biology: From snails to humans, Bioelectromagnetics, 25(3):146-159.
2004 (Jun). Osepchuk JM. Environmental standards: The new concept and key to international harmonization of safety standards for the safe use of electromagnetic energy, International Symposium on Technology and Society.
>>Peripheral to the general treatment, microwave auditory effect is mentioned among issues.
2004 (Jun). Pelayo FJ et al. Translating image sequences into spike patterns for cortical neuro-stimulation, Neurocomputing, 58–60:885–892.
>>Uses measures of neural activity to calbirate treatment applied by neurostimulation. The method to apply the neural effect is by microelectrode, as compared to other neurostimulation methods which involved photons.
2004 (Jun). Schlaghecken F and E Martin. Masked prime stimuli can bias “free” choices between response alternatives, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11(3), 463-468.
2004 (Jun). Schalk G et al. BCI2000: A general-purpose brain-computer interface (BCI) system, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 51(6):1034-1043.
>> Develops a documented general-purpose brain-computer interface (BCI) research and development platform called BCI2000. BCI2000 can incorporate alone or in combination any brain signals, signal processing methods, output devices, and operating protocols. This report is intended to describe to investigators, biomedical engineers, and computer scientists the concepts that the BCI2000 system is based upon and gives examples of successful BCI implementations using this system. To date, we have used BCI2000 to create BCI systems for a variety of brain signals, processing methods, and applications. The data show that these systems function well in online operation and that BCI2000 satisfies the stringent real-time requirements of BCI systems.
2004. Foster KR and MH Repacholi. Biological effects of radiofrequency fields: Does modulation matter?, Radiation Research, 162(2):219-255.
2004. Nolting B. Microwave auditory effects and the theoretical concept of thought transmission technology, in Methods in modern biophsyics: Springer. QH505 .N65
2004. Parazzini M et al. Effects on the inner auditory system of Sprague-Dawley rats of 900- and 1800-MHZ GSM mobile phones, Biomedical Engineering, 417.
>>Putting antennae on rat ears did not increase cochlear functionality in response to EM fields.
2004. Schlaghecken F and M Eimer. Subliminal stimuli can bias 'free' choices between response alternatives, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review – Brief Reports, 11(3):463-468.
>> Investigates whether subliminal stimuli designed affects decisions which appear to have been decided upon independently. The expected effect is found, but the effect appears to differ depending on the task being manipulated by the subliminal stimuli.
2005 (Jan 6). Jorgensen C and K Binsted. Web browser control using EMG based sub vocal speech recognition, Proceedings of the 38th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
>>"Subvocal electromyogram (EMG) signal classification is used to control a modified web browser interface..."
2005 (Jun). Carter RL. Microwave auditory effects and applications, Proceedings of the IEEE, 67(5):875-876.
2005 (Aug 3). Basoglu M. Psychiatric and cognitive effects of war in former Yugoslavia - Association of lack of redress for trauma and posttraumatic stress reactions, Journal of the American Medical Association, 294(5):580-590.
>>Shows findings of psychological torture (during the period of conflict in Yugoslavia) having similarly severe long-term impacts as physical torture.
2005 (Oct 12-14). Gardiol F. Biological effects of portable communication equipment - A review, 18th International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics and Communications.
2005 (Oct 30-Nov 2). Garg HK et al. Wireless hearing aids system simulation, Conference Record of the Thirty-Ninth Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers.
>>Presents a system with decent performance for wireless hearing aids.
2005. Beason RC. Mechanisms of magnetic orientation in birds, Integrative & Comparative Biology, 45(3):565-573.
2005. Challis LJ. Mechanisms for interaction between RF fields and biological tissue, Bioelectromagnetics, 26(S7):S98-S106.
2005. Lin JC. Advances in electromagnetic fields in living systems: Springer.
2005. Loftus EF. Planting misinformation in the human mind: A 30-year investigation of the malleability of memory, Learning & Memory, 12(4):361-366.
>> Warning! If you have suffered from planted memories and are also under remote neural monitoring, and decide to read the original article, be prepared to be under full attack for the entire duration of reading the article. Efforts are liable to be made to twist every word and concept in a way to reinforce the notion that each specific concept and type of evidence is precisely what allows them to “know” that the planted “memory” is in fact a true one.
>> A review relating to the “misinformation effect” wherein misinformation or suggestion has the effect of manipulating memory or introducing completely false memories. It explores conditions under which people are susceptible to misinformation (long time after original event meaning discrepancies won’t be noticed; more likely if discrepancy is not immediately noticed, although does not guarantee that the misinformation will not eventual come to supplant the original recollection; less likely to recollect misinformation as real if asked shortly after misinformation is inserted in addition to the time when the misinformation was introduce; when under hypnotic effects) or resistant to misinformation (advance warning that misinformation might be introduced).
>> It also explores who is more likely to be susceptible. Young children are more susceptible than older children or adults, and the elderly are more susceptible than young adults. Self-reported lapses in attention and memory are also associated with susceptibility.
>> Explorations of processes via which people come to believe rich complex events that never in fact occurred. (Which is an entirely different question than progressively, via suggestion, projection of images, conditioned positive and negative associations, etc., to be able to trigger a false memory that a victim does not actually believe happened, but which an external observer via neural monitoring might be able to observe – in short, someone plants it, then someone else finds it and maybe even believes it.)
>> Finally, the effects reported generally see “success” of planting misinformation in the range of 10-50% depending on the scenario. However, this involves precisely one exposure to misinformation and a simple yes/no/describe elicitation with regard to the planted misinformation. Many targeted individuals find themselves under psychological onslaught for months or years to convince them of the planted misinformation. The study cites recollections of alien abductions as a commonly known example of implausible or impossible recollections.
2005 (Apr 9). Mantzaridis H and GNC Kenny. Auditory evoked potential index: A quantitative measure of changes in auditory evoked potentials during general anaesthesia, Anaesthesia, 52(11):1030–1036.
>> Evaluates differences in auditory evoked potentials under anaesthesia. A large difference is found between the evoked potentials under anaesthesia and afterwards. In addition to suggesting that evoked potentials could be used to ensure that anaesthetics are working properly (personally, I think I'd rather not agree to having my brain activity monitored like that), this may be comforting for those who are concerned about dream insertion (which I believe is actually achieved by bringing someone into a lucid state which you are likely to be somewhat aware of, and can write the main features down immediately after, rather than in the midst of deep sleep, say). It should be noted that the reduced in auditory evoked potentials is dramatic, but not complete. I DO wonder if some sort of psychic driving, suggestions, etc., may at times have been applied during sleep, but in retrospect many effects I had associated with this are likely to be achievable by other means.
2005 (Jun). Tokowicz N and B MacWhinney. Implicit and explicit measures of sensitivity to violations in second language grammar: An event-related potential investigation, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27(2):173-204.
>> Identified specific differences in some event-related potentials associated with differences in sentence construction in different languages. The article suggests comparing event-related potentials and behavioural data could provide a sensitive method for measuring implicit processing.
>> (Personally, I've experienced heightened interest in my thinking processes when performing translations. The extent to which this is linked to trying to figure me out to "brainwash me better" and the extent to which this is associated with general purpose non-consensual and involuntary experimentation is not entirely clear. However, this study demonstrates an existing base of knowledge on event-related potentials in this regard in addition to an incomplete basis of knowledge in this regard - which clearly also remains fairly incomplete in the non-civilian sector.)
2005 (Jul). J-D Haynes and G Rees. Predicting the stream of consciousness from activity in human visual cortex, Current Biology, 15(14):1301-1307.
>> Shows that externally analyzing spatial patterns of activity in the visual cortex can predict feature-specific stimulus representations for both visible and invisible stimuli. This research explores whether stream of consciousness can be predicted by the same means.
2005 (Aug 12). Luck SJ. An introduction to the event-related potential technique, Cognitive Neuroscience, MIT Press.
>> The first comprehensive guide to the practicalities of conducting ERP experiments in cognitive neuroscience and related fields, including affective neuroscience and experimental psychopathology. The book can serve as a guide for the classroom or the laboratory and as a reference for researchers who do not conduct ERP. I haven't reviewed this book at all, but presumably it serves as a good compilation of civilian sector knowledge existing in this field at the time of publication.
2005 (Aug 23). di Pellegrino G et al. Implicitly evoked actions modulate visual selection: Evidence from parietal extinction, Current Biology, 15(16):1469-1472.
>> Visual stimuli of a graspable object are associated with the beginning of neural activities which are basically priming the person to begin acting on it. For example, seeing a cup with a handle starts early processes of preparing to grasp it - in that case the rate at which the visually-related activity in the brain became non-detectable only varied with whether the cup had a left of right handle. In the absence of such a process beginning to grasp an object, a means of activating the beginning of specific action-oriented processes in the brain is proposed.
2005 (Aug). Murata A et al. Evaluation of mental fatigue using feature parameter extracted from event-related potential, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 35(8):761–770.
>>A specific method was developed to eliminate noise from cross-correlations between certain waveforms in order to have a more clean presentation of the P300 in identifying changes in peaks related to mental fatigue, although the remaining explanatory or predictive power was not broad.
2005 (Oct 25). Müller-Putz GR et al. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based communication: Impact of harmonic frequency components, Journal of Neural Engineering, 2(4):123-130, doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/2/4/008.
>> Discusses how brain signals resulting from repetitive stimulation have the same fundamental frequency as the stimulation but also include higher harmonics. This study investigated how the classification accuracy of a 4-class BCI system can be improved by incorporating visually evoked harmonic oscillations.
>> It's not clear to me what exactly this might mean for the remote monitoring side of things, but it seems well within the realm of possibility that better modelling of repeatedly evoked potentials could lead to greater ease of memory implantation, or perhaps increase belief in the truthiness of an inserted suggestion or idea, by mimicking harmonics associated with a repeated stimulation (speculative, but it seems clearly possible to introduce an idea in a manner that suggests it has been present for quite some time, perhaps even self evidence in a sense - whether this is the general mechanism at play does not seem at all clear to me, however).
2005 (Oct 27). Stickgold R. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation, Nature, 437:1272-1278.
>> Reviews literature on how memory consolidation depends on sleep. Presents converging evidence, from the molecular to the phenomenological, which leaves little doubt that offline memory reprocessing during sleep is an important component of how our memories are formed and ultimately shaped.
>> (This is obviously relevant for a major issue with sleep deprivation: if you are sleep deprived during the process of brainwashing, etc., it is difficult to remember what happened, and one is liable to be susceptible to suggestion that it never happened, or at the very least to be manipulated into incorrectly believing that it was all benign, a trivial occurrence that should be shrugged off. Also, when sleep deprived, it is likely to be more difficult to resist remotely administered interference designed to promote certain behaviours, a rightward twitch which may cause a car accident, or something more serious like an incitation to sexually assault or kill someone.)
2005 (Oct). Galloni P et al. Effects of 900-MHz electromagnetic fields exposure on cochlear cells' functionality in rats: Evaluation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions, Bioelectromagnetics, 26(7):536-547.
2005 (Nov 27-Dec 1). Maier-Hein L et al. Photoacoustic and thermoacoustic tomography with both optical and electrical contrasts, Proceedings of the Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2006: The Seventh Conference on Biomedical Thermoacoustics, Optoacoustics, and Acousto-optics.
>>"To acquire both photoacoustic and thermoacoustic images with multiple contrasts that reflect the absorption of electromagnetic energy, biological tissues are stimulated using laser and microwave pulses, respectively". Results are presented for a variety of tissue types.
2006 (Mar). Piccione F et al. P300-based brain computer interface: Reliability and performance in healthy and paralysed participants, Clinical Neurophysiology, 117(3):531-537.
>> Uses an oddball sequence of flashes to elicit a P300 response. The amplitude and latency of the P300 remained stable over 40 weeks.
2006 (May 14-19). Denby B et al. Prospects for a Silent Speech Interface using Ultrasound Imaging, 2006 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, 2006.
>>The method used does not enable to decode subvocalization using ultrasound.
2006 (Jun 6). Kamitani Y and F Tong. Decoding seen and attended motion directions from activity in the human visual cortex, Current Biology, 16(11):1096-102.
>> Uses methods of classifying responses within the visual cortex to demonstrate directional sensitivity. Namely, they were able to correctly decode the signals associated with one of eight possible motion directions being viewed. This seems positively archaic compared to the present studies being done in imaging (see "natural movie" reference below), but this seems reflective of the state of knowledge, at least in the civilian sector, in 2006.
>> (It also addresses adaptive responses to repeated exposures, which I believe might be relevant for understanding mechanisms which are likely to be involved in the use of gestures, visual associations, etc., in relation to conditioned responses, for example to induce fear or other emotional responses, or even to elicit involuntary evoked actions, etc., for example following a campaign against an individual which involves coordinated use of many technologies, to establish a conditioned response in an individual).
2006 (Jun 9). Mainy N et al. Neural correlates of consolidation in working memory, Human Brain Mapping, 28(3):183–193.
>>Reproduces a method which "revealed that the maintenance of information involves a distributed network of oscillations in the gamma band (>40 Hz)." Found increases in gamma band activity during encoding of sequences of letters into working memory. I gather basically that if you can identify something, it is theoretically possible to influence positively or negatively...
2006 (Jul). Haynes J-D and G Rees. Decoding mental states from brain activity in humans, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7:523-534.
>> This article demonstrates an extension beyond remotely reading images to remotely decoding other experiences in the brain, such as covert attitudes. The threats to privacy of thought are highlighted.
2006 (Jul-Sep). Bistolfi F. Evidence of interlinks between bioelectromagnetics and biomechanics: from biophysics to medical physics, Physica Medica, 22(3):71-95.
>> Good review, including of cellular-level effects which are only sparsely covered here.
2006 (Aug 31). Gene-Cos N. Post-traumatic stress disorder: The management of PTSD in adults and children in primary and secondary care, BJPsych Bulletin, 30(9):357.
2006 (Aug 30). Memory formation by neuronal synchronization, Brain Research Reviews, 52(1):170–182.
>>Covers timing specificty in neural functions, with particular treatment of neuronal synchronization in different frequency domains. Also has highly informed speculation regarding synchronization between regions of the brain. With many variations, this general sort of approach is very commonplace is more current research.
2006 (Nov 28). Jin X and LV Wang. Thermoacoustic tomography with correction for acoustic speed variations, Physics in Medicine and Biology, 51:6437.
2006 (Dec). Bettsa B, K Binstedb and C Jorgensenc. Small-vocabulary speech recognition using surface electromyography, Interacting with Computers, 18(6):1242-1259.
>> Presents results of electromyographic (EMG) speech recognition on a small vocabulary of 15 English words, obtaining an overall average correct classification rate on the 15 words of 74%, after 150 repeats of each word to train the algorithm.
2006. Jou S-C et al. Towards continuous speech recognition using surface electromyography, Interspeech 2006.
>>"Previous research on electromyographic speech recognition was limited to isolated word recognition because it was very difficult to train phoneme-based acoustic models for the electromyographic speech recognizer. In this paper, we demonstrate how to train the phoneme-based acoustic mod- els with carefully designed electromyographic feature extraction methods."
2006. Kato M (ed). Electromagnetics in biology: Springer. QP82.2 .E43 E57
2006. Walliczek M et al. Sub-word unit based non-audible speech recognition using surface electromyography, Interspeech 2006.
>>Proposes the use of subword units for large vocablary speech recognition, which is then applied and prediction accuracy results presented.
2007 (Jan). Chou C-K. Thirty-five years in bioelectromagnetics research, Bioelectromagnetics, 28(1):3-15.
2007 (Mar). Basoglu M et al. Torture vs other cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment is the distinction real or apparent?, Archives of General Psychiatry, 4(3):277-285.
>> This paper uses a survey of a total of 279 survivors of torture from the 1990s conflict in the Balkans. It finds that physical torture did not significantly relate to posttraumatic stress disorder. Rather, the traumatic stress impact of torture (physical or nonphysical torture and ill treatment) seemed to be determined by perceived uncontrollability and distress associated with the stressors. Since ill treatment during captivity, such as psychological manipulations, humiliating treatment, and forced stress positions, does not seem to be substantially different from physical torture in terms of the severity of mental suffering they cause, these procedures do amount to torture, thereby lending support to their prohibition by international law.
2007 (Mar 27). Bashashati A et al. A survey of signal processing algorithms in brain-computer interfaces based on electrical brain signals, Journal of Neural Engineering, 4(2).
>> A survey of all BCI designs using electrical signal recordings (not reading via wave interferometry, I highlight) published prior to January 2006. The subject at hand is the use of non-muscular channels to send commands to the real world. Detailed results from this survey are presented and discussed. The following key research questions are addressed: (1) what are the key signal processing components of a BCI, (2) what signal processing algorithms have been used in BCIs and (3) which signal processing techniques have received more attention? (The question of subversions for invasive monitoring, manipulations, etc., however, is not explored).
2007 (Apr 15-20). Hueber T et al. Eigentongue Feature Extraction for an Ultrasound-Based Silent Speech Interface, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, 2007.
>>Compares several methods to using ultrasound imaging for a 'silent speech interface': tongue contour, tongue projections into Eigenspaces, and curvature-based lip profile features.
2007 (May 22). Moore RC et al. ELF waves generated by modulated HF heating of the auroral electrojet and observed at a ground distance of 4400 km, Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 112(A5)
2007 (May). Chan ED. The FDA and the future of the brain-computer interface: Adapting FDA device law to the challenges of human-machine enhancement, John Marshall Journal of Computer & Information Law, 25(1):117-164.
>> Explores new safety risks and legal and ethical implications of neuroelectronic devices under U.S. Food & Drug Administration law, with a focus on the lack of lifetime consideration in the approval process and the lack of moral, ethical and social considerations in the "procedural" regulatory regime. Suggests that an appropriate regulatory environment can prevent backlash that could lead to a moratorium on further development, and proposes a new designation for neuroelectronic devices.
2007 (Jun 1). Ekstrom A et al. Contrasting roles of neural firing rate and local field potentials in human memory, Hippocampus, 17(8):606-617.
>>Used implanted electrodes during a virtual tax-drive task that included memory retrieval, however broadbank responses did not correlate with item-specific neural responses. Other neuronal group specificy and more generalized observations of noted differences were also made.
2007 (Jun). Lin JC and Z Wang. Hearing of microwave pulses by humans and animals: Effects, mechanism, and thresholds, Health Physics, 92(6):621-8.
>> Evaluates thresholds of which microwave radiation frequencies (via pulse modulations of them) can beam voices into human and animal heads from a distance. It identifies the mechanism via which this effect operates. Namely, the microwave auditory phenomenon does not involve direct interaction with the auditory nerves or neurons, but rather, the microwave pulse, upon absorption by soft tissues in the head, launches a thermoelastic wave of acoustic pressure that travels by bone conduction to the inner ear. There, it activates the cochlear receptors via the same process involved for normal hearing.
2007 (Jun). Silny J. Demodulation in tissue, the relevant parameters and the implications for limiting exposure, Health Physics, 92(8):604-608.
>>Covers a number of bioeffects of microwaves, including microwave hearing.
2007 (Jul). Baslow MH et al. Dynamic relationship between neurostimulation and N-acetylaspartate metabolism in the human visual cortex, Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, 32(3):235–245.
>>Detects chnages in the concentrations of N-acetyl-l-aspartic acid in the visual cortex decline by 13% after 10 minutes of visual stimulation, and trends towards baseline in some minutes after. This is a specific example of a remotely applicable stimulus which has a measurable effect on neuron membrane chemistry (on time scales that are eons compared to the milliseconds or less used in measuring neuronal activity).
2007 (Aug). Knake S et al. Specific increase of human entorhinal population synaptic and neuronal activity during retrieval, Neuroimage, 37(2):618-622.
>>The method was able to identify certain differences in semantic and episodic retrieval, but some subcategory differences were not identifiable. Data suggests the entorhinal cortex is specifically engaged during a variety of memory retrieval activities.
2007 (Sep). Bleszynski E et al. Material identification algorithm: Monopole Research.
>>Radar for irregular scenes, uses fast Fourier transforms and other techniques; "the code implements regularization methods for handling of subwavelength electromagnetic radiation problems in the presence of materials".
2007 (Oct). Alhola P and P Polo-Kantola. Sleep deprivation: Impact on cognitive performance, Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 3(5):553-567.
>> Discusses both partial and total sleep deprivation (SD). Both total and partial SD induce adverse changes in cognitive performance. First and foremost, total SD impairs attention and working memory, but it also affects other functions, such as long-term memory and decision-making. Partial SD is found to influence attention, especially vigilance. Studies on its effects on more demanding cognitive functions are lacking. Coping with SD depends on several factors, especially aging and gender. Also interindividual differences in responses are substantial. The article points to a need for better understanding of recovery from sleep deprivation.
>> (The main relevance I see of sleep deprivation is susceptibility to memories being planted, having difficulties staying on top of things when they are trying to extract false confessions, and reduced ability to pick up on manipulations which might be used to progressively alter memories, perspectives, values, opinion, desires, etc. This is obviously the case, but that is not a scientific statement.)
2007 (Oct 19-21). Costin M et al. Improving noninvasive monitoring in medical care, IEEE International Conference on Computational Cybernetics, 2007.
2007 (Oct). Polich J. Updating P300: An integrative theory of P3a and P3b, Clinical Neurophysiology, 118(10):2128-2148.
>> The P300 an event-related potential (ERP) component elicited in the process of decision making (it is a wave, the magnitude and frequency of which can be evaluated remotely). The P300 potential is divided into P3a and P3b subcomponents, which are then localized within the brain. P3a originates from stimulus-driven frontal attention mechanisms during task processing, whereas P3b originates from temporal-parietal activity associated with attention and appears related to subsequent memory processing. [I assume that eliciting mimicry of these or related potentials is involved in some of the more invasive aspects of remote neural monitoring.]
2007 (Dec). Gapeev AB et al. Thermoelastic excitation of acoustic waves in biological models exposed to high-peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency, Biophysics, 52:611.
2007. Barnes F and B Greenbaum. Handbook of biological effects of electromagnetic fields, 3rd: CRC Press, 960p. QP82.2 .E43 C73
2008 (Mar 31-Apr 4). Querying the user properly for high-performance brain-machine interfaces: Recursive estimation, control, and feedback information-theoretic perspectives, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, 2008.
>>Uses EMG to spell words from a menu of characters.
2008 (Mar). Schlaghecken F et al. No difference between conscious and nonconscious visuomotor control: Evidence from perceptual learning in the masked prime task, Consciousness and Cognition, 17(1):84-93.
>>Subjects are taught to become consciously aware of primes which are below perception levels. This is used to study whether the process of conscious decision to take an action is the same as when the same action is taken subconsciously. A control experiment shows differences between elicited actions from effectively masked priming and ineffective masking.
2008 (Apr). Brodsky W et al. The mental representation of music notation: Notational audiation, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 34(2):427-445.
>>Takes EMG measures while people subvocally read music in thir head from musical notation. Confirms that subvoval activity measurable by EMG is active while reading music. Therefore, measuring subvocal activity by EMG is possible.
2008 (May 19-21). Kubacki R. Biological interaction of pulse-modulated electromagnetic fields and protection of humans from exposure to fields emitted from radars, 17th International Conference on Microwaves, Radar and Wireless Communications.
>>Among other things, observes that health and safety recommendations relating to microwave radiation are primarily concerned with total energy amounts of exposure, whereas with pulse modulations there can be major effects well under thresholds designed to reduce cancer risk associated with total radiative power exposure.
2008 (May 27-30). Mendes JAG, RR Robson, S Labidi and AK Barros. Subvocal speech recognition based on EMG signal using independent component analysis and neural network MLP, CISP '08 Congress on Image and Signal Processing.
>>Proposes a subvocal speech recognition system using EMG signal, obtaining a 94 percent accuracy rate on vowel phonemes.
2008 (May). McKinley R. Service to his fellow men, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 123(5).
>>An article on the 50 years Henning Von Gierke spent at the Air Force Research Laboratory. Bone conduction and microwave hearing are specified among his major contributions.
2008 (May). Soon CS et al. Unconscious determinants of free decisions in the human brain, Nature Neuroscience, 11(5):543-545.
>> Shows that the outcome of a (simple) decision is encoded into brain activity up to 10 seconds before it enters awareness, and that this can be monitored externally.
2008 (Jun 11-13). Omar C, M Johnson, T Bretl and T Coleman. Policies for neural prosthetic control: Initial experiments with a text interface, American Control Conference.
>>Among other things, using EMG to measure subvocal speech, words are spelled using a menu of characters.
2008 (Jul). Jin X et al. Effects of acoustic heterogeneities on transcranial brain imaging with microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography, Medical Physics, 35:3205.
>> Evaluates the propagation of thermoacousticwaves through the skull and wave reflection and refraction at the skull surfaces. Finds that neural imaging quality is higher when the target region is closer to the centre of the brain.
2008 (Aug 12). Swicord M and Q Balzano. Has electromagnetic energy in the band 0.1–100 GHz useful medical applications? A review of mechanisms and biological database offers dim prospects, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 36(4):1638-1649.
2008 (Nov). Baltag O. Microwaves Doppler transducer for noninvasive monitoring of the cardiorespiratory activity, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 44(11):4484-4487.
2008 (Dec 8-12). Hueber T et al. Acquisition of Ultrasound, Video and Acoustic Speech Data for a Silent-Speech Interface Application, 8th International Seminar on Speech Production.
>>Addresses use of ultrasound and optical imaging of the vocal tract for speech recognition (as a part of a silent speech interface), including speech libraries built for such purposes.
2008. Hueber T et al. Phone Recognition from Ultrasound and Optical Video Sequences for a Silent Speech Interface, Interspeech 2008.
2009 (Jan 25-29). Li W et al. Integrated wireless neurostimulator, IEEE 22nd International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, 2009.
>>Presents a system which remotely stimulates neural activtiy
2009 (Feb). Ibey BL et al. Plasma membrane permeabilization by 60- and 600-ns electric pulses is determined by the absorbed dose, Bioelectromagnetics, 30(2):92-99.
2009 (Apr 4). Vaucelle C et al. Cost-effective wearable sensor to detect EMF, CHI '09 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 4309-4314.
>> This does read somewhat like a marketing document. But what is relevant is that the "Electromagnetic Field Detector Bracelet" is able to read radiation patterns in a way that they explore for potential uses in identifying the location of anything with a known electromagnetic field.
>> (This sort of thing may be related to opinions that "unique brain frequencies" are the means via which tracking is done. However, on a few occasions when I've managed to be clueless, lost enough, or otherwise out of control of my decisions and where I was going to go next for them to already be waiting for me, etc., it was not until I went online or was otherwise identified via non-IT means, that the electronic harassment, etc., continued. However, this article demonstrates the theoretical ability to do such a thing, if indeed there is such a thing as a "unique brain frequency" for each individual. Practically speaking, however, even if that were possible, it would take quite a long time to do so after your location is lost, because they would have to basically metre by metre go through huge amounts of information, and even then would only have predictive guesses until they were to probe in ways liable to confirm reactivity they has associated to you.)
2009 (Apr 2). Harrison SA and F Tong. Decoding reveals the contents of visual working memory in early visual areas, Nature, 458:632-635.
>> Was able to predict with 80% accuracy which of two orientations of a grating was held in memory on the basis of activity patterns in the visual cortex, even in the absence of a stimulus. In other words, it may be possible to access some information about things that have been stored in your brain without even thinking about them.
>> (However, in my experience, to the extent this may be possible, there are routinely efforts to manipulate whatever they know about you to misrepresent the truth and convince you of something else. Also, my understanding is that most of what they are up to is in fact based mostly on “real world” (non-brain monitoring) collections of information, for the purpose of convincing you that they can read everything from your mind, serving the dual purposes of a) you being consigned to just letting them invade your mind in whatever way they want because you think there’s nothing you can do to stop it, and b) massive vulnerability to falsely planted memories if you believe that they “know” something which is in fact bullshit.)
2009 (Jun 5). Yitzhak NM. Generalized model of the microwave auditory effect, Physics in Medicine and Biology, 54:4037.
2009 (Jun 7). Delgado JMR. Biological effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields, Journal of Bioelectricity, 4(1):75-92.
2009 (Aug). Seaman RL. Review of literature on high power microwave pulse biological effects: General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems.
2009 (Oct). Wagner T et al. Biophysical foundations underlying TMS: Setting the stage for an effective use of neurostimulation in the cognitive neurosciences, Cortex, 45(9):1025-1034.
>>"Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) induces electrical currents in the brain to stimulate neural tissue. This article reviews our present understanding of TMS methodology, focusing on its biophy sical foundations..."
2009 (Oct 30). Hambling D. Techwatch-Forecasting Pain, Popular Mechanics, 183(12):32.
>>On some use of electromagnetic weapons which cause pain, e.g. by heating or affecting muscle contractions by blocking neurotransmission.
2009 (Nov 6-9). Gong W et al. Amplitude characteristics of microwave induced thermoacoustic signals, ICMTCE. International Conference on Date of ConferenceMicrowave Technology and Computational Electromagnetics.
2009 (Nov 30). Vernon D et al. Alpha neurofeedback training for performance enhancement: Reviewing the methodology, Journal of Neurotherapy, 13(4):214-227.
>>Outlines methodlogical considerations in development of an alpha feedback neural stimulation training. Specifically: the NFT training schedule; the variety, basis, and setting of reward thresholds; the nature and modality of the feedback signal provided; unidirectional as compared to bidirectional NFT; the establishment of a target frequency range for alpha; whether NFT should be conducted with eyes open or closed; and the identification of a clear index of learning.
>>It mentions an interest in the potential, as opposed to results, indicating the state of this technology in the available scientific literature in 2009.
2009 (Dec 7-10). Gong W et al. Estimation of threshold noise suppression algorithm in microwave induced thermoacoustic tomography, APMC 2009. Microwave Conference, Asia Pacific.
>>This is probably of more medical than security relevance; an image reconstruction method after noise suppression (eliminating theoretically unrelated waves) is presented for thermoacoustic tomography.
2009. D’Zmura M, S Deng, T Lappas, S Thorpe and R Srinivasan. Toward EEG Sensing of Imagined Speech, International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: New Trends, 40-48.
>>While EMG has long been known to be usable for subvocal speech, this study explores use of EEG, in particular identifying parts of the alpha, beta and theta bands that have related information from different subvocal syllables.
2009. Toth AR et al. Synthesizing speech from electromyography using voice transformation techniques, Interspeech 2009.
>>Works on methods to have higher accuracy in speech predictions used from mapping this activity related to muscle activiation in subvocal speech.
2009. Wand M and T Schultz. Speaker-adaptive speech recognition based on surface electromyography, International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies, 271-285.
>>Compares EMG and acoustic data for speech recognition.
2010 (Jan). Fernandino L and M Iacoboni. Are cortical motor maps based on body parts or coordinated actions? Implications for embodied semantics, Brain and Language, 112(1):44–53.
>>Action-related language comprehension is shown to activate parts of cortical motor areas associated movement of the same body parts.
2010 (Mar 30). Kahnt T et al. The neural code of reward anticipation in human orbitofrontal cortex, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(13):6010-6015.
>> This paper shows that fMRI imaging can be used to establish multivariate pattern classification can be used to decode the reward values associated with sensory stimulus from patterns in the orbitofrontal cortex. It also shows that the reward coding does not depend on whether the reward is actually received [this would be "useful" in figures out which carrots to dangle in front of you].
2010 (Apr 12-16). Radiofrequency exposure: A review of non cancer related in vivo and in vitro studies, 2010 Asia-Pacific Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility.
"The main topics briefly described are: nervous and neuroendocrine systems, auditory system, immune system, cardiovascular effects, fertility, development, and behavior."
2010 (Apr). Denby B et al. Silent speech interfaces, Speech Communication, 52(4):270–287.
>>Seems to be a decent outline of EMG technologies itself, as well as interconnected issues. " The article first outlines the emergence of the silent speech interface from the fields of speech production, automatic speech processing, speech pathology research, and telecommunications privacy issues, and then follows with a presentation of demonstrator systems based on seven different types of technologies..."
2010 (Apr). Huebera T et al. Development of a silent speech interface driven by ultrasound and optical images of the tongue and lips, Speech Communication, 52(4):288–300.
>>Uses ultrasound and optical images (a CCD camera) for a silent spech interface. "The system is built around an audio–visual dictionary which associates visual to acoustic observations for each phonetic class. Visual features are extracted from ultrasound images of the tongue and from video images of the lips using..."
>>One hour of speech was used as the data input.
2010 (Apr). Jorgensen C and S Dusan. Speech interfaces based upon surface electromyography, Speech Communication, 52(4):354-366.
>> Discusses use of surface electromyography (EMG) to recognize and synthesize speech, with attention to high noise situations (e.g., firefighters in a fire) which interfere with command recognition.
2010 (Apr). Schultz T and M Wand. Modeling coarticulation in EMG-based continuous speech recognition, Speech Communication, 52(4):341–353.
>>"Electromyographic signals captured at the facial muscles record the activity of the human articulatory apparatus and thus allow to trace back a speech signal even if it is spoken silently. ... allows to silently transmit [presumed] confidential information." The method has a 10% error rate on a vocabulary of 101 words. Life would be much easier if we only needed 101 words, wouldn't it?. How about start with "roll over"?
2010 (Jul 11-16). Terry PC . Music applications for athletes, USQ ePrints.
>>First, individualized links between neural activity and best shots (a shooting sport) was estimated, and then neurofeedback training was used to promote this activity. Next, use of music associated with winning was used to condition a neurofeedback response. Presents evidence of integrated multimedia approaches along these lines, to serve as a guide for sports psychology practitioners.
2010 (Aug 2010). Griffiths TL et al. Probabilistic models of cognition: exploring representations and inductive biases, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14(8):357-364.
>>"Cognitive science aims to reverse-engineer the mind..."
>>Once you're talking about probabilities, you're talking about variables which may be readily available for machine learning under machine trained optimization routines. However, I think his coverage is quite different from the sort of analysis that would come from, say, a single-channel event related potential spike train data.
2010 (Aug 31). Lopez-Larraz E et al. Syllable-based speech recognition using EMG, Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE.
>> Presents a silent-speech interface based on electromyographic (EMG) signals recorded in the facial muscles based on the recognition of syllables instead of phonemes or words. This system transforms the EMG signals into robust-in-time feature vectors and used them to train a boosting classifier (mean classification rate of 70% among 30 syllables).
2010 (Sep 20). Norman KA. How hippocampus and cortex contribute to recognition memory: Revisiting the complementary learning systems model, Hippocampus, 20(11):1217-1227.
>>Outlines the focus on hippocampus for discriminating between studied items and related lures. Patterns become less identifable using this method as items become more similar, and the hippocampus model starts to produce similar results to a cortical model for these comparisons.
2010 (Oct 22). Jameson C. The “short step” from love to hypnosis: A reconsideration of the Stockholm Syndrome, Journal for Cultural Research, 14(4): 337-355.
>>Discusses key work on the development of the Stockholm syndrome as a psychological explanation for the development of a bond between hostage-taker and hostage in hijack and siege situations. This is included for its being analogous to potential situations between handlers (intelligence) and their proxies, or various other situations involving mind influencing technologies where the perpetrator aims to build positive sentiment on the part of the victim towards their abuser (e.g., wannabe puppet master).
2010 (Dec 2). Chang D. Surface electromyography based speech recognition system and development toolkit, PhD thesis, U Illinois.
>>Presents experimental and data processing approaches used which obtained accuracy in the 50s to 70s% range for isolated single word recognition.
2010. Janke M et al. Impact of lack of acoustic feedback in EMG-based silent speech recognition, Interspeech 2010.
>>Compares EMG signals from audible, whispered, and silent speaking modes. Shows that "the lack of acoustic feedback in silent speech implies an increased focus on somatosensoric feedback", which they take advantage of to increase recognition rates in subvocalization by around 10%.
2010. Usikalu MR et al. Low level microwave exposure decreases the number of male germ cells and affect vital organs of Sprague Dawley rats, American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1(3):410-420.
2011 (Jan 31). Colone F et al. Ambiguity function analysis of wireless LAN transmissions for passive radar, IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 47(1):240-264.
>> The general principle of being able to use WIFI signals as a radar network for detecting personnel targets is demonstrated. (I haven’t accessed the entire article, so I don’t know the technical details enough to understand potential broader applications, namely with respect to remote neural monitoring. I do not suggest that WIFI routers themselves are being used for remote neural monitoring. However, the general principle is established. Which is not the same as saying that these are the relevant frequencies and amplitudes being used as the source of radiation from which scattered waves can be "collected" for the purpose of reconstruction according to established evoked potentials of the victim.)
2011 (Mar 23-24). Sindura G et al. Control of electromagnetic waves through electromagnetic shielding, 2011 International Conference on Emerging Trends in Electrical and Computer Technology (ICETECT).
>>Presents a MATLAB modelling approach for propagation of electromagnetic waves around a shielded enclosure.
2011 (Mar 24). Hu C et al. A 90 nm-CMOS, 500 Mbps, 3-5 GHz fully-integrated IR-UWB transceiver with multipath equalization using pulse injection-locking for receiver phase synchronization, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 46(5):1076-1088.
>> Demonstrates the potential of a low-error very high-speed very miniature EM wave transceiver (can both receive and transmit EM waves).
>> (I do not propose that this is the specific technology at play in the receiving side of remote neural monitoring. However, it demonstrates the ability of a precise receiver with very high-speed upload in a space of 2 square mm and extremely low energy requirement. Reading from a specific frequency, radiation could be passed through individuals and modulations resulting from activities in the brain could be read from a signal, after having already established known patterns of the P300 (and other) potentials of a specific individual in a fairly localized area. For example, radiate broadly at 3Ghz and spread around transceivers which can forward data to be rebroadcasted to something more powerful, for example to send to a satellite. A bit of thought about the physics would be needed to consider the specific means of reading the scattered waves, but it suffices to say that a significant number of transceivers could be located in a localized area with low detection risk, implying the ability to combine multiple data sources for the purpose of reconstructing the actual interference patterns and hence the evoked potentials in the brain in response to various stimuli, etc.)
2011 (Mar 30). Bollimunta A et al. Neuronal mechanisms and attentional modulation of corticothalamic alpha oscillations, The Journal of Neuroscience, 31(13):4935-4943.
>> Discusses previous evidence that static images can be reconstructed from measuring brain activity using fMRI. Presents a coding model to improve the ability to reconstruct “natural movies”. The study achieves “remarkable reconstructions of natural movies, capturing the spatio-temporal structure of the viewed movie” (but the reconstruction is not of sufficient quality for them to want to make it possible to view these reconstructions as a part of the presentation).
2011 (Apr). De Santis V et al. Safety assessment of ultra-wideband antennas for microwave breast imaging, Bioelectromagnetics, 33(3):215-225.
>>As a somewhat peripheral issue, mentions avoidance of microwave hearing in instrument design as something to ensure.
2011 (Jun 22-24). Panin C. Subvocalization: Toward hearing the inner thoughts of developers, IEEE 19th International Conference on Program Comprehension (ICPC).
>>Tries to get into the heads of software developers. "When people perform complex tasks, sub-vocal utterances (electrical signals sent to the tongue, lips, or vocal cords) can be detected. This phenomenon has long intrigued researchers...".
2011 (Sep 22). Wunderlich K et al. Hedging your bets by learning reward correlations in the human brain, Neuron, 71(6):1141-1152.
>>Presumably this finding can also be read from the perspective of conditioning where this sort of relationship, or 'ability', which can easily be understood as having evolutionary benefit but which may pose security risks from the perspective of brainwashing potential in an era with broad scope of possibility in mind influencing technologies, mind hacking, etc. It could also be read separately as a matter of general interest without too much concern for the specific scientificity of the work.
2011 (Aug 30-Sep 3). Meltzner GS et al. Signal acquisition and processing techniques for sEMG based silent speech recognition, 2011 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.
>>Uses sEMG to measure and interpret muscle activity of the facial and neck musculature involved in speech production. Discusses methodological strategies.
2011 (Oct). Nishimoto S et al. Reconstructing visual experiences from brain activity evoked by natural movies, Current Biology, 21(19):1641-1646.
>> Reconstructing static images by observation of brain activity having already been developed, this study devises an encoding model that enables the researchers to capture the spatio-temporal structure of the viewed “natural movie” (a series of nature clips). They did this by training the model on a series of non-linear moving units to establish BOLD responses, and then taking the readings from a “natural movie” to evaluate how well the encoding mechanism worked. The method uses fMRI imaging and not any sort of wave analysis or intermerometry.
2011 (Oct 12-14). Colone F et al. Passive bistatic radar based on mixed DSSS and OFDM WiFI transmissions, 2011 European Radar Conference (EuRAD), 154-157.
>> Analyzes the practical feasibility of a mixed WiFi transmissions based passive bistatic radar (PBR), and demonstrates its potential.
2011. Poulos M. Towards a semantic calibration of lexical word via EEG, Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations, 250-258.
>>Compares mechanistic encoding of language and EEG.
2012 (Jan 23). Clemens M et al. Numerical dosimetry schemes for the simulation of human exposure to pulsed high-power electromagnetic-field sources, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 48(2):807-810.
>>"...takes into account the widespread spectral excitation range of pulse sources with the frequency dependency of dispersive biological tissue properties and of corresponding regulatory restrictions. ..."
2012 (Jan 31). Pasley BN et al. Reconstructing speech from human auditory cortex, PLOS Biology, 10(1).
>> A linear model is found to be successful in accurately reconstructing syllable rate, but non-linear models were needed to reconstruct more detailed information like syllable onsets and offsets, etc. The highest ability to correctly decode these brain signals was found within the range of spectro-temporal fluctuations that have been found to be critical for speech intelligibility. The decoded speech representations allowed readout and identification of individual words directly from brain activity during single trial sound presentations.
2012 (Feb 1). Brooks SJ et al. Exposure to subliminal arousing stimuli induces robust activation in the amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate, insular cortex and primary visual cortex: A systematic meta-analysis of fMRI studies, NeuroImage, 59(3):2962-2973.
2012 (May). Groppa et al. A practical guide to diagnostic transcranial magnetic stimulation: Report of an IFCN committee, Clinical Neurophysiology.
2012 (Aug 16). Oxborrow et al. Room-temperature solid-state maser, Nature, 488:353-356.
2012 (Sep 2012). Obeid D et al. Cardiopulmonary activity monitoring with contactless microwave sensor, Mediterranean Microwave Symposium 2012, Istanbul, Turkey, pp.1-4.
2012 (Oct 12). Liu Z et al. Transcranial thermoacoustic tomography: A comparison of two imaging algorithms, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 32(2):289-294.
>>Researches obstacles to imaging (by thermoacoustic tomography) through the cranium.
2012 (Oct). Nan W et al. Individual alpha neurofeedback training effect on short term memory, International Journal of Psychophysiology, 86(1):83–87.
>>Use of neurofeedback training to reward the brain in being trained to have increased relative amplitude in the alpha band, and effects of this on short term memory were then found to be more specifically on the upper alpha band. "Effective strategies for individual alpha training varied among individuals."
2012 (Nov 7). Downham RD et al. Alpha peak training in sensory motor areas increases efficiency of executive attention networks, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.
>>Mentions that neurofeedback training requires concentration on the feedback signal (which may be relevant to vulnerabilities to 'hypnotic' effects of various sorts or other inducements to be attentive to one or more signals for 'training' or brain whipping purposes.)
>>The NTF training rewarded a 2-Hz band at each individual's peak alpha frequency.
2012. Hueber T et al. Continuous articulatory-to-acoustic mapping using phone-based trajectory HMM for a silent speech interface,
>>Presents methods to process ultrasound and video images of the vocal tract into an audible speech signal for a silent speech interface.
2012. Lin JC. Electromagnetic fields in biological systems: CRC Press. QP82.2 .E43 .E453
2012. Robinson DT et al. Toward an unobtrusive measure of emotion during interaction: Thermal imaging techniques in W Kalkhoff, SR Thye and EJ Lawler (eds) "Biosociology and Neurosociology (Advances in Group Processes, Volume 29)", pp. 225-266. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
>> Uses thermal imaging of the face to extract emotional states.
2013 (Jan 30). Laskaris NA et al. Improved detection of amnestic MCI by means of discriminative vector quantization of single-trial cognitive ERP responses, Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 212(2):344–354.
>>Uses "a small-sized codebook of brain waves that is semantically organized" to produce a vector scheme (math stuff) by which auditory responses can be used as an indication of mild cognitive impairment. (It's not clear to me what defines them as "cognitively impaired" - maybe the person has differing function or just isn't interested in the thing ... but anyways, they're the experts.)
2013 (Mar 13). Changes L et al. Causal frequency-specific contributions of frontal spatiotemporal patterns induced by non-invasive neurostimulation to human visual performance, Journal of Neuroscience, 33(11):5000-5005.
>>Provides "causal evidence that distinct visual behavioral outcomes could be modulated by frequency-specific activity emerging from a single cortical region." ("Frequencies" here refers to neural oscillations, and not frequencies of photons/microwaves or pulses thereof.) Effects include changes to perceptual sensitivity. Burst (pulse) frequency was found to be the driving factor of certain behavioural modifications.
2013 (Apr 25). Bayesian computation emerges in generic cortical microcircuits through spike-timing-dependent plasticity, PLOS Computational Biology, 9(4):e1003037.
>>A theoretical work aiming to build upon preceding work, including that which finds "soft winner-take-all (WTA) circuits, where pyramidal neurons inhibit each other via interneurons".
2013 (Apr 30). Bestmann S and E Feredoes. Combined neurostimulation and neuroimaging in cognitive neuroscience: past, present, and future, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1296:11–30 .
>>"Modern neurostimulation approaches in humans provide controlled inputs into the operations of cortical regions, with highly specific behavioral consequences. This enables causal structure–function inferences, and in combination with neuroimaging...". The article is rather more concerned with structure-function relations than demonstrating plausibility of technologies which are necessarily in use in order to be able to perform the study.
>>This demonstration can be considered as in-principle evidence of acceptance of capacities in bidirectional measurement of neural activiy and stimulation of neural activity. The scientific journal article does not demonstrate the ability to do so from a distance.
2013 (May). Apollonio F et al. Feasibility for microwaves energy to affect biological systems via nonthermal mechanisms: A systematic approach, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 61(5):2031-2045.
2013 (Jun). Miyakoshi J. Cellular and molecular responses to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields, Proceedings of the IEEE, 101(6):1494-1502
>>Due to possible future wireless power transmission mechanisms, reviews cellular and molecular responses. "Nongenotoxic effects refer to changes in cellular functions, including cell proliferation, signal transduction..." - probably the effects relating signal transduction are the only ones related to the topic at hand.
2013 (Oct). Xiangyu et al. Photoacoustic and thermoacoustic imaging application in joint imaging, IEEE International Conference on Medical Imaging Physics and Engineering (ICMIPE).
>>>Uses a delay-and-sum algorithm was used to reconstruct the two-dimensional (2D) photoacoustic and thermoacoustic images. I.e., comparing and integrating microwave and laser imaging results.
2013 (Dec). Moseley P et al. Auditory verbal hallucinations as atypical inner speech monitoring, and the potential of neurostimulation as a treatment option, Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 37(10-2):2794–2805.
>> Among other findings, the must trust-inducing "Atypical self-monitoring may lead to the experience of inner speech as external."
>>I'm not sure what's more interesting. The idea that simply not knowing that there is an internal voice could lead to reports of symptoms that lead to you being diagnosed as crazy. Or the fact that the diagnostic method has no space for the possibility of microwave hearing as among the potential cause of sound perception. A small reduction in the frequency of hallucination events occurred using the method, so more study will be needed to obtain more volumes of detailed brain scanning data on people who report auditory perceptions other than those with an identified source. Speculates with regard to brain regions involved in modulation of monitoring one's inner speech (huge improvement on "Covert speech" terminology of the 1960s!) as being a possible explanation for the results.
2013. Chekinov SC and SA Bogdanov. The nature and content of a new-generation war, Military Thought: A Russian Journal of Military Theory and Strategy, 4:12-23.
>> Discusses how warfare has changed (at least for major powers), especially that remote engagement is now basically the name of the game and adversary targets can now be attacked in any part of the enemy territory. Among other things, refers to the relevance of intelligence and electronic warfare technologies, automated control systems and communications facilities, and how these are likely to affect deployment options and conduct of military operations.
>> “…employment of military space-based system, electronic warfare forces and weapons, electromagnetic, information infrasound, and psychotronic effects, corrosive chemical and biological formulations in new-generation wars will erode, to the greatest extent possible, the capabilities of the adversary’s troops and civilian population to resist.”
>> Suggests that prior effort will be made to co-opt “mass media and religious organizations, cultural institutions, nongovernmental organizations, public movements financed from abroad, and scholars engaged in research on foreign grants. All these institutions and individuals may be involved in a distributed attack and strike damaging point blows at the country’s social system with the purported aims of promoting democracy and respect for human rights.” Read between the lines, and he is suggesting that the US is (was) preparing for massive aggressive deployment of new electronic weapons following a campaign of psychological warfare to elicit prior acceptance of what will come. Also, that Russia is behind.
2013. Wand M et al. Array-based electromyographic silent speech interface, Proceedings of the International Conference on Bio-inspired Systems and Signal Processing, 89-96.
>Captures the electric potentials of the human articulatory muscles, obtaining as low as 10% error on a vocabulary of 108 words.
2013 (May). Horikawa T et al. Neural decoding of visual imagery during sleep, Science, 340(6132):639-42.
>> Links human functional magnetic resonance imaging patterns and verbal reports with the assistance of lexical and image database. Machine learning models then predict the contents of visual imagery. Demonstrates that specific visual experience during sleep is represented by brain activity patterns shared by stimulus perception, providing a means to uncover subjective contents of dreaming using objective neural measurement.
2013 (Jun 20). Wardle MC et al. The caudate signals bad reputation during trust decisions, PLOS One.
>> Using MRI imaging, shows that trust is associated with specific neural activity. Which means it can presumably be associated specific evoked potentials, and therefore be mimicked.
>> Since the findings of the paper most strongly indicate the strongest response to indifferent or unfair partners, I see two main likely applications. One, to elicit this negative association with those who are to be the target of slander, racist sentiment, or other (presumably there is more specificity than provided for in this study), and two, to repress this association when aiming to promote trust in a situation where it is clearly not warranted (also, presumably, it is possible to remotely influence the neural activities associated with such a trusting sentiment more explicitly, as opposed to just repressing the negative association that would be warranted).
>> In case it is not clear, while it is important to respect one's inherited abilities to evaluate trust, at the same time one must be on guard to be able to apply logic and good sense in evaluating the potential manipulations of trust, negative sentiment, etc., which are liable to lead one away from those who SHOULD be trusted and towards those whose main interest is to manipulate or even come to dominate you.
2013 (Jun). Sanei S. Adaptive processing of brain signals: Wiley.
>> Discusses and evaluates literature on different neuroimaging systems as applied to a diversity of brain signals. Chapter 9, "Detection and tracking of event-related potentials" may be of particular interest, in that it identifies the following five types of event-related potentials: (i) beta (ß) and mu (µ) rhythms, (ii) P300 EP, (iii) visual N100 and P200, (iv) steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP), and (v) slow cortical potentials (SCP).
2013 (Jun). Zoladz P. Current status on behavioral and biological markers of PTSD: A search for clarity in a conflicting literature, Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 37(5):860–895.
2013 (Jul 31). Mizuno K et al. Early visual processing is affected by clinical subtype in patients with unilateral spatial neglect: A magnetoencephalography study, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.
>> Demonstrates the ability to achieve pattern reversal in the field of vision. The effects are not complete, but presumably can be complemented by additional influences on neural processes.
>> I include this reference because it address pattern reversal, and wonder if it might have some relation to pattern reversals that I experienced in motor control shortly after the time of switching one conditioned stimulus related to sexual interest to another that is generally (universally?) considered to be highly perverse (one of which instances nearly led to me walking into a transport truck driving at 100 km an hour, and for some period of time had great difficulty with mixing up my left and right movements). I'm loosely aware of connections between visually evoked potentials and early stages of neural activity leading towards motor activities, but this certainly would not constitute EVIDENCE of this ability within the civilian sector peer-review literature.
2013 (Aug). Mohammed BJ et al. Microwave system for head imaging, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 63(1):117-123.
>> Beams microwaves in the 1-4 GHz range and collects the dispersive properties to construct activity in the brain. 2013 (Oct 13). Kelly JP et al. "Waveform variance and latency jitter of the visual evoked potential in childhood", Documenta Ophthalmologica, 128(1):1-12, doi:10.1007/s10633-013-9415-9. Uses a contrast reversing checkerboard to evaluate visually evoked potentials in children and examined the effects of latency jitter, noise, and waveform consistency on the averaging of the VEP across childhood age.
>> I include this reference in part because it seems like a direction of research that could be conducive to maximizing attentiveness of children during advertising geared to children, which I think most people would find at least somewhat troubling. Presumably similar effects might be established for adults. Also, if it can be done via direct visual stimulation, presumably such effects of attentiveness (or lack thereof) can be mimicked via remote electromagnetic means.
2013 (Oct). Mendoza LE et al. Speech subvocal signal processing using packet wavelet and neuronal network (Procesamiento de señales provenientes del habla subvocal usando wavelet packet y redes neuronales), Tecno Logicas, Ed Esp (Oct 2013):655-667.
>> Packet wavelet- and neuronal network-based processing was applied to 50 Khz frequency of EMG readings and obtained 75% accuracy with the experimental data.
2013 (Oct 21). Marblestone AH et al. Physical principles for scalable neural recording, Frontiers in computational neuroscience, 7:137.
>> Provides an excellent summary of neural monitoring mechanisms presently available in the civilian sector. More generally, it discusses difficulties in neuron-level monitoring at a high level of time sampling. This implies that understanding of network effects is fairly rudimentary (although non-civilian research is likely to be more advanced in at least some applications). This would suggest that monitoring and remote influencing technologies are limited to working with average action potentials with limited knowledge of interactions - never mind that pulse modulations from a distance do not have the location specificity to entrain such networks in an advanced manner, this paper suggests that the modelling of neural processes is not, and with present methods can not (I emphasize a second time this refers to civilian sector research), be advanced enough to lead to be able to line up highly orchestrated manipulations of neural oscillations in a manner to influence thought in an advanced manner that cannot be overcome largely as a manner of simple awareness.
>> However, in my experience it seems rather obvious that an awareness of timing a stimuli to prime an oscillatory activity for ease of manipulation and external entrainment or influence is in practice. According to this paper, if my claim is accurate, then this would almost certainy be the result of extensive trial and error rather than understanding of underlying processes.
>> (The previous to publication version available at http://arxiv.org/abs/1306.5709 has much better graphics of the concepts being discussed.)
2014 (Jan). Dekker MKJ et al. The time-course of alpha neurofeedback training effects in healthy participants, Biological Psychology, 95:70–73.
>>8-12 Hz (alpha band) activity increased during neurofeedback training. This effect became reduced beyond some point in a sequence of sessions, in particular in the 10-12 Hz band, which also had reduced total power in the second part of each session, suggesting maybe getting tired or not being able to sustain attention.
2014 (Jan). Reiner M et al. Better than sleep: Theta neurofeedback training accelerates memory consolidation, Biological Psychology, 95:45–53.
>>Studies theta patterns during waking time, and relations with memory consolidation under theta neurofeedback training were found to be higher than under beta feedback or in the control group.
2014 (Jan). Transcranial magnetic stimulation for treating and preventing migraine, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.
2014 (Feb 13). van Dinteren R et al. P300 development across the lifespan: A systematic review and meta-analysis, PLoS ONE,:e87347.
>> Analyzes 75 previous studies and a dataset of 1,572 participants from ages 6-87 to show that P300 signals (latency and amplitude) follow a maturation path, reach a plateau, and then later in life start to decline. Suggests the possibility that P300 latency may index neural speed, efficiency or cognitive power.
2014 (Feb 13). Yitzhak NM et al. Numerical Analysis of the Microwave Auditory Effect: IAEA repository.
>>If you can read a graph with ease, these pictures should demonstrate the theoretical ease of applying formulas to predict effects.
2014 (Apr 6-11). Bilgic W and M Martinez-Vazquez. Evaluation of human exposure to pulsed waves, 8th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP).
>>"The aim is to simulate the effect of a pulsed, high power EM wave on human bodies".
2014 (May 27). Martin S et al. Decoding spectrotemporal features of overt and covert speech from the human cortex, Frontiers in Neuroengineering, 7(14).
>> Builds a high gamma (70-150 Hz) neural decoding model to reconstruct spectrotemporal auditory features of self-generated overt speech. Then, it evaluates whether the same decoding model (with some modifications to allow corrections for differences in timing of the brain activity) could accurately reconstruct brain readings when reading silently to yourself. The decoder was able to reconstruct which words several of the volunteers were thinking, using neural activity alone. These results provide evidence that auditory representations of “covert speech” can be reconstructed from models that are built from an overt speech data set.
>> Oh yeah. And check that title again. Apparently thinking in your own mind is “covert speech” according to these authors. Very scary people.
2014 (Jun). Neural representations not needed - no more pleas, please, Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 13(2):241–256.
>>Argues broadly against any need for neural representations, especially for lack of any particular need to do so. "... Referring to possibilities for neural manipulation and control ... does not help [neural] representationalism either."
2014 (Aug 1). Engelbreg H et al. EPA-1676 – Long-term effects of placebo-controlled prefrontal eeg-neurofeedback training in healthy subjects, European Psychiatry, 29(S1):1.
>>Neurofeedback training in 12-18 Hz (beta band), with auditory and visual feedback given if a particular EEG activity was increased for at least one second, was found to have a a predictable increase in certain beta band activity. However, this was not associated with any significant positive or negative changes to cognitive performance. Followup three years later showed that the effect persisted, leading them to conclude that beta neurofeedback could hvae long-term effect, regardless of their failure to pinpoint an effect that was specifically positive.
2014 (Aug 26-30). Gomez-Pilar J et al. Assessment of neurofeedback training by means of motor imagery based-BCI for cognitive rehabilitation, 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE - Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC).
>>Uses the sort of EEG-BCI setup known to be used for some disabled persons, but instead for neurofeedback training by use of motor exercises among a group of subject over the age of 59, after which exercises the scores for visual perception, expressive speech, and immediate memory were higher.
2014 (Oct). Yitzhak NM. Numerical simulation of pressure waves in the cochlea induced by a microwave pulse, Bioelectromagnetics, 35(7):491-496.
2014 (Oct 29). Thomson H. Brain decoder can eavesdrop on your inner voice: New Scientist.
2014 (Nov 25). Testa-Silva G et al. High Bandwidth Synaptic Communication and Frequency Tracking in Human Neocortex, PLOS Biology, 12(11):e1002007.
>>In addition to presentation of generalized contexts in the area of science, finds "that human synaptic connections were purely depressing and that they recovered three to four times more swiftly from depression than synapses in rodent neocortex. Thereby, during realistic spike trains, the temporal resolution of synaptic information exchange in human synapses substantially surpasses that in mice"that human synaptic connections were able to recover about 3 to 4 times faster than those of mice". This article is included as an avenue to understanding general scientific principles in the domain.
2014 (Dec 8-10). Ghazali AS and SN Sidek. Electromagnetic based emotion recognition using ANOVA feature selection and Bayes Network, 2014 Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (IECBES), 520-525.
>> Discusses how audio and visual stimulants are used to invoke emotional states, together with a questionnaire to verify the stimulant effectiveness in invoking the emotion, in order to establish neural patterns associated with emotional states. Electromagnetic signals radiated from the human body are measured using a handheld device called Resonant Field Imaging (RFI™). ANOVA tests are used to classify the emotions. The method is presented as a low-cost high-speed method of measuring such signals with high accuracy.
2014 (?). Fundamentals of Remote Sensing, Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Natural Resources Canada.
2014. Bazanova Olga M. Workshop: "Individualized Neurofeedback", Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.
>>Finds that individualized neurofeedback to increase certain individual EEG frequency ranges is more efective than using generalized or standard frequency ranges. Pinpoints existence of unexplored methodological factors (specifically, beyond simply considering amplitude across entire ranges such as the 8-12 Hz band) as the reason for a lack of an optimal NFT paradigm.
2014. Khavanin A and AB Mortazavi. Nonthermal effects of radar exposure on human: A review article, Iranian Journal of Health, Safety and Environment, 1(1):43-52.
>>"Reproductive effects, cancers, blood effects, genetic, adverse immune effects and mental effects are non-thermal effects that presented in this report". Neural, cardio, respiratory and auditory effects are all excluded from this analysis.
2014. Hu C et al. Early neurological markers for unconscious detection of bitter and sour taste for investigating taste preferences, chapter in TD Plum et al. (eds) Biomedical Informatics and Technology, 288-293, Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
>> Demonstrates the ability to identify subconscious processes relating to food preferences, in this case namely relating to bitter and sour perceptions.
>> I've experienced awareness on the part of synthetic telepathy operators, and also replays by the software-driven programs, of certain sorts of taste, smells, etc. I don't think it's possible to remotely interfere with these processes on a highly modelled basis, but have had some experiences where it seems rather as though some smell must have been administered at the local of the synthetic telepathy operators and transmitted via that means. Also, it seems rather clear that the ability to heighten awareness of, and the strength of perception of, positive and/or negative perceptions of smell or taste, is at times in practice. At the very least, this study demonstrates a basic ability to establish evoked potentials associated with taste.
2015. Aheadi A et al. Shell games: Location and object-based inhibitory mechanisms in individual and social action contexts, Journal of Exercise, Movement, and Sport, 47(1).
>> Shows that inhibition of return occurs when a target occurs in the same direction but was not observed when the object moved in the dissociable condition. This may have some relation to the use of subliminal or unnoticed effects while directing the attention of an individual elsewhere.
2015. Lee J-Y et al. Frequency recognition in SSVEP-based BCI systems with a combination of CCA and PSDA, Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, 52(10):139-147.
>> Studies steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) because of its short training time, relatively higher signal-to-noise ratio, and higher information transfer rate. Compares power spectral density analysis (PSDA) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA). The combined simultaneous use of both methods is evaluated in order to overcome the shortcomings in each, and is found to be superior.
2015. Rázuri JG et al. Speech emotion recognition in emotional feedback for human-robot Interaction, International Journal of Advanced Research in Artificial Intelligence, 4(2):20-27.
>> Uses an audio-visusal emotional database for a computer to extract emotional state from a speaker based on analysis of pitch, loudness, spectrum and speech rate. Evaluates competing methods to use these classifiers to extract emotional states from speech.
2015 (Feb 26). Mnih V et al. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning, Nature, 528(529-533).
>>Perhaps the keyword "reinforcement learning" is the most useful aspect of this article, as compared to works related to "conditioning". From the more scientific perspective, this appears to point towards rather specific understanding of processes related to thought reform, often known as "brainwashing".
2015 (Feb). MacDonald AA et al. Anesthesia and neuroimaging: investigating the neural correlates of unconsciousness, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 19(2):100–107.
>> Summarizes findings from functional neuroimaging studies that have used anesthetic drugs to study cognition at different levels of conscious awareness. It should be highlighted that this study does not deal with evoked potentials, which is consistent with the specific interest in identifying the locus on activities for medical purposes.
>> It may also be worth mentioning, although this should be rather obvious considering all the other references, that it should be fairly easy to establish when someone is falling into unconsciousness. Many targeted individuals experience effects like "electronic caffeine", or perhaps more advanced means of preventing sleep in a victim, for the purpose of sleep deprivation which makes the targeted individual much more vulnerable to diverse forms of psychological manipulation. Considering that most of the research on evoked potentials and unconscious states is focused on people who have experienced certain types of accidents or who manifest behavioural differences, I assume that ethical concerns have been much more effective in limiting the advance of such knowledge in the civilian sector, considering that most people would be extremely bothered by the idea of monitoring their evoked potentials during sleeping hours (probably with the assumption that such research could be misapplied to nefarious ends).
2015 (Feb). Megha M et al. Effect of low-intensity microwave radiation on monoamine neurotransmitters and their key regulating enzymes in rat brain, Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics, 73(1):93-100.
>> Shows that extended exposure to low-intensity microwave radiation affects expression of neurotransmitters and therefore may cause learning and memory disturbances. (Remotely administered influences seem to operate nearly in real time. So this article might be of interest for the effects of cell phone use, but not so much for electronic harassment. However, being continuously irradiated with additional microwave radiations would presumably have a similar effect to that suggested in this article.)
2015 (Feb). Pfordresher PQ et al. A Mechanism for Sensorimotor Translation in Singing The Multi-Modal Imagery Association (MMIA) Model, Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 32(3):242-253.
>>Proposes a way to talk advantage of the fact that EMG measures have higher accuracy in predicting singing than acoustic methods, which can be used to translate singing.
2015 (Jun 6). Summerfield C and H Tickle. The P300 as a build-to-threshold variable (commentary on Twomey et al.), European Journal of Neuroscience, 42(1):1635.
>> Refers to theories that P300 indexes the updating of contents of working memory, the revision of expectations about a current task, or the updating of task-relevant information in anticipation of subsequent events. Discusses civilian sector evidence which strongly supports this theory.
2015 (Jul). Twomey DM et al. The classic P300 encodes a build-to-threshold decision variable, European Journal of Neuroscience, 42(1):1636-43.
>> Analyzes the P300 elicited by transient auditory and visual targets to examine its potential role as a 'decision variable' signal that accumulates evidence to a decision bound. Consistent with the latter, we find that the P300 reaches a stereotyped amplitude immediately prior to response execution and that its rate of rise scales with target detection difficulty and accounts for trial-to-trial variance in RT. Thus, where the dominant explanatory accounts have conceived of the P300 as a unitary neural event, the data from this study reveals it to be a dynamically evolving neural signature of decision formation.
2015 (Jul 15). Pittsa T et al. Alterations in oropharyngeal sensory evoked potentials (PSEP) with Parkinson’s disease, Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 229:11–16.
>> Shows that a high share of subjects had similar neural processes associated with swallowing. I'm trying to find stuff relating to eating, hunger, etc., but there doesn't seem to be a lot of research on this in the civilian sector. I wouldn't be surprised if there isn't a high level of neural activity relating to the eating processes themselves, as opposed to conscious awareness of eating, etc., since this is more "reptile brain" or "frog stomach" sort of stuff.
2015 (Aug 3). McCulloch J and D Wilson. Pre-crime: Pre-emption, precaution and the future: Routledge. HV7431 .M3897
2015 (Aug 25-29). Arvaneh M et al. Effects of feedback latency on P300-based brain-computer interface, 2015 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2315-2318.
>> Shows that feedback improves the accuracy of a BCI interfarce based on P300 potentials.
>> However, it fails to address the issue of false positives, for example as is liable to happen if planting memories, massaging beliefs, whether intentionally on the part of a synthetic telepathy operator or by some third party unknown to the operator. (Which I doubt is unknown to the folks responsible for some of the more nefarious applications of these technologies, which is perfectly consistent with the kangaroo court-esque applications of such technologies.)
2015 (Aug). Pall ML. Microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produce widespread neuropsychiatric effects including depression, Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy.
>> Updated evidence on microwave EMF effects on Ca2+ channels in communication within the brain. Literature that low level EMFs have been demonstrated to have diverse impacts in animals. Evidence on effects of EMF radiation on at least 13 different neurospsychiatric effects in humans, including depression.
2015 (Sept 4). Holbrook C et al. Neuromodulation of group prejudice and religious belief, Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience.
>> This study shows that prejudice and religious belief can be modified via external means (in this case, Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used). First, it builds on previous literature to demonstrate that the posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) mediates adjustments in adherence to political and religious ideologies. Then, transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to reduce activity in the pFMC, with the effect of reduced belief in God and reduced negative views about the out-group. (Presumably, therefore, the opposite can be stimulated by mimicking waves patterns at an intensity to achieve a certain effect – however, this study is focused on imaging and not evoked potentials.)
2015 (Sep 22). Chau G and G Kemper. One channel subvocal speech phrases recognition using cumulative residual entropy and support vector machines, IEEE Latin America Transactions, 13(7).
>> Presents the design and implementation of a subvocal speech pattern recognition system using only one EMG channel which had about 90% accuracy with the available data in the test environment.
2015 (Sep 24-25). Reichert Cet al. Efficient recognition of event-related potentials in high-density MEG recordings, 7th Computer Science and Electronic Engineering Conference (CEEC) - 2015, 81-86.
>> Demonstrates awareness that specific patterns can be associated with specific tasks via evoked potentials such as P300 responses. Because many things are always going on in the brain at the same time, there is a very "noisy" data signal which makes it difficult to verify the pattern relating to the specific activity. So, the study proposes a method to filter the data which achieves significant improvements in the accuracy with which the event-specific brain activity can be identified.
2015 (Sep 24-26). Kolodziej M et al. A new method of spatial filters design for brain-computer interface based on steady state visually evoked potentials, 2015 IEEE 8th International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications (IDAACS), 2:697-700.
>> Describes a means of creating a dedicated signal filtering mechanism at the level of individual humans (i.e., the visually evoked potentials can vary between individuals, and this method is used to establish the specificty of those evoked potentials of each person). These filters are used to identify visual potentials for very close flickerings of light at a rate of 25-57 per minute.
2015 (Nov 30). Omar WRW et al. An analysis of EEG signal generated from ischemic stroke patient", 2015 Innovation & Commercialization of Medical Electronic Technology Conference (ICMET), 74-77.
>> Demonstrates the use of Fourier transforms to separate a two channel EEG recording into every sub band of brainwaves activity for each subject.
2015 (Dec 3). Amenedo E et al. Spatial inhibition of return promotes changes in response-related mu and beta oscillatory patterns, Neuroscience, 310:616–628.
>> Shows that inhibition of return varies with location in the visual field, by analyzing oscillatory activity between 2 and 40 Hz and whether spatial IOR affects response preparation and execution during a visuospatial attention task. Synchronization and temporal spacing between different oscillatory activities is found to have a degree of specificity, in a manner that varies with location in the visual field (suggesting one of several mechanisms via which inferred potential differences may be used to provide information about the location/direction of a visual cue).
2015 (Dec 10-12). Hasan K et al. Alpha band dependency of EEG signal on different stimulation of brain for human computer interaction, 2nd International Conference on Electrical Information and Communication Technology (EICT) - 2015, 148-151.
>> Shows how alpha band of neural signals elicited by visual presentation depends on size, frequency and colour. The context is one where there is a desire to increase the accuracy of modern BCIs, higher Information Transfer Rate (ITR), desired bandwidth (BW), and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of BCIs.
2015 (Dec 15). Maddox MM et al. Electroencephalographic Monitoring of Brain Wave Activity During Laparoscopic Surgical Simulation to Measure Surgeon Concentration and Stress: Can the Student Become the Master?, Journal of Endourology, 29(12):1329-1333.
>>"Concentration and stress were quantified by calculating the area under the curve of the gamma and alpha EEG wave tracings. Stress was significantly lower in the attending urologists compared with the residents and medical students during the laparoscopic suturing..."
2015 (Dec 16-19). Islam R, T Tanaka, KI Molla and MS Akter. Frequency recognition for SSVEP-BCI using reference signals with dominant stimulus frequency, 2015 Asia-Pacific Signal and Information Processing Association Annual Summit and Conference (APSIPA), 971-974.
>> In order to detect the specific frequency of steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) in an individual, the combine CCA with training responses to a template. By comparing the size of the stimulated frequency components, they are able to identify the main frequencies which can be used to monitor visual evoked potentials.
2015. Blank M. Cell biology and EMF safety standards, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 34(4):387-389.
>>"Although there is greater energy transfer and heating due to EMF at higher frequencies, there is no greater stress response. The cellular stress response is far more sensitive to EMF than to an increase in temperature. It should be obvious that an EMF safety standard should be based on the more sensitive, natural biological response."
Ushakov VL and AV Samsonovich. Toward a BICA-model-based study of cognition using brain imaging techniques, Procedia Computer Science, 71:254–264.
>> Maps biologically-informed emotional Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architecture (eBICA, related to DARPA AI research in the mid-2000s) according to brain
2016 (Jan 14). Angele B et al. Two stages of parafoveal processing during reading: Evidence from a display change detection task, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review.
>> Presents evidence that both display change detection (which specific part of text you're looking at) and lexical processing (the meaning of what you are reading) do not use the same cognitive mechanisms. The method monitored brain activity when reading specified texts, and the frequency of associated words coming up just outside the area paid attention to does not affect pre-processing of it.
>> In my experience of remote neural monitoring, there have been a number of occasions where synthetic telepathy is used to "tell me" that some soon-to-be-observed word is already known, that they already know I'm going there. But it seems as though this is very much outside of the display area. In many cases, I believe that they determine what you're reading, load up the same page, and a few times pre-empt you in something you're just about to come to a few second later, perhaps even directing attention to it. The implementation and findings of this study suggests that this view is correct, most especially the part about NOT pre-processing things that have not yet come into view (which is different from seeing something a line below and knowing it's there already, or pre-scanning lower text for very brief periods and returning to where you were reading).
>> (Unrelated to the topic at hand, but this would also suggest that at a bare minimum you actually have to scan the entire contents of a page to get anything out of it, and that just looking quickly at pages will not yield much of anything on its own.)
2016 (Spring). Wainberg J and S Perreault. Whistleblowing in audit firms: Do explicit protections from retaliation activate implicit threats of reprisal?, Behavioral Research in Accounting, 28(1):83-93.
>> Finds that adding explicit protections for whistleblowers tends to make them more aware of the many types of reprisal that they may face. Counterintuitively, being very explicit about these protections actually reduces whistleblowing significantly. Suggests that a more generic promotion of whistleblowing as part of the institutional culture can be more effective than extensive specific protections.
2016 (Feb 18). Bekolay T. Biologically inspired methods in speech recognition and synthesis: closing the loop, PhD thesis, U of Waterloo.
>>"... I show that the features produced by this model implemented with biologically plausible spiking neurons can be used to classify phones in pre-segmented speech with significantly better accuracy than the features typically used in automatic speech recognition systems. ..."
2016 (Feb 25). Townsend G and V Platsko. Pushing the P300-based brain-computer interface beyond 100 bpm: Extending performance guided constraints into the temporal domain, Journal of Neural Engineering, 13(2).
>> Evaluates a new way of evaluating the P300-based brain-computer interface called the 'asynchronous paradigm' (ASP), in comparison with the 'checkerboard paradigm' (CBP). The information transfer rate was found to be 45% higher and accuracy was similar. The ASP is only one possible implementation of this work since in general it can be used to describe all previous existing presentation paradigms as well as any possible new ones.
2016 (Mar 14-18). Fritz T and SC Müller. Leveraging Biometric Data to Boost Software Developer Productivity, IEEE 23rd International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution, and Reengineering (SANER).
>>"...advances in biometric sensor technology offer new opportunities to measure a developer's cognitive and emotional states in real-time and thus allow us to know more about what an individual developer is currently experiencing and what might foster or impede the developer's productivity". "Our vision is that biometric sensing will be integrated into a developer's work and that biometrics can be used to boost the productivity of each individual developer."
>>Vision of a lovely future?
2016 (Apr). Di Rollo A et al. Generators of oddball P300 to visual omitted stimuli: A simultaneous EEG-fMRI study, Clinical Neurophysiology, 127(4):e137.
>> Shows a specific event-related potential associated with omission of a stimulus. It's not clear to me how this might be related to the use of neuroweapons or remote neural monitoring, but somehow it seems rather likely.
2016 (Apr 20). Zeylab T et al. Improving bit rate in an auditory BCI: Exploiting error-related potentials, Brain-Computer Interfaces, 3(2):75-87.
>> Evaluates methods of determining error-related potentials (ErrP) which can inform a brain computer interface of mistakes. Since ErrPs are thought to be most imporant when BCI accuracy is low, they evaluate aurally (sound perception) evoked ErrPs to investigate how to correct for mistakes in auditory BCIs (which are usually less accurate than visual BCIs). Erroneous feedback was detected by (i) making use of the ErrP, (ii) assessing BCI selection confidence, and (iii) combining these two pieces of information into a hybrid detector. The new method increased the information transfer rate when this method of correcting for errors was applied.
>> (I believe this line of research is highly relevant in the computer-aided deciphering wherein perpetrators introduce certain images, words, etc., and then try to force you to re-project it, and therefore are able to train the neural analysis to map out your brain processes more completely in an involuntary manner.)
2016 (Apr 21). Tan P et al. Using ELM-based weighted probabilistic model in the classification of synchronous EEG BCI, Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing.
>> Discusses extreme learning machines (ELM) and proposes a new probabalistic model to classify signals in a synchronous brain-computer interface (BCI) system. Evaluates a number of statistical approaches, ultimately determining that a superior performance has been found, evaluated on the basis of mutual information, classification accuracy and information transfer rate.
2016 (Apr 27). Kusev P et al. Judging the morality of utilitarian actions: How poor utilitarian accessibility makes judges irrational, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23(6):1961-1967.
>> Comparison of the trolley problem (flip a switch to kill one person and save five) and the drawbridge problem (push a person off a bridge to block the tracks and therefore save five people) suggests that internal moral principles apply when we are closer to the person being harmed and rationality is more likely to apply when we are more removed from the person. Also, when the decision is more personal, people take more time to think through the situation before making a decision - but, when full information was provided (which takes more time to study than partial information), the decision is made faster.
>> (The applications for the situation of electronic torture should be obvious. The operators of synthetic telepathy are removed from the person, and therefore do not apply internal moral principles (although I believe substantial brainwashing via programmed harm avoidance of failing to embrace the situation as a slave puppet, and not "rationality" relating to any general sense of morality, is what is involved. In the mirror image of the utility-optimizing situation, it seems as though fuller information leads perpetrators to more rapidly decide upon their terrorist course of action tailored to evolving attacks and manipulations in response to a changing situation.)
2016 (Apr 28). Huth AG et al. Natural speech reveals the semantic maps that tile human cerebral cortex, Nature, 532:453-458.
>> This study presents subjects with hours of narrative stories and systematically maps semantic selectivity across the cortex using voxel-wise modelling of functional MRI (fMRI) data. It shows that the intricate patterns of semantic maps are similar across individuals (i.e., that there’s similar brain activity for the same words/ideas in different people’s brains. The data outputs are used to create a detailed semantic atlas of the brain.
2016 (Apr 28). Sasin E and M Nieuwenstein. Memory-driven attentional capture reveals the waxing and waning of working memory activation due to dual-task interference, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23(6):1891-1897.
>> (Heavily paraphrased and interpreted for present purposes…): this study provides strong evidence that if you interrupt someone on the middle of learning something, most especially with a different kind of thought or task, that they have poorer recollection of what they were aiming to learn about. This is much different from performing poorly in a task due to distraction, it shows that recollection itself is poorer when there are distractions. Not a very surprising conclusion, but it is scientific.
>> Personally, I find myself faced with major distraction efforts (usually ones known to bother me, but often also just a generic brain freezing sort of effect) at many times when digesting information which is liable to be important to understanding organized stalking, electronic terrorism, etc. In fact, for a long period of time before having a clue how it was all happening, this was one of the primary pieces of experiential information I used to determine what was a good idea or an important piece of information.
2016 (Apr). Ibey BL et al. Cellular effects of acute exposure to high peak power microwave systems: Morphology and toxicology, Bioelectromagnetics, 37(3):141-151.
>>Increased use of pulses points to need for scientific validation of a new limit.
2016 (May). Müller-Bardorffa M et al. Effects of emotional intensity under perceptual load: An event-related potentials (ERPs) study, Biological Psychology, 117:141–149.
>> Shows that emotional intensity of a visually evoked potential is not affected for all but one of the evoked potentials studied (P1, N170, early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP)). This is done by comparing the evoked potentials of visual stimuli under high and low difficulty of attention to the visual stimulus.
>> Plausibly, this may suggest that the emotional effect of a visual stimulus may have a supraliminal effect even when not particularly noticed due to a variety of distracting factors which make it difficult for the individual to be specifically aware of the stimulus which is causing the emotional effect.
2016 (May). Srinivas V et al. Wavelet based emotion recognition using RBF algorithm, International Journal of Innovative Research in Electrical, Electronics, Instrumentation and Control Engineering, 4(5):29-34.
>> This paper describes the use of EEG to predict emotional states with high accuracy when exposed to video stimuli. I do not find this surprising, but it is the first peer-review publication I’ve been able to find to “verify” reports of the five bands of an EEG associated with more generalized emotional states: Delta (0.5-4Hz) – appears in young children, deep sleep and some brain diseases; Theta (4-8Hz) – found in normal subjects in an active state; Alpha (8-13Hz) – common in normal subjects, best seek with closed eyes, under relaxed conditions; Beta (13-30Hz) – sedatives and barbiturates cause an increase in these; Gamma (30-60Hz) – involved in higher processing tasks and cognitive functions, and are important for binding senses to perception and are involved in learning new material.
>> They manage to separate the wave functions, but I do not find the results particularly impressive. I hope to replace this reference with something better on both EEG and reading emotional states and also on the question of which EEG bands are associated with different states.
2016 (May 3). Wauthia E and M Rossignol. Emotional processing and attention control impairments in children with anxiety: An integrative review of event-related potentials findings, Frontiers in Psychology, 7:562.
>> Reviews the role of the timing and magnitude of differences in visually evoked potentials causing some types of anxiety, depending on age, namely: the P100 in indicating heightened attention to a threat, the N200 in indicating attentional control to resolve conflict and inhibit incorrect responses, the P300 in "go/no-go conditions", the LPP slow wave (not peak) which appears at 400-600 ms after a relevant stimulus and reflects sustained attention toward motivationally salient information, and the ERN which is a negative deflection approximately 60-110 ms after a wrong response.
>> If these can be measured, presumably it is possible to elicit a degree of these effects via external means, whether by transcranial magnetic stimulation (nearby) or pulse modulations of microwaves which impact neural activity by affecting the oscillatory activity. However, it is not clear to me whether some systematic cognitive differences produce both anxiety and these differences in evoked potentials, or whether the differences in evoked potentials themselves directly reflect the more anxious response (in which case they may be remotely elicited/influenced in order to replicate or approximate these states of mind in relation to other stimuli).
2016 (May 3). Wei Q et al. VEP-based brain-computer interfaces modulated by Golay complementary series for improving performance, Technology and Health Care, preprint:1-9.
>> Discusses how visual code modulated visual evoked potentials (c-VEP) show higher communication rates (number of identified outcomes/associations). This study compares a Golay code for a brain computer interface and finds that it has higher detection accuracy and information transfer rates than the alternative.
2016 (May 5). Manning J et al. A neural signature of contextually mediated intentional forgetting, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23(5):1534-1542.
>> Mental context (e.g., other thoughts present when something happens) is key for organizing and retrieving memories. Processes which alter these contextual representations can enhance or diminish the ability to retrieve particular memories.
>>By injecting a certain scene to be associated when information was given, this study was able to identify that neural patterns associated with contextual representation (related to associations with that injected scene) were lower when an instruction to disregard a piece of information was given, and that the extent of this contextual change was statistically related to the ability to recall the information at a later point. As described, "a neural signature for intentional forgetting". Namely, not only is the piece of information forgotten, but the mental context associated with the information rings less of a bell when presented with it again.
2016 (May 6). Wan F et al. Alpha neurofeedback training improves SSVEP-based BCI performance, Journal of Neural Engineering, 13(3).
>> Demonstrates the ability to use alpha down-regulating neurofeedback training (NFT) (beaming certain pulse-modulated frequencies into the mind) to increase the ability to interpret steady-state visual evoked potentials. First, the resting state alpha activity was trained on orchestrated visual signals, and then downregulating alpha band amplitudes. The relevant decrease in the amplitude of alpha band activity associated with this increased readability of visually evoked potentials was found to be established over the course of "training sessions".
>> I highlight that this deals with amplitudes and not frequencies, the remote influence of which is something that does not make as much intuitive sense to me. However, this study is explicitly doing precisely that.
>> Regardless of the specific of technology used on the receiving end for remote neural monitoring, this is clearly of relevance in understanding the ability to "force" someone to elicit a more readily monitored visual signal.
>> (Somehow, while going through the list of Google Scholar articles on "visual evoked potentials", I almost completely passed over this article despite the method being to read the title and description of EVERY article for signs of any potentially relevant studies, but fortunately my attention was drawn to the fact that I had done so. Which is loosely consistent with the principle that whatever your attention is drawn to is unlikely to be hugely significant, and whatever you somehow find yourself very disinterested in or distracted from should receive special consideration for extra attention - of course, the predictability of such a means is sure to be reduced upon this realization.)
2016 (May 17). Noseda R et al. Migraine photophobia originating in cone-driven retinal pathways, Brain, 139(7):1971-1986.
>> Discusses colour-specific responses which activate different areas of neural activity in order to investigate the onset of migraines.
>> (I don't think this civilian sector evidence is hugely conclusive, but due to claims by some targeted individuals that headaches are being triggered remotely, the potential to mimic such neural processes may be relevant to potential scientific underpinning of the credibility of such claims. There are a fair few other articles dealing with migraines and visually evoked potentials, but I have not included other references because it seems rather peripheral to the more general matter at hand.)
2016 (May 25). Yan C et al. Predictive remapping gives rise to environmental inhibition of return, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23(6):1860-1866.
>> Investigates how certain neurons may prepare to attend to a new visual stimuli, and how this may be related to "inhibition of return" (a rapid but temporary (0.5-3s) onset of reduction in the speed at which awareness attends to observations relating to a cue).
>> If I can get a better reference in that general direction, I will replace this one.
2016 (Jun 19). Cameli B et al. A study on the moral implications of human disgust-related emotions detected using EEG-based BCI devices, in S Bassis et al. (eds) “Advances in Neural Networks”, Springer.
>> Reports results of cerebral rhythms in response to images relating to different types of disgust: ‘core’, ‘animal nature’ and ‘moral’. The study aimed to define use of images instead of videos to elicit such responses.
2016 (Jun 2). Wu H-C. Relativistic-microwave theory of ball lightning, Scientific Reports, 6(28263).
>>Among other things, mentions microwave hearing as among the causes of additional hissing, buzzing or fluttering sounds from ball lightning.
2016 (Jul 20). Collin A et al. In vivo setup characterization for pulsed electromagnetic field exposure at 3 GHz, Physics in medicine and biology, 61:5925.
>>Presents methods to evaluate some basic effects of microwave pulses across some dfferent treatments. (Also mentions microwave hearing effect.)
2016 (Sep 13). Shaw J. The memory illusion: Why you might not be who you think you are: Doubleday Canada.
2016 (Oct 4-6). Schrafel PC et al. The reality of safety concerns relative to WPT systems for automotive applications, 2016 IEEE PELS Workshop on Emerging Technologies: Wireless Power Transfer (WoW).
Suggests that consumer concerns are driven by misconception. The subject is power transmission more so than bioeffects.
2016 (Dec). Mohanchandra K and S Saha. A Communication Paradigm Using Subvocalized Speech: Translating Brain Signals into Speech, Augmented Human Research, 1(3).
>>Mentions silent speech communication, cognitive biometrics, and synthetic telepathy as among applications of EEG-based brain-computer interfaces. The particular study uses EMG using sensors beneath the jawbone. Mentions the possibility to use brain states of individuals for cross-validation in combination with other biometric methods.
2016. A Plebe and VM De La Cruz. Neurosemantics: Springer.
>>Chapter on "Representational mechanisms" - suggests that the ability to detect coincidences is probably the most effective mechanism for identifying the link between electrochemical activity and world representation. Lots here that might be relevant to modelling how things are linked between parts of the brain for different kinds of stuff, but it doesn't look very conclusive and I don't understand it well enough to select which articles might be most relevant and/or comment much upon them.
2017 (Jan 21). Lee S et al. Mining biometric data to predict programmer expertise and task difficulty, Cluster Computering, 1-11.
>>Uses EMG and eye tracking to predict programmer skill when faced with different problems. Argues that two biometrics is better than one.
2017. Zhang X et al. Biological effects of static magnetic fields, Springer.
350 BCE. Aristotle. On Memory and reminiscence
>>Mostly included for historical and philosophical interest. This is not of scientific value from the neurology perspective, but may be informative in philosophical underpinnings that may have been common in treatment of memory and reminsicence from the Enlightenment through to the present.
1957. The invisible boy
>>From AI gone rogue to the use of mental health claims to prevent use of paranoia in frank risk assessment from being aired, this 1957 release is clearly well informed of the cutting edge at that time and where things might go. With the exception of some handful of mentions abou ttime machins, nearly every situation and response is either indicative of a responsible disclosure mindset, which demonstrates understanding of some basic aspects of humanity which pose risks with technologies which were barely incipient in 1957.
>>For those who have not been pretending to have their heads stuck in the sand in recent years, strong bells ring throughout. Among other things, this movie may both reassure from the historical perspective, for example what should have been relativelt transparent to parents about which aspects of the filed aimed to draw youth interest in certain types of science or risk assessment problems, which suggests that the mainstream in 1957 was essentially well-intentioned without being naive about either foreign threats or risk of domestic subversion.
1967. Billion dollar brain
>>From the perspective of 2017, "AI" aspects are cartoonisn and barely more than a robotic voice. Beyond automated fingerprint and corneal biometric dientification at some checkpoints, technologically speaking, this film is not informative of perspectives of the time which are of enduring importance.
>>Top quote: "Intelligence work is one thing, but using hooligans to break up a country is another". Also, in response to whether the main character was tortured by the Red Army: "more mentally than physically", an indication that it was well understood by the mid-1960s that psychological torture was real. (The fact that the character who minimized its relevance was a total nutjob is perhaps worth mentioning as well.)
1977 (Sep 3). Thomas J. C.I.A. says it found more secret papers on behavior control: New York Times.
1978. Johnson B. Secret War: Pen and Sword.
>>Behind the scene aspects of scientists and techs of WW2.
1980. Donner FJ. The age of surveillance: The aims and methods of America's political intelligence system: Knopf.
1983. WarGames. A high school studnet is trying to hack computer game companies to play games and ends up dialing into a number that hosts a program that is connected to the nuclear military network and unknowingly starts a false scenario which shows up as real on NORAD screens. The program later tries several approaches to win the game, and in the process the film addresses some connected issues.
1992 (Aug 19). Donner FJ. Protectors of privilege: Red squads and police repression in urban America: University of California Press.
1998. Enemy of the State.
1998. The Sleep Room.
1999. The Matrix.
2002 (Nov 9). Markoff J. Pentagon plans a computer system that would peek at personal data of Americans: New York Times.
2002 (Nov 17). Turley J. George Bush's Big Brother: Los Angeles Times.
2002 (Oct 21). Business Wire. SAIC Team Wins National Security Agency TRAILBLAZER Contract.
>>Trainblazer was a more expensive and also illegal alternative to Thinthread, which it replaced.
2002. Minority Report.
2003. Total Information Awareness: EFF.
>>A look at the status of "Total Information Awareness" in 2003 and efforts towards transparency to ensure it was dead.
2003. Control Factor.
2004 (Feb 23). U.S. still mining terror data: Wired.
2004 (Oct 17). Goodwin K. Brainwash victims win cash claims: The Time of London.
2004. The Manchurian Candidate.
2006 (Jan 1). Ross CA. The C.I.A. Doctors: Human Rights Violations by American Psychiatrists: Manitou.
2006 (Feb 23). TIA lives on: National Journal.
2006 (May 18). Gorman S. NSA rejected system that sifted phone data legally: Baltimore Sun.
>>Relates to canning Thinthread for a more expensive and illegal alternative.
2007 (May 25). Rosenberg R. Computers to solve Stasi puzzle: BBC.2006 (Nov 1). Naylor G. 1996: Third World Press.
2007 (Dec 12). What's wrong with fusion centres?: ACLU.
2008 (Sep 23). Barrie A. Homeland security detects terrorist threats by reading your mind: Fox News.
2008 (Sep 24). Hazelton L. The airport security scanner that can read your mind: Daily Mail (UK).
2008 (Sep 24). Press Trust of India. New airport screening ‘could read minds': The Indian Express.
2009 (Mar 23). Miller JR. 'Fusion centers' expand criteria to identify militia members: Fox News.
2009 (Apr 14). Mind control archive documents: wanttoknow.info.
>>Archive with links to all CIA mind control documents sent in response to a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request to the CIA. There are 1,778 documents with about 20,000 pages available in folders of declassified CIA documents.
2009 (Jul 14). Bamford J. The shadow factory: The NSA from 9/11 to the eavesdropping on America: Anchor.
2010 (Jun 25). Norton-Taylor R. Not so secret: deal at the heart of UK-US intelligence: The Guardian.
2010 (Jul 14). Nakashima E. Former NSA executive Thomas A. Drake may pay high price for media leak: Washington Post.
>>The massive changes to the life of a former NSA executive who brought some public awareness to practices in the NSA.
2011 (Jan 25). Harris S. Indictment continues Obama administration’s war on leaks: Washingtonian.
>>On Thomas Drake's legal troubles after whistleblowing.
2011 (Mar 17). Revealed: US spy operation that manipulates social media: The Guardian.
>>The automated aspect maybe doesn't pan out well in things that have such an easily identified record. What I would be more concerned about here it the background work required for this capacity to have effects regarding manipulation, with concerns related both to this specific application and redirection of such human resources to alternative uses.
2011 (May 23). Mayer J. The secret sharer: The New Yorker.
>>On the legal travails of Thomas Drake after efforts to bring to public awareness widespread illegal practices within the NSA.
2011 (Oct). Pittman R. Remote brain targeting (mind control in America book 1).
>>Outlines some of the more common aspects to the various Stasi-style psychological attacks which have been and are being undertaken in part via use or complicity in use of electronic weapons and/or related systems.
2012 (Oct 2). O'Harrow R. DHS ‘fusion centers’ portrayed as pools of ineptitude and civil liberties intrusions: Washington Post.
2013 (Feb 1). Sullivan E. My life changed forever: The years I have lost as a target of organized stalking: Infinity.
>>The author's story about being forced to live under constant surveillance since 1994. It is a true crime exposé into the world of organized stalking, a form of organized crime. It often includes stalking, constant following, psychological harassment and mind games. However,can be called technological harassment.
2013 (Jun 7). Horgan J. U.S. never really ended creepy "Total Information Awareness" program: Scientific American.
2013 (Sep 25). Gallagher R. Meet the machines that steal your phone’s data, Ars Technica
2013 (Oct 8). Weston G. Inside Canada's top-secret billion-dollar spy palace: CBC.
2013 (Dec 2). Farrell P. History of 5-Eyes – explainer: The Guardian.
2014 (Mar 3). Zetter K. Florida cops' secret weapon: Warrantless cellphone tracking: Wired.
2014 (Sep 2). Cherubini CF and PA Angelini. Gang stalking: The threat to humanity : CreateSpace.
>>Traces his own gradual discovery of his inclusion in what has been called "the most atrocious criminal program" the world has ever known.
2014 (Oct 26). Lichtblau E. In Cold War, U.S. spy agencies used 1,000 Nazis: New York Times.
2014 (Dec 8). Hall J. Guinea pigs: Technologies of control: Lightning Source.
>>Covers non-consensual human experimentation starting with the CIA in the 1950s in relation to efforts to remotely control human behaviour.
2014 (Dec 10). Carey B. Architects of C.I.A. interrogation drew on psychology to induce ‘helplessness’
2015 (Jan 19). Edward S. MK-Ultra Project,Monarch and Julian Assange: Medium.
2015 (Apr 8). Why IS the US military moving back into 'Stargate' base deep under the Rocky Mountains a decade after it was abandoned?, Daily Mail (UK), AFP and Associated Press.
2015 (Jun 15). Gorski A. New docs raise questions about CIA spying here at home: ACLU.
2015 (Oct 30). Helbing D. The Automation of Society is Next: How to Survive the Digital Revolution: CreateSpace.
>>"After the automation of factories and the creation of self-driving cars, the automation of society is next. But there are two kinds of automation: a centralized top-down control of the world, and a distributed control approach supporting local self-organization ..."
>>I would add that it is not necessarily the case that those who would wish to implement the darker possibilities will wait until automated cars and factories are complete, to push towards top-down digital control of society.
2015. Ex Machina.
2015. A Good American.
2016 (Mar 26). Shorrock T. Obama's crackdown on whistleblowers: The Nation.
2016 (Sep 14). Victor D. Drone racing becomes ESPN's newest televised sport: New York Times.
>>ESPN televises a league of mind-operated drones in races.
2016 (Oct 13). Krishnan A. Military neuroscience and the coming age of neurowarfare: Routledge.
>>Neurowarfare in the first half of the 21st century "creates both humanitarian opportunities in making war less bloody and burdensome as well as some unprecedented threats and dangers in terms of preserving freedom of thought and will in a coming age where minds can be manipulated with great precision".
2017 (Feb 25). Will Democracy Survive Big Data and Artificial Intelligence: Scientific American.
>>Without getting too technical and certainly not at all 'hysterical', on an all-round basis I'd say that this is very possibly the best outline of societal risks associated with some classes of new technologies, inclusive of those which are only on the cusp of being perceived as open for public discussion. Among other things, it posits explanations for observed phenomena which do not require pointing to an external or internal enemy to justify forward action.
Total Total "Terrorism" Information Awareness (TIA): epic.org.
>>Diverse information about the "Total Information Awareness" program, opened by DARPA in Jan 2002.
Current?. Layton J. How brainwashing works, science.howstuffworks.com.
>>This has been up for a while, but the only date on the page is 2017. Very useful source!
Current?. ReviseMRI.com, a learning resources for physicists and other clinical scientists.
>> For general interest; for most purposes not highly related to subjects at hand.
1963. Anne A and HP Schwan. Scattering and absorption of microwaves by dissipative dielectric objects: The biological significance and hazards to mankind, Moore School of Electrical Engineering.
1967. Christianson C and R Rutkowski. Electromagnetic radiation hazards in the navy, Naval Applied Science Lab.
>>Among other things, mentions knowledge of RF hearing.
1971. Glaser Z. Research Report - Project MF12.524.015-0004a, Report No. 2.
>>A bibliography summarizing a variety of known bioeffects of (unspecified) radio frequency radiation.
1976 (Jan). Federal Commissioner for the Records of the State Security Service of the former German Democratic Republic. Directive No. 1/76 on the development and revision of operational procedures – Richtline Nr. 1/76 zur Entwicklung und Bearbeitung Operativer Vorgange (OV)
>This document, in German, presents operational changes under the Stasi, and thus gives some view into what it was like.
1976 (Aug 16). Library of Congress. Legislative history of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence
1977 (Jun 17). Taylor LS and AY Cheung. The physical basis of electromagnetic interactions with biological systems, Maryland University College Park
>>Outlines efforts to understand bioeffects of electromagnetic fields (etc.), and whether regulatory standards and methods to control radiofrequency and microwave exposure are needed.
1977 (Aug 3). 95th US Congress, 1st session. Joint Hearing before the Select Committee on Intelligence and the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources - United States Senate.
1982 (Jun 25). De Lorge JO. The effects of microwaves on aminal operant behavior: Naval Aerospace Medical Research Lab.
>>To try to extrapolate to humans, brings together research on many kinds of animals.
1984 (Dec 10). UN General Assembly. Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment: UN.
1985. US Supreme Court. CIA v. Sims; 471 U.S. 159
1986 (Mar). The United Nations and Disarmament: 1945-1985, United Nations Publications. JX1974 .U53
1986 (Jun). Paglione RW. Portable diagnostic radiometer, David Sarnoff Research Center, Princeton.
>>A project to be able to determine various internal temperatures of individuals (e.g., whether to have a medical evacuation) using microwave monitors.
1986 (oct). Seals J et al. Development of an EM-based lifeform detector, Georgia Institute of Tech Atlanta Biomedical Research Division.
>> A project to be able to locate a soldier at a distance of more than 100m by sensing small motions (cardiopulmonary) using radiated electromagnetic fields.
1987 (Dec). D'Andrea JA and BL Cobb. High peak power microwave pulses at 1.3 GHz: Effects on fixed interval and reaction time performance in rats.: Naval Aerospace Medical Research Lab.
>>"The current safety standards for radiofrequency and microwave exposure do not limit the peak power of microwave pulses for general or occupational exposures..."
>It studies effects of high power pulses on behaviours that rats had been trained to do, and significant changes were noted under the experimental conditions.
1989 (Nov 2). D'Andrea DA et al. High peak power microwave pulses at 2.37 GHz: No effects on vigilance performance in monkeys: Naval Aerospace Medical Research Lab.
>>This report does not find behavioural effects under the conditions that were studied.
1990. Adair E. Thermoregulatory consequences of resonant microwave exposure: US Air Force.
>>Of interest: "Even when no changes can be measured in the deep or peripheral temperatures of the body, sensitive thermoregulatory responses are mobilized to dissipate the heat generated in body tissues by the absorption of thermalizing energy from RF sources in the environment."
1992 (Aug). D'Andrea JA et al. Behavioral effects of peak power microwave pulses: Head exposure at 1.3 GHz, Naval Medical Research and Development Command.
1993 (Jan 25). Raslear TG et al. The behavioral toxiticty of high-peak, low average Power, pulsed microwave irradiation: Walter Reed Army Institute of Research.
>>"Five behavioral tasks were used ... The pattern of results suggests at least two effects of high-power pulsed microwaves: memory impairment and decreased physical endurance."
1993. International Programme on Chemical Safety. Electromagnetic fields (300 Hz to 300 GHz): Environmental health criteria 137, World Health OrganiZation.
>>Provides a variety of resources in the process of assessing risks related to electromagnetic fields and radiation. Among a great many other things, it mentions (22.214.171.124) that despite knowledge of bioeffects from ultra-short pulses, that information at that time was not sufficient to define any safety/security limits. Amplitude modulations thought not to pose a risk, but insufficient information to be sure.
1994. Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experments.
>> After scandals in previous years (and decades), in 1994 a committee was convened to investigate human radiation experimentation.
1995. Scientific Advisory Board (US Air Force). New world vistas: Air and space power for the 21st century. Ancillary volume.
1995. Communicating via the microwave auditroy effect, DoD (US Air Force).
>> In case there was any doubt that the military had interested in these technologies which had been studied for 20 years by this point, here's a transparent demonstration of their interest.
1999 (Jan 14). European Parliament. “Report on the environment, security and foreign policy” (select A005/A4 from the European Parliament website which archives previous texts.
>>Item 30 on “Legal aspects of military activities” specifies that the European Parliament “Calls in particular for an international convention for a global ban on all research and development, whether military or civilian, which seeks to apply knowledge of the chemical, electrical, sound vibration or other functioning of the human brain to the development of weapons which might enable any form of manipulation of human beings, including a ban on any actual or possible deployment of such systems”.
2001 (Sep 10). Richelson JT. Science, technology and the CIA, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 54.
2001. Space Preservation Act 2001, HR 2977 IH, 107th Congress.
2003 (Dec 3). International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. Case no. ICTR-99-52-T”: United Nations.
>>Although not the main point of this document, I include this in relation to its documentation of dehumanization preceding a genocide, namely referring to another group as clockroaches over the radio waves.
2007 (Dec). Defense Science Board Task Force on Directed Energy Weapons, Office of Secretary of Defense.
2010 (Apr). Lin JC and Z Wang. Acoustic pressure waves induced in human heads by RF pulses from high-field MRI scanners, Health Physics, 98(4):603-613.
2010 (Jun). UKUSA Agreement: The National Archives.
>>Contains details of the recently avowed UKUSA Agreement - the top secret, post-war arrangement for sharing intelligence between the United States and the UK.
2012 (Oct 3). Investigative report criticizes counterterrorism reporting, waste at state & local intelligence fusion centers: US Senate 'Homeland Security & Governmental Affairs Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations.
2013. Department of the Air Force. Directed energy bioeffects research (DEBR), Solicitation Number: BAA-HPW-RHDR-2013-0002.
>>Provides some broad strokes to the tune of "yes, the military does research on bioeffects of microwaves".
Bioelectrochemistry (formerly Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics)