For many entries, the title should be fairly self-explanatory about the finding, methods and/or relevance. This accounts for most entries which are not annotated with additional explanation regarding their relevance and/or other comments.
The url location of each reference is also provided.
2017 (Oct 27). Bruner R and F Lentzos.
Neuroscience--and the new weapons of the mind, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.
In a study involving rats: "... memories can also be transferred between animals. When researchers recorded the hippocampal firing patterns of a rat learning (and encoding memories of) how to perform a task, and transmitted those patterns to another rat via intracranial stimulation, they found that recipient animals could successfully perform the same task without any training." (citing Deadwyler et al. 2013, Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 7:120).
2017 (Aug). Nayar PK.
The human rights torture novel: Unmade subjects, unmaking worlds, ORBIS Litterarium, 72(4):318-347.
"This essay examines a subgenre of the Human Rights novel, the torture novel, devoted to the social ontology of the human. ... The essay concludes that the torture novel is integral to the project of Human Rights because it demonstrates how broken bodies are produced in eroding social conditions, driven by state policy, state indifference or state oppression."
2017 (Jul 26). Markov MS.
Electromagnetic fields in biology and medicine: CRC Press.
"...provides state-of-the-art knowledge on both the biological and therapeutic effects of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs). The reader is guided through explanations of general problems related to the benefits and hazards of EMFs, step-by-step engineering processes, and basic results obtained from laboratory and clinical trials."
2017 (Jan 21). Lee S et al.
Mining biometric data to predict programmer expertise and task difficulty, Cluster Computering, 1-11.
Uses EMG and eye tracking to predict programmer skill when faced with different problems. Argues that two biometrics is better than one.
2017 (Jan 19). Nevin JA and C Mandell.
Comparing positive and negative reinforcement: A fantasy experiment, Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 107(1):34-38.
"...we adopt the standard textbook definitions: If responding increases after response-contingent presentation of a stimulus, the stimulus is called a "positive reinforcer," and if responding increases after response-contingent removal of a stimulus, it's a "negative reinforcer." "
Basically, they seek experimental evidence related to this definition.
2016. Plebe A and VM De La Cruz.
Chapter on "Representational mechanisms" - suggests that the ability to detect coincidences is probably the most effective mechanism for identifying the link between electrochemical activity and world representation.
2016 (Dec). Mohanchandra K and S Saha.
A communication paradigm using subvocalized speech: Translating brain signals into speech, Augmented Human Research, 1(3).
Mentions silent speech communication, cognitive biometrics, and synthetic telepathy as among applications of EEG-based brain-computer interfaces.
The particular study uses EMG using sensors beneath the jawbone.
Mentions the possibility to use brain states of individuals for cross-validation in combination with other biometric methods.
2016 (Nov 23). Welch M.
Torture and its division of labor, Onati Socio-Legal Series, 6(4):957-974.
"... More recently, evidence reveals that the CIA colluded with the American Psychological Association (APA) to rewrite an ethics policy that would enable psychologists to participate in harsh interrogations as well as torture. The shift from consultant to that of a hands-on operational psychologist marks a significant development in what is described herein as clinical torture. ..."
2016 (Oct 15). Witkowski M et al.
Mapping entrained brain oscillations during transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), NeuroImage, 140:89-98.
This reference is included to contrast the method with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which is covered better in this list and which involves magnetic fields (which have theoretical relevance to remote applications), not electric current (which is not relevant to remote applications).
"Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), a non-invasive and well-tolerated form of electric brain stimulation, can influence perception, memory, as well as motor and cognitive function. While the exact underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are unknown, the effects of tACS are mainly attributed to ...". Among other things, a problem noted is that the use of electric current interferes with EEG readings, and use of MEG seems to largely address the problem.
2016 (Jul 20). Collin A et al.
In vivo setup characterization for pulsed electromagnetic field exposure at 3 GHz, Physics in medicine and biology, 61:5925.
Presents methods to evaluate some basic effects of microwave pulses across some different treatments.
(Also mentions microwave hearing effect.)
2016 (Jul). Maier SF and MEP Seligman.
Learned helplessness at fifty: Insights from neuroscience, Psychological Review, 123(4):349-367
Claims that "The mechanism of learned helplessness is now very well-charted biologically, and the original theory got it backward. Passivity in response to shock is not learned. It is the default, unlearned response to prolonged aversive events and it is mediated by the serotonergic activity of the dorsal raphe nucleus, which in turn inhibits escape. This passivity can be overcome ..."
2016 (Jun 30). Amano K et al.
Learning to associate orientation with color in early visual areas by associative decoded fMRI neurofeedback, Current Biology, 26(14):1861-1866.
Apparently neurofeedback can train you to perceive red when there is black, among other things.
2016 (Jun 19). Cameli B et al.
A study on the moral implications of human disgust-related emotions detected using EEG-based BCI devices, in S Bassis et al. (eds) "Advances in Neural Networks": Springer.
Reports results of cerebral rhythms in response to images relating to different types of disgust: 'core', 'animal nature' and 'moral'. The study aimed to define use of images instead of videos to elicit such responses.
2016 (Jun 2). Wu H-C.
Relativistic-microwave theory of ball lightning, Scientific Reports, 6(28263).
Among other things, mentions microwave hearing as among the causes of additional hissing, buzzing or fluttering sounds from ball lightning.
2016 (May). Muller-Bardorffa M et al.
Effects of emotional intensity under perceptual load: An event-related potentials (ERPs) study, Biological Psychology, 117:141-149.
Shows that emotional intensity of a visually evoked potential is not affected for all but one of the evoked potentials studied (P1, N170, early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP)). This is done by comparing the evoked potentials of visual stimuli under high and low difficulty of attention to the visual stimulus.
Plausibly, this may suggest that the emotional effect of a visual stimulus may have a supraliminal effect even when not particularly noticed due to a variety of distracting factors which make it difficult for the individual to be specifically aware of the stimulus which is causing the emotional effect.
2016 (May). Srinivas V et al.
Wavelet based emotion recognition using RBF algorithm, International Journal of Innovative Research in Electrical, Electronics, Instrumentation and Control Engineering, 4(5):29-34.
This paper describes the use of EEG to predict emotional states with high accuracy when exposed to video stimuli. I do not find this surprising, but it is the first peer-review publication I've been able to find to "verify" reports of the five bands of an EEG associated with more generalized emotional states: Delta (0.5-4Hz) -- appears in young children, deep sleep and some brain diseases; Theta (4-8Hz) -- found in normal subjects in an active state; Alpha (8-13Hz) -- common in normal subjects, best seek with closed eyes, under relaxed conditions; Beta (13-30Hz) -- sedatives and barbiturates cause an increase in these; Gamma (30-60Hz) -- involved in higher processing tasks and cognitive functions, and are important for binding senses to perception and are involved in learning new material.
They manage to separate the wave functions, but I do not find the results particularly impressive. I hope to replace this reference with something better on both EEG and reading emotional states and also on the question of which EEG bands are associated with different states.
2016 (May 25). Yan C et al.
Predictive remapping gives rise to environmental inhibition of return, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23(6):1860-1866.
Investigates how certain neurons may prepare to attend to new visual stimuli, and how this may be related to "inhibition of return" (a rapid but temporary (0.5-3s) onset of reduction in the speed at which awareness attends to observations relating to a cue).
If I can get a better reference in that general direction, I will replace this one.
2016 (May 17). Noseda R et al.
Migraine photophobia originating in cone-driven retinal pathways, Brain, 139(7):1971-1986.
Discusses colour-specific responses which activate different areas of neural activity in order to investigate the onset of migraines.
(I don't think this civilian sector evidence is hugely conclusive, but due to claims by some targeted individuals that headaches are being triggered remotely, the potential to mimic such neural processes may be relevant to potential scientific underpinning of the credibility of such claims. There are a fair few other articles dealing with migraines and visually evoked potentials, but I have not included other references because it seems rather peripheral to the more general matter at hand.)
2016 (May 6). Wan F et al.
Alpha neurofeedback training improves SSVEP-based BCI performance, Journal of Neural Engineering, 13(3).
Demonstrates the ability to use alpha down-regulating neurofeedback training (NFT) (beaming certain pulse-modulated frequencies into the mind) to increase the ability to interpret steady-state visual evoked potentials. First, the resting state alpha activity was trained on orchestrated visual signals, and then downregulating alpha band amplitudes. The relevant decrease in the amplitude of alpha band activity associated with this increased readability of visually evoked potentials was found to be established over the course of "training sessions".
I highlight that this deals with amplitudes and not frequencies, the remote influence of which is something that does not make as much intuitive sense to me. However, this study is explicitly doing precisely that.
Regardless of the specific of technology used on the receiving end for remote neural monitoring, this is clearly of relevance in understanding the ability to "force" someone to elicit a more readily monitored visual signal.
(Somehow, while going through the list of Google Scholar articles on "visual evoked potentials", I almost completely passed over this article despite the method being to read the title and description of EVERY article for signs of any potentially relevant studies, but fortunately my attention was drawn to the fact that I had done so. Which is loosely consistent with the principle that whatever your attention is drawn to is unlikely to be hugely significant, and whatever you somehow find yourself very disinterested in or distracted from should receive special consideration for extra attention - of course, the predictability of such a means is sure to be reduced upon this realization.)
2016 (May 5). Manning J et al.
A neural signature of contextually mediated intentional forgetting, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23(5):1534-1542.
Mental context (e.g., other thoughts present when something happens) is key for organizing and retrieving memories. Processes which alter these contextual representations can enhance or diminish the ability to retrieve particular memories.
By injecting a certain scene to be associated when information was given, this study was able to identify that neural patterns associated with contextual representation (related to associations with that injected scene) were lower when an instruction to disregard a piece of information was given, and that the extent of this contextual change was statistically related to the ability to recall the information at a later point. As described, "a neural signature for intentional forgetting". Namely, not only is the piece of information forgotten, but the mental context associated with the information rings less of a bell when presented with it again.
2016 (May 3). Wauthia E and M Rossignol.
Emotional processing and attention control impairments in children with anxiety: An integrative review of event-related potentials findings, Frontiers in Psychology, 7:562.
Reviews the role of the timing and magnitude of differences in visually evoked potentials causing some types of anxiety, depending on age, namely: the P100 in indicating heightened attention to a threat, the N200 in indicating attentional control to resolve conflict and inhibit incorrect responses, the P300 in "go/no-go conditions", the LPP slow wave (not peak) which appears at 400-600 ms after a relevant stimulus and reflects sustained attention toward motivationally salient information, and the ERN which is a negative deflection approximately 60-110 ms after a wrong response.
If these can be measured, presumably it is possible to elicit a degree of these effects via external means, whether by transcranial magnetic stimulation (nearby) or pulse modulations of microwaves which impact neural activity by affecting the oscillatory activity. However, it is not clear to me whether some systematic cognitive differences produce both anxiety and these differences in evoked potentials, or whether the differences in evoked potentials themselves directly reflect the more anxious response (in which case they may be remotely elicited/influenced in order to replicate or approximate these states of mind in relation to other stimuli).
2016 (May 3). Wei Q et al.
VEP-based brain-computer interfaces modulated by Golay complementary series for improving performance, Technology and Health Care, preprint:1-9.
Discusses how visual code modulated visual evoked potentials (c-VEP) show higher communication rates (number of identified outcomes/associations). This study compares a Golay code for a brain computer interface and finds that it has higher detection accuracy and information transfer rates than the alternative.
2016 (Feb). van Voren R.
Ending political abuse of psychiatry: Where we are at and what needs to be done, Technology and Health Care, preprint:1-9.
"Political abuse of psychiatry refers to the misuse of psychiatric diagnosis, treatment and detention for the purposes of obstructing the fundamental human rights of certain individuals and groups in a given society. ... In democratic societies whistle-blowers on covertly illegal practices by major corporations have been subjected to the political misuse of psychiatry."
Among other things, also mentions that many doctors could have been unaware of this abuse because they were lacking in alternative explanations for how people could have different views, etc.
Includes some references related to such abuses in other Eastern Bloc, Soviet-aligned and/or otherwise communist places. It seems that political abuse of psychiatry tapered off for a while after 1990, and in post-Soviet areas "So far though, it does not appear to be a systematic repression of dissidents through the mental health system", suggesting more local and/or non-government origins of such abuses.
2016 (Apr). Di Rollo A et al.
Generators of oddball P300 to visual omitted stimuli: A simultaneous EEG-fMRI study, Clinical Neurophysiology, 127(4):e137.
Shows a specific event-related potential associated with omission of a stimulus. It's not clear to me how this might be related to the use of neuroweapons or remote neural monitoring, but somehow it seems rather likely.
2016 (Apr 28). Huth AG et al.
Natural speech reveals the semantic maps that tile human cerebral cortex, Nature, 532:453-458.
This study presents subjects with hours of narrative stories and systematically maps semantic selectivity across the cortex using voxel-wise modelling of functional MRI (fMRI) data. It shows that the intricate patterns of semantic maps are similar across individuals (i.e., that there's similar brain activity for the same words/ideas in different people's brains. The data outputs are used to create a detailed semantic atlas of the brain.
2016 (Apr 28). Sasin E and M Nieuwenstein.
Memory-driven attentional capture reveals the waxing and waning of working memory activation due to dual-task interference, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23(6):1891-1897.
(Heavily paraphrased and interpreted for present purposes...): this study provides strong evidence that if you interrupt someone on the middle of learning something, most especially with a different kind of thought or task, that they have poorer recollection of what they were aiming to learn about. This is much different from performing poorly in a task due to distraction, it shows that recollection itself is poorer when there are distractions. Not a very surprising conclusion, but it is scientific.
Personally, I find myself faced with major distraction efforts (usually ones known to bother me, but often also just a generic brain freezing sort of effect) at many times when digesting information which is liable to be important to understanding organized stalking, electronic terrorism, etc. In fact, for a long period of time before having a clue how it was all happening, this was one of the primary pieces of experiential information I used to determine what was a good idea or an important piece of information.
2016 (Apr 27). Kusev P et al.
Judging the morality of utilitarian actions: How poor utilitarian accessibility makes judges irrational, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23(6):1961-1967.
Comparison of the trolley problem (flip a switch to kill one person and save five) and the drawbridge problem (push a person off a bridge to block the tracks and therefore save five people) suggests that internal moral principles apply when we are closer to the person being harmed and rationality is more likely to apply when we are more removed from the person. Also, when the decision is more personal, people take more time to think through the situation before making a decision - but, when full information was provided (which takes more time to study than partial information), the decision is made faster.
The applications for the situation of electronic torture should be obvious. The operators of synthetic telepathy are removed from the person, and therefore do not apply internal moral principles (although I believe substantial brainwashing via programmed harm avoidance of failing to embrace the situation as a slave puppet, and not "rationality" relating to any general sense of morality, is what is involved. In the mirror image of the utility-optimizing situation, it seems as though fuller information leads perpetrators to more rapidly decide upon their terrorist course of action tailored to evolving attacks and manipulations in response to a changing situation.)
2016 (Apr 21). Tan P et al.
Using ELM-based weighted probabilistic model in the classification of synchronous EEG BCI, Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing.
Discusses extreme learning machines (ELM) and proposes a new probabalistic model to classify signals in a synchronous brain-computer interface (BCI) system. Evaluates a number of statistical approaches, ultimately determining that a superior performance has been found, evaluated on the basis of mutual information, classification accuracy and information transfer rate.
2016 (Apr 20). Zeylab T et al.
Improving bit rate in an auditory BCI: Exploiting error-related potentials, Brain-Computer Interfaces, 3(2):75-87.
Evaluates methods of determining error-related potentials (ErrP) which can inform a brain computer interface of mistakes. Since ErrPs are thought to be most important when BCI accuracy is low, they evaluate aurally (sound perception) evoked ErrPs to investigate how to correct for mistakes in auditory BCIs (which are usually less accurate than visual BCIs). Erroneous feedback was detected by (i) making use of the ErrP, (ii) assessing BCI selection confidence, and (iii) combining these two pieces of information into a hybrid detector. The new method increased the information transfer rate when this method of correcting for errors was applied.
(I believe this line of research is highly relevant in the computer-aided deciphering wherein perpetrators introduce certain images, words, etc., and then try to force you to re-project it, and therefore are able to train the neural analysis to map out your brain processes more completely in an involuntary manner.)
2016 (Spring). Wainberg J and S Perreault.
Whistleblowing in audit firms: Do explicit protections from retaliation activate implicit threats of reprisal?, Behavioral Research in Accounting, 28(1):83-93.
Finds that adding explicit protections for whistleblowers tends to make them more aware of the many types of reprisal that they may face. Counterintuitively, being very explicit about these protections actually reduces whistleblowing significantly. Suggests that a more generic promotion of whistleblowing as part of the institutional culture can be more effective than extensive specific protections.
2016 (Mar 14-18). Fritz T and SC Muller.
Leveraging biometric data to boost software developer productivity, IEEE 23rd International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution, and Reengineering (SANER).
"...advances in biometric sensor technology offer new opportunities to measure a developer's cognitive and emotional states in real-time and thus allow us to know more about what an individual developer is currently experiencing and what might foster or impede the developer's productivity". "Our vision is that biometric sensing will be integrated into a developer's work and that biometrics can be used to boost the productivity of each individual developer."
Vision of a lovely future?
2016 (Feb 25). Townsend G and V Platsko.
Pushing the P300-based brain-computer interface beyond 100 bpm: Extending performance guided constraints into the temporal domain, Journal of Neural Engineering, 13(2).
Evaluates a new way of evaluating the P300-based brain-computer interface called the 'asynchronous paradigm' (ASP), in comparison with the 'checkerboard paradigm' (CBP). The information transfer rate was found to be 45% higher and accuracy was similar. The ASP is only one possible implementation of this work since in general it can be used to describe all previous existing presentation paradigms as well as any possible new ones.
2016 (Feb 18). Bekolay T.
Biologically inspired methods in speech recognition and synthesis: closing the loop, PhD thesis, U of Waterloo.
"... I show that the features produced by this model implemented with biologically plausible spiking neurons can be used to classify phones in pre-segmented speech with significantly better accuracy than the features typically used in automatic speech recognition systems. ..."
2016 (Jan 14). Angele B et al.
Two stages of parafoveal processing during reading: Evidence from a display change detection task, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review.
Presents evidence that both display change detection (which specific part of text you're looking at) and lexical processing (the meaning of what you are reading) do not use the same cognitive mechanisms. The method monitored brain activity when reading specified texts, and the frequency of associated words coming up just outside the area paid attention to does not affect pre-processing of it.
In my experience of remote neural monitoring, there have been a number of occasions where synthetic telepathy is used to "tell me" that some soon-to-be-observed word is already known, that they already know I'm going there. But it seems as though this is very much outside of the display area. In many cases, I believe that they determine what you're reading, load up the same page, and a few times pre-empt you in something you're just about to come to a few second later, perhaps even directing attention to it. The implementation and findings of this study suggests that this view is correct, most especially the part about NOT pre-processing things that have not yet come into view (which is different from seeing something a line below and knowing it's there already, or pre-scanning lower text for very brief periods and returning to where you were reading).
(Unrelated to the topic at hand, but this would also suggest that at a bare minimum you actually have to scan the entire contents of a page to get anything out of it, and that just looking quickly at pages will not yield much of anything on its own.)
2015. Aheadi A et al.
Shell games: Location and object-based inhibitory mechanisms in individual and social action contexts, Journal of Exercise, Movement, and Sport, 47(1).
Shows that inhibition of return occurs when a target occurs in the same direction but was not observed when the object moved in the dissociable condition. This may have some relation to the use of subliminal or unnoticed effects while directing the attention of an individual elsewhere.
2015. Blank M.
Cell biology and EMF safety standards, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 34(4):387-389.
"Although there is greater energy transfer and heating due to EMF at higher frequencies, there is no greater stress response. The cellular stress response is far more sensitive to EMF than to an increase in temperature. It should be obvious that an EMF safety standard should be based on the more sensitive, natural biological response."
2015. Lee J-Y et al.
Frequency recognition in SSVEP-based BCI systems with a combination of CCA and PSDA, Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, 52(10):139-147.
Studies steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) because of its short training time, relatively higher signal-to-noise ratio, and higher information transfer rate. Compares power spectral density analysis (PSDA) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA). The combined simultaneous use of both methods is evaluated in order to overcome the shortcomings in each, and is found to be superior.
2015. Razuri JG et al.
Speech emotion recognition in emotional feedback for human-robot Interaction, International Journal of Advanced Research in Artificial Intelligence, 4(2):20-27.
Uses an audio-visual emotional database for a computer to extract emotional state from a speaker based on analysis of pitch, loudness, spectrum and speech rate. Evaluates competing methods to use these classifiers to extract emotional states from speech.
2015. Ushakov VL and AV Samsonovich.
Toward a BICA-model-based study of cognition using brain imaging techniques, Procedia Computer Science, 71:254-264.
Maps biologically-informed emotional Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architecture (eBICA, related to DARPA AI research in the mid-2000s) according to brain.
2015 (Dec). Luban D.
A communicative conception of torture, Rivista di filosofia del diritto (Journal of Legal Philosophy), 2015(2):257-270.
"A better definition is this: Torture is the assertion of unlimited power over absolute helplessness, communicated through the infliction of severe pain or suffering on the victim that the victim is meant to understand as the display of the torturer's limitless power and the victim's absolute helplessness. The paper defends this "communicative conception" of torture, and uses it to analyze the evils of torture.
2015 (Dec 16-19). Islam et al.
Frequency recognition for SSVEP-BCI using reference signals with dominant stimulus frequency, 2015 Asia-Pacific Signal and Information Processing Association Annual Summit and Conference (APSIPA), 971-974.
In order to detect the specific frequency of steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) in an individual, the combine CCA with training responses to a template. By comparing the size of the stimulated frequency components, they are able to identify the main frequencies which can be used to monitor visual evoked potentials.
2015 (Dec 15). Maddox MM et al.
Electroencephalographic monitoring of brain wave activity during laparoscopic surgical simulation to measure surgeon concentration and stress: Can the student become the master?, Journal of Endourology, 29(12):1329-1333.
"Concentration and stress were quantified by calculating the area under the curve of the gamma and alpha EEG wave tracings. Stress was significantly lower in the attending urologists compared with the residents and medical students during the laparoscopic suturing..."
2015 (Dec 10-12). Hasan K et al.
Alpha band dependency of EEG signal on different stimulation of brain for human computer interaction, 2nd International Conference on Electrical Information and Communication Technology (EICT) - 2015, 148-151.
Shows how alpha band of neural signals elicited by visual presentation depends on size, frequency and colour. The context is one where there is a desire to increase the accuracy of modern BCIs, higher Information Transfer Rate (ITR), desired bandwidth (BW), and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of BCIs.
2015 (Dec 3). Amenedo E et al.
Spatial inhibition of return promotes changes in response-related mu and beta oscillatory patterns, Neuroscience, 310:616-628.
Shows that inhibition of return varies with location in the visual field, by analyzing oscillatory activity between 2 and 40 Hz and whether spatial IOR affects response preparation and execution during a visuospatial attention task. Synchronization and temporal spacing between different oscillatory activities is found to have a degree of specificity, in a manner that varies with location in the visual field (suggesting one of several mechanisms via which inferred potential differences may be used to provide information about the location/direction of a visual cue).
2015 (Nov 30). Omar WRW et al.
An analysis of EEG signal generated from ischemic stroke patient, 2015 Innovation & Commercialization of Medical Electronic Technology Conference (ICMET), 74-77.
Demonstrates the use of Fourier transforms to separate a two channel EEG recording into every sub band of brainwaves activity for each subject.
2015. Rawool VW.
Emerging technologies with potential for objectively evaluating speech recognition skills, International Journal of Audiology, 55(S1):S41-S50.
"...two related advances in neuro-technology include relative ease in recording neural activity and availability of sophisticated analysing techniques. ... Issues related to neuroaudioethics (ethics related to collection of neural data evoked by auditory stimuli including speech) and neurosecurity (preservation of a person's neural mechanisms and free will) are also discussed."
2015 (Sep 24-26). Kolodziej M et al.
A new method of spatial filters design for brain-computer interface based on steady state visually evoked potentials, 2015 IEEE 8th International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications (IDAACS), 2:697-700.
Describes a means of creating a dedicated signal filtering mechanism at the level of individual humans (i.e., the visually evoked potentials can vary between individuals, and this method is used to establish the specificity of those evoked potentials of each person). These filters are used to identify visual potentials for very close flickerings of light at a rate of 25-57 per minute.
2015 (Sep 24-25). Reichert C et al.
Efficient recognition of event-related potentials in high-density MEG recordings, 7th Computer Science and Electronic Engineering Conference (CEEC) - 2015, 81-86.
Demonstrates awareness that specific patterns can be associated with specific tasks via evoked potentials such as P300 responses. Because many things are always going on in the brain at the same time, there is a very "noisy" data signal which makes it difficult to verify the pattern relating to the specific activity. So, the study proposes a method to filter the data which achieves significant improvements in the accuracy with which the event-specific brain activity can be identified.
2015 (Sep 22). Chau G and G Kemper.
One channel subvocal speech phrases recognition using cumulative residual entropy and support vector machines, IEEE Latin America Transactions, 13(7).
Presents the design and implementation of a subvocal speech pattern recognition system using only one EMG channel which had about 90% accuracy with the available data in the test environment.
2015 (Sept 4). Holbrook C et al.
Neuromodulation of group prejudice and religious belief, Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11(3):387-394.
This study shows that prejudice and religious belief can be modified via external means (in this case, Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used). First, it builds on previous literature to demonstrate that the posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) mediates adjustments in adherence to political and religious ideologies. Then, transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to reduce activity in the pFMC, with the effect of reduced belief in God and reduced negative views about the out-group. (Presumably, therefore, the opposite can be stimulated by mimicking waves patterns at an intensity to achieve a certain effect -- however, this study is focused on imaging and not evoked potentials.)
2015 (Aug). Pall ML.
Microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produce widespread neuropsychiatric effects including depression, Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy.
Updated evidence on microwave EMF effects on Ca2+ channels in communication within the brain. Literature that low level EMFs have been demonstrated to have diverse impacts in animals. Evidence on effects of EMF radiation on at least 13 different neurospsychiatric effects in humans, including depression.
2015 (Aug 25-29). Arvaneh M et al.
Effects of feedback latency on P300-based brain-computer interface, 2015 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2315-2318.
Shows that feedback improves the accuracy of a BCI interface based on P300 potentials.
However, it fails to address the issue of false positives, for example as is liable to happen if planting memories, massaging beliefs, whether intentionally on the part of a synthetic telepathy operator or by some third party unknown to the operator. (Which I doubt is unknown to the folks responsible for some of the more nefarious applications of these technologies, which is perfectly consistent with the kangaroo court-esque applications of such technologies.)
2015 (Aug 3). McCulloch J and D Wilson.
Pre-crime: Pre-emption, precaution and the future: Routledge. HV7431 .M3897
2015 (Jul 15). Pittsa T et al.
Alterations in oropharyngeal sensory evoked potentials (PSEP) with Parkinson's disease, Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 229:11-16.
Shows that a high share of subjects had similar neural processes associated with swallowing. I'm trying to find stuff relating to eating, hunger, etc., but there doesn't seem to be a lot of research on this in the civilian sector. I wouldn't be surprised if there isn't a high level of neural activity relating to the eating processes themselves, as opposed to conscious awareness of eating, etc., since this is more "reptile brain" or "frog stomach" sort of stuff.
2015 (Jul). Twomey DM et al.
The classic P300 encodes a build-to-threshold decision variable, European Journal of Neuroscience, 42(1):1636-43.
Analyzes the P300 elicited by transient auditory and visual targets to examine its potential role as a 'decision variable' signal that accumulates evidence to a decision bound. Consistent with the latter, we find that the P300 reaches a stereotyped amplitude immediately prior to response execution and that its rate of rise scales with target detection difficulty and accounts for trial-to-trial variance in RT. Thus, where the dominant explanatory accounts have conceived of the P300 as a unitary neural event, the data from this study reveals it to be a dynamically evolving neural signature of decision formation.
2015 (Dec). Annas GJ and SS Crosby.
Post-9/11 torture at CIA "black sites" - Physicians and lawyers working together, The New England Journal of Medicine, 372:2279-2281.
Mentions the role of physicians in some variety of torture techniques which the "Department of Justice had approved these methods as long as they were done with a physician present". These techniques included waterboarding, threats to family, forced nudity, standing sleep deprivation (up to 180 hours), walling, and forced rectal feeding (food pureed and rectally infused).
"... On the other hand, whether torture "works" - like whether slavery "works" - is simply the wrong question. Both are internationally recognized as crimes against humanity that have no justification."
2015 (Jun 6). Summerfield C and H Tickle.
The P300 as a build-to-threshold variable (commentary on Twomey et al.), European Journal of Neuroscience, 42(1):1635.
Refers to theories that P300 indexes the updating of contents of working memory, the revision of expectations about a current task, or the updating of task-relevant information in anticipation of subsequent events.
Discusses civilian sector evidence which strongly supports this theory.
2015 (Mar-Apr). Nelson JT and V Tepe.
Neuromodulation research and application in the U.S. Department of Defense, Brain Stimulation, 8(2):247-252.
Reviews background and recent examples of DoD-sponsored research. In identifying neuromodulation technologies as dual use, and in considering applications of neuromodulation which improve performance, suggests that beneficial civilian applications may exist and that there is a need for civilian insight and influence in such research.
2015 (Feb). MacDonald AA et al.
Anesthesia and neuroimaging: Investigating the neural correlates of unconsciousness, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 19(2):100-107.
Summarizes findings from functional neuroimaging studies that have used anesthetic drugs to study cognition at different levels of conscious awareness. It should be highlighted that this study does not deal with evoked potentials, which is consistent with the specific interest in identifying the locus on activities for medical purposes.
It may also be worth mentioning, although this should be rather obvious considering all the other references, that it should be fairly easy to establish when someone is falling into unconsciousness. Many targeted individuals experience effects like "electronic caffeine", or perhaps more advanced means of preventing sleep in a victim, for the purpose of sleep deprivation which makes the targeted individual much more vulnerable to diverse forms of psychological manipulation. Considering that most of the research on evoked potentials and unconscious states is focused on people who have experienced certain types of accidents or who manifest behavioural differences, I assume that ethical concerns have been much more effective in limiting the advance of such knowledge in the civilian sector, considering that most people would be extremely bothered by the idea of monitoring their evoked potentials during sleeping hours (probably with the assumption that such research could be misapplied to nefarious ends).
2015 (Feb). Megha M et al.
Effect of low-intensity microwave radiation on monoamine neurotransmitters and their key regulating enzymes in rat brain, Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics, 73(1):93-100.
Shows that extended exposure to low-intensity microwave radiation affects expression of neurotransmitters and therefore may cause learning and memory disturbances. (Remotely administered influences seem to operate nearly in real time. So this article might be of interest for the effects of cell phone use, but not so much for electronic harassment. However, being continuously irradiated with additional microwave radiations would presumably have a similar effect to that suggested in this article.)
2015 (Feb). Pfordresher PQ et al.
A mechanism for sensorimotor translation in singing the multi-modal imagery association (MMIA) model, Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 32(3):242-253.
Proposes a way to talk advantage of the fact that EMG measures have higher accuracy in predicting singing than acoustic methods, which can be used to translate singing.
2015 (Feb 26). Mnih V et al.
Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning, Nature, 528(529-533).
Perhaps the keyword "reinforcement learning" is the most useful aspect of this article, as compared to works related to "conditioning". From the more scientific perspective, this appears to point towards rather specific understanding of processes related to thought reform, often known as "brainwashing".
Fundamentals of remote sensing, Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Natural Resources Canada.
Covers some basic science and explains some types of remote sensing.
2014. Bazanova OM.
Workshop: "Individualized Neurofeedback", Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.
Finds that individualized neurofeedback to increase certain individual EEG frequency ranges is more effective than using generalized or standard frequency ranges. Pinpoints existence of unexplored methodological factors (specifically, beyond simply considering amplitude across entire ranges such as the 8-12 Hz band) as the reason for a lack of an optimal NFT paradigm.
2014 (Dec 8-10).
Ghazali AS and SN Sidek.
Electromagnetic based emotion recognition using ANOVA feature selection and Bayes Network, 2014 Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (IECBES), 520-525.
Discusses how audio and visual stimulants are used to invoke emotional states, together with a questionnaire to verify the stimulant effectiveness in invoking the emotion, in order to establish neural patterns associated with emotional states. Electromagnetic signals radiated from the human body are measured using a handheld device called Resonant Field Imaging (RFI™). ANOVA tests are used to classify the emotions. The method is presented as a low-cost high-speed method of measuring such signals with high accuracy.
2014. Hu C et al.
Early neurological markers for unconscious detection of bitter and sour taste for investigating taste preferences, chapter in TD Plum et al. (eds) Biomedical Informatics and Technology, 288-293, Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Demonstrates the ability to identify subconscious processes relating to food preferences, in this case namely relating to bitter and sour perceptions.
I've experienced awareness on the part of synthetic telepathy operators, and also replays by the software-driven programs, of certain sorts of taste, smells, etc. I don't think it's possible to remotely interfere with these processes on a highly modelled basis, but have had some experiences where it seems rather as though some smell must have been administered at the local of the synthetic telepathy operators and transmitted via that means. Also, it seems rather clear that the ability to heighten awareness of, and the strength of perception of, positive and/or negative perceptions of smell or taste, is at times in practice. At the very least, this study demonstrates a basic ability to establish evoked potentials associated with taste.
2014. Khavanin A and AB Mortazavi.
Nonthermal effects of radar exposure on human: A review article, Iranian Journal of Health, Safety and Environment, 1(1):43-52.
"Reproductive effects, cancers, blood effects, genetic, adverse immune effects and mental effects are non-thermal effects that presented in this report". Neural, cardio, respiratory and auditory effects are all excluded from this analysis.
2014 (Dec). Xenakis SN.
The role and responsibilities of psychiatry in 21st century warfare, The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 42(4):504-508.
"... As a career Army officer, I pledged to protect our nation against all enemies, foreign and domestic. As a physician, I pledged to care for all who were hurting and needed help ... "
"... Military doctors are obligated to report any signs or evidence of such practices to higher authorities and investigators. I did not get the job, but was haunted and felt spiritually disoriented. In the span of just two generations, the United States had moved from condemning Nazi physicians at the Nuremberg Trials for their collusion with torture, inhuman experimentation, and cruel mistreatment to justifying waterboarding in the pursuit of better intelligence."
"... To learn that our soldiers had systematically tortured others by enacting a government program sanctioning torture and abuse defiled our national honor and our basic principles of justice. I have witnessed similar practices in my travels to other countries, which we regard as known violators of human rights. ..."
2014 (Nov 25). Testa-Silva G et al.
High bandwidth synaptic communication and frequency tracking in human neocortex, PLOS Biology, 12(11):e1002007.
In addition to presentation of generalized contexts in the area of science, finds "that human synaptic connections were purely depressing and that they recovered three to four times more swiftly from depression than synapses in rodent neocortex. Thereby, during realistic spike trains, the temporal resolution of synaptic information exchange in human synapses substantially surpasses that in mice" and that "human synaptic connections were able to recover about 3 to 4 times faster than those of mice". This article is included as an avenue to understanding general scientific principles in the domain.
2014 (Oct). Yitzhak NM.
Numerical simulation of pressure waves in the cochlea induced by a microwave pulse, Bioelectromagnetics, 35(7):491-496.
2014 (Oct 29). Thomson H.
Brain decoder can eavesdrop on your inner voice: New Scientist.
2014 (Sep 5). Breiding M et al.
Prevalence and characteristics of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization - National intimate partner and sexual violence survey, United States, 2011, Surveillance Summaries, 63(SS08):1-18.
"An estimated 15.2% of women and 5.7% of men have been a victim of stalking during their lifetimes. An estimated 4.2% of women and 2.1% of men were stalked in the 12 months preceding the survey." - which would amount to nearly 10 million in any given year in the United States.
"Respondents were classified as stalking victims if 1) they experienced multiple stalking tactics or a single stalking tactic multiple times by the same perpetrator and 2) they felt very fearful or believed that they or someone close to them would be harmed or killed as a result of a perpetrator's stalking behaviors. Examples of stalking tactics measured by NISVS included receiving unwanted e-mail messages, instant messages, or messages through social media; being watched or followed; and having someone approach or show up in the victim's home, workplace, or school when unwanted."
2014 (Aug 26-30). Gomez-Pilar J et al.
Assessment of neurofeedback training by means of motor imagery based-BCI for cognitive rehabilitation, 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE - Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC).
Uses the sort of EEG-BCI setup known to be used for some disabled persons, but instead for neurofeedback training by use of motor exercises among a group of subject over the age of 59, after which exercises the scores for visual perception, expressive speech, and immediate memory were higher.
2014 (Aug 19). Grau C et al.
Conscious brain-to-brain communication in humans using non-invasive technologies, PLOS ONE, 9(8):e105225.
EEG changes of an individual in India used to send a binary message by internet and received by individuals in France as a presence or absence of a conscious perception of phosphenes (light flashes) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation.
2014 (Aug 1). Engelbreg H et al.
EPA-1676 -- Long-term effects of placebo-controlled prefrontal eeg-neurofeedback training in healthy subjects, European Psychiatry, 29(S1):1.
Neurofeedback training in 12-18 Hz (beta band), with auditory and visual feedback given if a particular EEG activity was increased for at least one second, was found to have a predictable increase in certain beta band activity. However, this was not associated with any significant positive or negative changes to cognitive performance. Follow-up three years later showed that the effect persisted, leading them to conclude that beta neurofeedback could have long-term effect, regardless of their failure to pinpoint an effect that was specifically positive.
2014 (Jun). Cowen AS et al.
Neural portraits of perception: Reconstructing face images from evoked brain activity, NeuroImage, 94:12-22.
Uses the PCA statistical method to reconstruct faces by use of fMRI data.
2014 (Jun). Hutto DD and E Myin.
Neural representations not needed - no more pleas, please, Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 13(2):241-256.
Argues broadly against any need for neural representations, especially for lack of any particular need to do so. "... Referring to possibilities for neural manipulation and control ... does not help [neural] representationalism either."
2014 (May 27). Martin S et al.
Decoding spectrotemporal features of overt and covert speech from the human cortex, Frontiers in Neuroengineering, 7(14).
Builds a high gamma (70-150 Hz) neural decoding model to reconstruct spectrotemporal auditory features of self-generated overt speech. Then, it evaluates whether the same decoding model (with some modifications to allow corrections for differences in timing of the brain activity) could accurately reconstruct brain readings when reading silently to yourself. The decoder was able to reconstruct which words several of the volunteers were thinking, using neural activity alone. These results provide evidence that auditory representations of 'covert speech' can be reconstructed from models that are built from an overt speech data set.
Oh yeah. And check that title again. Apparently thinking in your own mind is 'covert speech' according to these authors. Very scary people.
2014 (Apr 6-11). Bilgic W and M Martinez-Vazquez.
Evaluation of human exposure to pulsed waves, 8th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP).
"The aim is to simulate the effect of a pulsed, high power EM wave on human bodies".
2014 (Feb). Kelly JP et al.
Waveform variance and latency jitter of the visual evoked potential in childhood, Documenta Ophthalmologica, 128(1):1-12,
Uses a contrast reversing checkerboard to evaluate visually evoked potentials in children and examined the effects of latency jitter, noise, and waveform consistency on the averaging of the VEP across childhood age.
I include this reference in part because it seems like a direction of research that could be conducive to maximizing attentiveness of children during advertising geared to children, which I think most people would find at least somewhat troubling. Presumably similar effects might be established for adults. Also, if it can be done via direct visual stimulation, presumably such effects of attentiveness (or lack thereof) can be mimicked via remote electromagnetic means.
2014 (Feb 13). van Dinteren R et al.
P300 development across the lifespan: A systematic review and meta-analysis, PLoS ONE,:e87347.
Analyzes 75 previous studies and a dataset of 1,572 participants from ages 6-87 to show that P300 signals (latency and amplitude) follow a maturation path, reach a plateau, and then later in life start to decline. Suggests the possibility that P300 latency may index neural speed, efficiency or cognitive power.
2014 (Feb 13). Yitzhak NM et al.
Numerical analysis of the microwave auditory effect: IAEA repository.
If you can read a graph with ease, these pictures should demonstrate the theoretical ease of applying formulas to predict effects.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation for treating and preventing migraine, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.
2014 (Jan). Reiner M et al.
Better than sleep: Theta neurofeedback training accelerates memory consolidation, Biological Psychology, 95:45-53.
Studies theta patterns during waking time, and relations with memory consolidation under theta neurofeedback training were found to be higher than under beta feedback or in the control group.
2014 (Jan). Dekker MKJ et al.
The time-course of alpha neurofeedback training effects in healthy participants, Biological Psychology, 95:70-73.
8-12 Hz (alpha band) activity increased during neurofeedback training. This effect became reduced beyond some point in a sequence of sessions, in particular in the 10-12 Hz band, which also had reduced total power in the second part of each session, suggesting maybe getting tired or not being able to sustain attention.
2014 (Jan 15). Wagner T et al.
Impact of brain tissue filtering on neurostimulation fields: A modeling study, NeuroImage, 85(3):1048-1057.
"The stimulation current has frequency dependent resistive and capacitive components." Also: "... these fundamental brain tissue properties can have significant effects on the neurostimulatory-fields (capacitive and resistive current composition and spatial/temporal dynamics) and neural responses (stimulation threshold, ionic currents, and membrane dynamics)."
Among other things, the question of whether frequency dependence in TMS is based on similar physics underpinnings as frequency/wavelength dependence in RF stimulation is not addressed.
2014 (Jan 12). Legon W et al.
Transcranial focused ultrasound modulates the activity of primary somatosensory cortex in humans, Nature Neuroscience, 17:322-329.
"Here we probed the influence of transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS) targeted to the human primary somatosensory cortex (S1) on sensory-evoked brain activity and sensory discrimination abilities...", and found effects: "Behavioral investigations showed that tFUS targeted to S1 enhanced performance on sensory discrimination tasks without affecting task attention or response bias. We conclude that tFUS can be used to focally modulate human cortical function."
2013. Chekinov SC and SA Bogdanov.
The nature and content of a new-generation war, Military Thought: A Russian Journal of Military Theory and Strategy, 4:12-23.
Discusses how warfare has changed (at least for major powers), especially that remote engagement is now basically the name of the game and adversary targets can now be attacked in any part of the enemy territory. Among other things, refers to the relevance of intelligence and electronic warfare technologies, automated control systems and communications facilities, and how these are likely to affect deployment options and conduct of military operations.
"...employment of military space-based system, electronic warfare forces and weapons, electromagnetic, information infrasound, and psychotronic effects, corrosive chemical and biological formulations in new-generation wars will erode, to the greatest extent possible, the capabilities of the adversary's troops and civilian population to resist."
Suggests that prior effort will be made to co-opt "mass media and religious organizations, cultural institutions, nongovernmental organizations, public movements financed from abroad, and scholars engaged in research on foreign grants. All these institutions and individuals may be involved in a distributed attack and strike damaging point blows at the country's social system with the purported aims of promoting democracy and respect for human rights." Read between the lines, and he is suggesting that the US is (was) preparing for massive aggressive deployment of new electronic weapons following a campaign of psychological warfare to elicit prior acceptance of what will come. Also, that Russia is behind.
2013 (Oct). Mendoza LE et al.
Speech subvocal signal processing using packet wavelet and neuronal network (Procesamiento de senales provenientes del habla subvocal usando wavelet packet y redes neuronales), Tecno Logicas, Ed Esp (Oct 2013):655-667.
Packet wavelet- and neuronal network-based processing was applied to 50 KHz frequency of EMG readings and obtained 75% accuracy with the experimental data.
2013 (Dec). Moseley P et al.
Auditory verbal hallucinations as atypical inner speech monitoring, and the potential of neurostimulation as a treatment option, Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 37(10-2):2794-2805.
Among other findings, the must trust-inducing "Atypical self-monitoring may lead to the experience of inner speech as external."
I'm not sure what's more interesting. The idea that simply not knowing that there is an internal voice could lead to reports of symptoms that lead to you being diagnosed as crazy. Or the fact that the diagnostic method has no space for the possibility of microwave hearing as among the potential cause of sound perception. A small reduction in the frequency of hallucination events occurred using the method, so more study will be needed to obtain more volumes of detailed brain scanning data on people who report auditory perceptions other than those with an identified source. Speculates with regard to brain regions involved in modulation of monitoring one's inner speech (huge improvement on "Covert speech" terminology of the 1960s!) as being a possible explanation for the results.
2013. Wand M et al.
Array-based electromyographic silent speech interface, Proceedings of the International Conference on Bio-inspired Systems and Signal Processing, 89-96.
Captures the electric potentials of the human articulatory muscles, obtaining as low as 10% error on a vocabulary of 108 words.
2013 (Dec). Mesiti F and I Balasingham.
Nanomachine-to-neuron communication interfaces for neuronal stimulation at nanoscale, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 31(12):695-704.
"... Two main classes of techniques have been conducted in the past for brain stimulation: Invasive: an electric current is directly injected in the neuronal tissue with electrodes; Non-invasive: electromagnetic or magnetic fields (EMF/MF) excite the cellular structure. ..."
2013 (Dec 4). Kernbauch.
Unconventional research in USSR and Russia: short overview: Cybertronica Research, Research Center of Advanced Robotics and Environmental Science, Stuttgart, Germany.
The general scope of the timeframe of active research as starting from late 19th century is consistent with references listed here; this resource has an obvious relative strength in dealing primarily with the Russian case. The focus is more at the level of research programs within the state, and some general areas of research covered, more so than being comprehensive in tracking the development of such technologies from the late 19th century to a more recent period.
2013 (Oct). Xiangyu et al.
Photoacoustic and thermoacoustic imaging application in joint imaging, IEEE International Conference on Medical Imaging Physics and Engineering (ICMIPE).
Uses a delay-and-sum algorithm was used to reconstruct the two-dimensional (2D) photoacoustic and thermoacoustic images. I.e., comparing and integrating microwave and laser imaging results.
2013 (Oct 21). Marblestone AH et al.
Physical principles for scalable neural recording, Frontiers in computational neuroscience, 7:137.
Provides an excellent summary of neural monitoring mechanisms presently available in the civilian sector. More generally, it discusses difficulties in neuron-level monitoring at a high level of time sampling. This implies that understanding of network effects is fairly rudimentary (although non-civilian research is likely to be more advanced in at least some applications). This would suggest that monitoring and remote influencing technologies are limited to working with average action potentials with limited knowledge of interactions - never mind that pulse modulations from a distance do not have the location specificity to entrain such networks in an advanced manner, this paper suggests that the modelling of neural processes is not, and with present methods cannot (I emphasize a second time this refers to civilian sector research), be advanced enough to lead to be able to line up highly orchestrated manipulations of neural oscillations in a manner to influence thought in an advanced manner that cannot be overcome largely as a manner of simple awareness.
However, in my experience it seems rather obvious that an awareness of timing a stimulus to prime an oscillatory activity for ease of manipulation and external entrainment or influence is in practice. According to this paper, if my claim is accurate, then this would almost certainly be the result of extensive trial and error rather than understanding of underlying processes.
(The previous to publication version available at https://arxiv.org/abs/1306.5709 has much better graphics of the concepts being discussed.)
2013 (Aug). Mohammed BJ et al.
Microwave system for head imaging, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 63(1):117-123.
Beams microwaves in the 1-4 GHz range and collects the dispersive properties to construct activity in the brain. 2013 (Oct 13).
2013 (Jul 1). Laakso I and A Hirata.
Computational analysis shows why transcranial alternating current stimulation induces retinal phosphenes, Journal of Neural Engineering, 10(4).
The model shows that phosphene effects from tACS are basically due to some of the current reaching the eyes. Considering the method, this is an entirely unsurprising finding, but in science even unsurprising things need to be proven.
2013 (Jul 31). Mizuno K et al.
Early visual processing is affected by clinical subtype in patients with unilateral spatial neglect: A magnetoencephalography study, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.
Demonstrates the ability to achieve pattern reversal in the field of vision. The effects are not complete, but presumably can be complemented by additional influences on neural processes.
I include this reference because it address pattern reversal, and wonder if it might have some relation to pattern reversals that I experienced in motor control shortly after the time of switching one conditioned stimulus related to sexual interest to another that is generally (universally?) considered to be highly perverse (one of which instances nearly led to me walking into a transport truck driving at 100 km an hour, and for some period of time had great difficulty with mixing up my left and right movements). I'm loosely aware of connections between visually evoked potentials and early stages of neural activity leading towards motor activities, but this certainly would not constitute EVIDENCE of this ability within the civilian sector peer-review literature.
2013 (Jun). Miyakoshi J.
Cellular and molecular responses to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields, Proceedings of the IEEE, 101(6):1494-1502
Due to possible future wireless power transmission mechanisms, reviews cellular and molecular responses. "Nongenotoxic effects refer to changes in cellular functions, including cell proliferation, signal transduction..." - probably the effects relating signal transduction are the only ones related to the topic at hand.
2013 (Jun). Sanei S.
Adaptive processing of brain signals: Wiley.
Discusses and evaluates literature on different neuroimaging systems as applied to a diversity of brain signals. Chapter 9, "Detection and tracking of event-related potentials" may be of particular interest, in that it identifies the following five types of event-related potentials: (i) beta (ß) and mu (µ) rhythms, (ii) P300 EP, (iii) visual N100 and P200, (iv) steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP), and (v) slow cortical potentials (SCP).
2013 (Jun). Markov MS.
Effects of electromagnetic fields on biological systems, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 32(2):121-122.
2013 (Jun). Zoladz P.
Current status on behavioral and biological markers of PTSD: A search for clarity in a conflicting literature, Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 37(5):860-895.
2013 (Jun 20). Wardle MC et al.
The caudate signals bad reputation during trust decisions, PLOS One.
Using MRI imaging, shows that trust is associated with specific neural activity. Which means it can presumably be associated specific evoked potentials, and therefore be mimicked.
Since the findings of the paper most strongly indicate the strongest response to indifferent or unfair partners, I see two main likely applications. One, to elicit this negative association with those who are to be the target of slander, racist sentiment, or other (presumably there is more specificity than provided for in this study), and two, to repress this association when aiming to promote trust in a situation where it is clearly not warranted (also, presumably, it is possible to remotely influence the neural activities associated with such a trusting sentiment more explicitly, as opposed to just repressing the negative association that would be warranted).
In case it is not clear, while it is important to respect one's inherited abilities to evaluate trust, at the same time one must be on guard to be able to apply logic and good sense in evaluating the potential manipulations of trust, negative sentiment, etc., which are liable to lead one away from those who SHOULD be trusted and towards those whose main interest is to manipulate or even come to dominate you.
2013 (May). Apollonio F et al.
Feasibility for microwaves energy to affect biological systems via nonthermal mechanisms: A systematic approach, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 61(5):2031-2045.
2013 (May). Horikawa T et al.
Neural decoding of visual imagery during sleep, Science, 340(6132):639-42.
Links human functional magnetic resonance imaging patterns and verbal reports with the assistance of lexical and image database. Machine learning models then predict the contents of visual imagery. Demonstrates that specific visual experience during sleep is represented by brain activity patterns shared by stimulus perception, providing a means to uncover subjective contents of dreaming using objective neural measurement.
2013 (May 24). Gomez L et al.
Numerical analysis and design of single-source multicoil TMS for deep and focused brain stimulation, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 60(10):2771-2782.
Many other sources suggest that implants are necessary for deep brain stimulation, whereas this study reports results for transcranial magnetic stimulation (which is administered from outside of the head). Perhaps the question of just what exactly is "deep" is relevant here.
Also, the study reports obtaining results where multichannel arrays are converted into single channel arrays with minimal negative effect on performance.
2013 (Apr 30). Bestmann S and E Feredoes.
Combined neurostimulation and neuroimaging in cognitive neuroscience: Past, present, and future, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1296:11-30.
"Modern neurostimulation approaches in humans provide controlled inputs into the operations of cortical regions, with highly specific behavioral consequences. This enables causal structure -- function inferences, and in combination with neuroimaging...". The article is rather more concerned with structure-function relations than demonstrating plausibility of technologies which are necessarily in use in order to be able to perform the study.
This demonstration can be considered as in-principle evidence of acceptance of capacities in bidirectional measurement of neural activity and stimulation of neural activity. The scientific journal article does not demonstrate the ability to do so from a distance.
2013 (Apr 25). Nessler B et al.
Bayesian computation emerges in generic cortical microcircuits through spike-timing-dependent plasticity, PLOS Computational Biology, 9(4):e1003037.
A theoretical work aiming to build upon preceding work, including that which finds "soft winner-take-all (WTA) circuits, where pyramidal neurons inhibit each other via interneurons".
2013 (Jan-Mar). Narayan CL.
Political abuse of psychiatry (letter to editor), Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 55(1):96.
Without being specific about numbers, asserts with at least partial corroboration that "psychiatric diagnosis, treatment or detention for political purposes has been widely alleged all over the world during the twentieth century".
"The Indian Psychiatric Society must remain vigilant in this respect and take appropriate steps in this regard as it is committed to maintain dignity and reputation of the profession."
2013 (Mar 13). Changes L et al.
Causal frequency-specific contributions of frontal spatiotemporal patterns induced by non-invasive neurostimulation to human visual performance, Journal of Neuroscience, 33(11):5000-5005.
Provides "causal evidence that distinct visual behavioral outcomes could be modulated by frequency-specific activity emerging from a single cortical region." ("Frequencies" here refers to neural oscillations, and not frequencies of photons/microwaves or pulses thereof.) Effects include changes to perceptual sensitivity. Burst (pulse) frequency was found to be the driving factor of certain behavioural modifications.
2013 (Feb). Kihlstrom JF.
Neuro-hypnotism: Prospects for hypnosis and neuroscience, Cortex, 49(2):365-374.
2013 (Feb 23). Xiao S et al.
Neurostimulation using subnanosecond electric pulses, Proceedings Volume 8585, Terahertz and Ultrashort Electromagnetic Pulses for Biomedical Applications.
"... The preliminary results show that applying a series of pulses allowed the accumulation of depolarization before activating the voltage gated channels. ..."
Electric. Not magnetic and not electromagnetic.
2013 (Jan 30). Laskaris NA et al.
Improved detection of amnestic MCI by means of discriminative vector quantization of single-trial cognitive ERP responses, Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 212(2):344-354.
Uses "a small-sized codebook of brain waves that is semantically organized" to produce a vector scheme (math stuff) by which auditory responses can be used as an indication of mild cognitive impairment. (It's not clear to me what defines them as "cognitively impaired" - maybe the person has differing function or just isn't interested in the thing ... but anyways, they're the experts.)
2012. Hajjar L.
Wikileaking the truth about American unaccountability for torture, Societies Without Borders, 7(2):192-225.
"... classification and secrecy have functioned in tandem as a shield to block public knowledge about prosecutable offenses. ... This article addresses four issues: First, a consideration of the importance of accountability for torture and other gross violations of international law; second, a summary of efforts to hold US officials accused of torture-related offenses accountable in European courts; third, an examination of several leaked diplomatic cables that expose the lengths to which ... have gone to derail these foreign criminal investigations in ...; and fourth, the unexpected consequences that leaks played in unleashing anti-authoritarian uprisings in the Arab world and the possibilities of future accountability."
2012. Robinson DT et al.
Toward an unobtrusive measure of emotion during interaction: Thermal imaging techniques, in W Kalkhoff, SR Thye and EJ Lawler (eds) "Biosociology and Neurosociology (Advances in Group Processes, Volume 29)", pp. 225-266. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Uses thermal imaging of the face to extract emotional states.
2012 (Dec). Peisah C et al.
Capacity to consent to research: The evolution and current concepts, Asia-Pacific Psychiatry, 4(4):219-227.
Among other things, mentions that "... the Nuremberg Code, in response to the perpetration of the Nazi atrocities involving involuntary, non-consensual human experimentation, represented the first formal attempt to codify principles to guide human experimentation. ..."
2012 (Nov 7). Downham RD et al.
Alpha peak training in sensory motor areas increases efficiency of executive attention networks, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.
Mentions that neurofeedback training requires concentration on the feedback signal (which may be relevant to vulnerabilities to 'hypnotic' effects of various sorts or other inducements to be attentive to one or more signals for 'training' or brain whipping purposes.)
The NTF training rewarded a 2-Hz band at each individual's peak alpha frequency.
2012 (Oct). Nan W et al.
Individual alpha neurofeedback training effect on short term memory, International Journal of Psychophysiology, 86(1):83-87.
Use of neurofeedback training to reward the brain in being trained to have increased relative amplitude in the alpha band, and effects of this on short term memory were then found to be more specifically on the upper alpha band. "Effective strategies for individual alpha training varied among individuals."
2012 (Oct 12). Liu Z et al.
Transcranial thermoacoustic tomography: A comparison of two imaging algorithms, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 32(2):289-294.
Researches obstacles to imaging (by thermoacoustic tomography) through the cranium.
2012 (Dec 4). Legon W et al.
Pulsed ultrasound differentially stimulates somatosensory circuits in humans as indicated by EEG and fMRI, PLOS ONE, 7(12):e51177.
2012 (Sep 2012). Obeid D et al.
Cardiopulmonary activity monitoring with contactless microwave sensor, Mediterranean Microwave Symposium 2012, Istanbul, Turkey, pp.1-4.
2012 (Jun 14). Cheliotis LK (ed).
The arts of imprisonment: Control, resistance and empowerment: Routledge.
"... This edited collection sheds light both on state use of the arts for the purposes of controlling prisoners and the broader public, and the use made of the arts by prisoners and portions of the broader public as tools of resistance to penal states. The book also includes a number of chapters that address arts-in-prisons programmes, making distinctive contributions to the literature. ..." (Routledge product description)
2012 (May). Groppa et al.
A practical guide to diagnostic transcranial magnetic stimulation: Report of an IFCN committee, Clinical Neurophysiology.
2012 (Feb). The Royal Society.
Brain waves module 3: Neuroscience, conflict and security: The Royal Society.
Among very many other things, most of which largely unrelated to this: "Research has also been funded by the US Department of Defense on the use of radio frequency and microwave radiation to disrupt physiological processes,
such as the release of neurotransmitters in the nervous system, with a view
to developing 'non-lethal' weapons." A comparatively small share of the content is related to use of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Among 10 recommendations, recommends: "There should be further study, by bodies
such as World Medical Association, on the legal and ethical implications of biophysical degradation technologies (such as directed energy weapons) targeted at the central nervous system. ... use in a military context raises questions over the risks of coercion and the dangers of possible side effects.
Defines some main neuroimaging methods: MRI, fMRI, other MR techniques, PET, EEG and MEG. Also mentions tDCS and TMS as neurostimulation technologies.
2012 (Feb 1). Brooks SJ et al.
Exposure to subliminal arousing stimuli induces robust activation in the amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate, insular cortex and primary visual cortex: A systematic meta-analysis of fMRI studies, NeuroImage, 59(3):2962-2973.
2012 (Jan 31). Pasley BN et al.
Reconstructing speech from human auditory cortex, PLOS Biology, 10(1).
A linear model is found to be successful in accurately reconstructing syllable rate, but non-linear models were needed to reconstruct more detailed information like syllable onsets and offsets, etc. The highest ability to correctly decode these brain signals was found within the range of spectro-temporal fluctuations that have been found to be critical for speech intelligibility. The decoded speech representations allowed readout and identification of individual words directly from brain activity during single trial sound presentations.
2012 (Jan 23). Clemens M et al.
Numerical dosimetry schemes for the simulation of human exposure to pulsed high-power electromagnetic-field sources, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 48(2):807-810.
"...takes into account the widespread spectral excitation range of pulse sources with the frequency dependency of dispersive biological tissue properties and of corresponding regulatory restrictions. ..."
2011. Giordano J and R Wurzman.
Neurotechnologies as weapons in national intelligence and defense - An overview, Synesis: A Journal of Science, Technology, Ethics, and Policy, 2(1):T55-71.
2011 (Oct). Nishimoto S et al.
Reconstructing visual experiences from brain activity evoked by natural movies, Current Biology, 21(19):1641-1646.
Reconstructing static images by observation of brain activity having already been developed, this study devises an encoding model that enables the researchers to capture the spatio-temporal structure of the viewed "natural movie" (a series of nature clips). They did this by training the model on a series of non-linear moving units to establish BOLD responses, and then taking the readings from a "natural movie" to evaluate how well the encoding mechanism worked. The method uses fMRI imaging and not any sort of wave analysis or interferometry.
2011 (Oct 12-14). Colone F et al.
Passive bistatic radar based on mixed DSSS and OFDM WiFi transmissions, 2011 European Radar Conference (EuRAD), 154-157.
Analyzes the practical feasibility of a mixed WiFi transmissions based passive bistatic radar (PBR), and demonstrates its potential.
2011 (Sep 22). Wunderlich K et al.
Hedging your bets by learning reward correlations in the human brain, Neuron, 71(6):1141-1152.
Presumably this finding can also be read from the perspective of conditioning where this sort of relationship, or 'ability', which can easily be understood as having evolutionary benefit but which may pose security risks from the perspective of brainwashing potential in an era with broad scope of possibility in mind influencing technologies, mind hacking, etc. It could also be read separately as a matter of general interest without too much concern for the specific scientificity of the work.
2011 (Aug 30-Sep 3). Meltzner GS et al.
Signal acquisition and processing techniques for sEMG based silent speech recognition, 2011 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.
Uses sEMG to measure and interpret muscle activity of the facial and neck musculature involved in speech production. Discusses methodological strategies.
2011 (Aug 18). Zwerling P (ed).
The CIA on campus: Essays on academic freedom and the national security state: Mcfarland & Co (246p).
Chapter 5 intro, regarding under Bush: "Although some of this torture resulted from inadequate training and supervision combined with ambiguous instructions, in many cases the abuse followed deliberate policy decisions made at the highest levels of the U.S. government."
2011 (Jun 27). Floel A et al.
Short-term anomia training and electrical brain stimulation, Stroke, 42:2065-2067.
"Conclusions: Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation applied over the nonlanguage dominant hemisphere can enhance language training outcome in chronic aphasia."
By "if it can be made to go up it can be made to go down" logic, the demonstrated positive application may also present itself as a plausible explanation for certain experiences reported across some variety of reported targeting experiences.
2011 (Jun 22-24). Panin C.
Subvocalization: Toward hearing the inner thoughts of developers, IEEE 19th International Conference on Program Comprehension (ICPC).
Tries to get into the heads of software developers. "When people perform complex tasks, sub-vocal utterances (electrical signals sent to the tongue, lips, or vocal cords) can be detected. This phenomenon has long intrigued researchers...".
2011 (Mar 30). Bollimunta A et al.
Neuronal mechanisms and attentional modulation of corticothalamic alpha oscillations, The Journal of Neuroscience, 31(13):4935-4943.
Discusses previous evidence that static images can be reconstructed from measuring brain activity using fMRI. Presents a coding model to improve the ability to reconstruct "natural movies". The study achieves "remarkable reconstructions of natural movies, capturing the spatio-temporal structure of the viewed movie" (but the reconstruction is not of sufficient quality for them to want to make it possible to view these reconstructions as a part of the presentation).
2011 (Mar 24). Hu C et al.
A 90 nm-CMOS, 500 Mbps, 3-5 GHz fully-integrated IR-UWB transceiver with multipath equalization using pulse injection-locking for receiver phase synchronization, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 46(5):1076-1088.
Demonstrates the potential of a low-error very high-speed very miniature EM wave transceiver (can both receive and transmit EM waves).
(I do not propose that this is the specific technology at play in the receiving side of remote neural monitoring. However, it demonstrates the ability of a precise receiver with very high-speed upload in a space of 2 square mm and extremely low energy requirement. Reading from a specific frequency, radiation could be passed through individuals and modulations resulting from activities in the brain could be read from a signal, after having already established known patterns of the P300 (and other) potentials of a specific individual in a fairly localized area. For example, radiate broadly at 3Ghz and spread around transceivers which can forward data to be rebroadcasted to something more powerful, for example to send to a satellite. A bit of thought about the physics would be needed to consider the specific means of reading the scattered waves, but it suffices to say that a significant number of transceivers could be located in a localized area with low detection risk, implying the ability to combine multiple data sources for the purpose of reconstructing the actual interference patterns and hence the evoked potentials in the brain in response to various stimuli, etc.)
2011 (Mar 23-24). Sindura G et al.
Control of electromagnetic waves through electromagnetic shielding, 2011 International Conference on Emerging Trends in Electrical and Computer Technology (ICETECT).
Presents a MATLAB modelling approach for propagation of electromagnetic waves around a shielded enclosure.
2011 (Feb). The Royal Society.
Brain waves module 2: Neuroscience: Implications for education and lifelong learning: The Royal Society.
"A growing corpus of neuroscience evidence already exists which is relevant for education. However, for some, this evidence can be difficult to access and evaluate. Findings from neuroscience are all too easily misinterpreted and applied out of context. A continued dialogue among the research base (that includes neuroscientists, cognitive psychologists and social scientists) as well as frontline teachers across all ages and the policy community is required. Good work in building bridges has already started."
One of four recommendations is to have a professionally monitored web forum "to ensure that research is critically discussed, evaluated and effectively applied", also suggesting possibilities about high quality information on neuroscience available through a web forum.
2011 (Jan). The Royal Society.
Brain waves module 1: Neuroscience, society and policy: The Royal Society.
The list of acknowledgements includes a list of professors whose other work might be worth checking out ...
Defines some neuroimaging techniques: Structural MRI, functional MRI, EEG and MEG, PET, NIRS and SPECT.
"It is worth noting that all neuroimaging techniques require participants who can (and want to) comply with the procedures and instructions entailed. The most
important technical limitation of human neuroimaging is that all currently available techniques are constrained to measurements of aggregate signals from
hundreds of thousands of neurons at a time. Thus any signals critical for perception, thought or actions that are encoded at a finer spatial scale may be
hard to detect using neuroimaging."
"... While the fictional film Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind envisages a future in which a TMS-like device can selectively erase unwanted memories, in reality such memories (as with all thoughts, perceptions and actions) are
encoded in the brain at a very fine spatial scale and interwoven with other neuronal representations. Because TMS and other techniques necessarily operate at a much coarser spatial scale they cannot effect such selective disruption, even if the desired pattern of neuronal representations was known. ..." It can also be noted that technologies other than TMS exist. For example, MTS technologies from the Motor Transport System are known to have MTS effects via magnetic fields which, like Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, can selectively influence specific memories, especially when using blue logos, of the sort that were always aqua blue-ish green to start with, but more like pretty green really, and round, with squared edges, but at least sort of roundishly square. (Feel the Godly feeling that comes with the realization!)
"Rewards support elementary processes such as eating, drinking and sex, and engage individuals in such diverse behaviours as novelty seeking, foraging, trading on stock markets and social interactions. By contrast, punishments have largely opposite effects to rewards, inducing avoidance learning, negative emotions such as fear, and feelings of displeasure. Obtaining rewards and avoiding punishments is crucial for individual and gene survival."
Suggests 3 lessons related to governance and neuroscience: "1) Levels of knowledge that are sufficient for a technology to meet initial narrow practical goals, are rarely sufficient to predict the full range of eventual indirect
impacts ... 2) Enthusiastic and highly visible championing of some specific new family of technologies by the most influential scientific and powerful industry
or government bodies, provides no guarantee that these technologies will actually come to be established in the envisaged forms ... 3) The particular paths followed by scientific and technological developments in any given area are not pre-determined by nature."
2011 (Jan 31). Colone F et al.
Ambiguity function analysis of wireless LAN transmissions for passive radar, IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 47(1):240-264.
The general principle of being able to use WIFI signals as a radar network for detecting personnel targets is demonstrated. (I haven't accessed the entire article, so I don't know the technical details enough to understand possible broader applications, namely with respect to remote neural monitoring. I do not suggest that WIFI routers themselves are being used for remote neural monitoring. However, the general principle is established. Which is not the same as saying that these are the relevant frequencies and amplitudes being used as the source of radiation from which scattered waves can be "collected" for the purpose of reconstruction according to established evoked potentials of the victim.)
2010 (Jan 31). Antolovic D.
Radiolocation in ubiquitous wireless communication: Springer.
2010. Comparative Labor Law & Policy Journal.
Volume 32(1), The law of workplace bullying.
Titles in this volume include:
"The law of workplace bullying: An international overview"
"The Australian legal framework for workplace bullying"
"Psychological harassment legislation in Quebec: The first five years"
"Legal protection for victims of workplace harassment in Chile"
"Moral harassment in the workplace: French law and European perspectives"
""Mobbing": The German law of bullying"
"The Spanish code of practice on work-related bullying: Reflections on European law and its impact on a national strategy for labor inspectors"
"The Swedish ordinance against victimization at work: A critical assessment"
"Workplace bullying and American employment law: A ten-year progress report and assessment"
2010. Danaher J.
Scientific evidence and the criminal law: Lessons from brain-based lie detection, The Irish Judicial Studies Journal, 10(1):1-37.
Worth reading in full for its potential relevance to understanding some legal aspects (to be clarified later), but its explanation of how MRI works is also quite good
"...One of the coils in an MRI-scanner emits a strong magnetic field and when a human body is placed within it, all its hydrogen protons line up with this field.
The angular momentum of the proton causes it to precess (or wobble) about its magnetic poles. The precession occurs at a certain frequency. MRI works off our ability to "see" this precession frequency. When the precession occurs around an axis that is parallel to the stronger magnetic field it is difficult to "see", but when the axis is perpendicular to the field it is relatively easy to see. One of key functions of an MRI scanner is to cause the protons to "tip over" into this perpendicular plane, thus making the precession frequency visible. This tipping-over requires the application of a torque (twisting force) to the protons. This torque must have the same frequency as the precession frequency. The application of a torque with identical frequency is known as "resonance". In the case of an MRI scanner, this torque is applied via a radiofrequency pulse.
Once tipped over, the protons will gradually realign with the magnetic field. The time taken for this realignment depends upon the viscosity of the tissue in which the water molecule is located. ..."
2010. Janke M et al.
Impact of lack of acoustic feedback in EMG-based silent speech recognition, Interspeech 2010.
Compares EMG signals from audible, whispered, and silent speaking modes. Shows that "the lack of acoustic feedback in silent speech implies an increased focus on somatosensoric feedback", which they take advantage of to increase recognition rates in subvocalization by around 10%.
2010. Marks JH.
A neuroskeptic's guide to neuroethics and national security, AJOB Neuroscience, 1(2):4-12.
In a context where medicine and psychology were complicit in degraded human rights and various torture violations under Bush, the author "calls for an urgent re-evaluation of national security neuroscience as part of a broader public discussion about neuroscience's non-therapeutic goals".
2010 (Dec 2). Chang D.
Surface electromyography based speech recognition system and development toolkit, PhD thesis, U Illinois.
Presents experimental and data processing approaches used which obtained accuracy in the 50s to 70s% range for isolated single word recognition.
2010 (Oct 22). Jameson C.
The "short step" from love to hypnosis: A reconsideration of the Stockholm Syndrome, Journal for Cultural Research, 14(4):337-355.
Discusses key work on the development of the Stockholm syndrome as a psychological explanation for the development of a bond between hostage-taker and hostage in hijack and siege situations. This is included for its being analogous to possible situations between handlers (intelligence) and their proxies, or various other situations involving mind influencing technologies where the perpetrator aims to build positive sentiment on the part of the victim towards their abuser (e.g., wannabe puppet master).
2010 (Sep 20). Norman KA.
How hippocampus and cortex contribute to recognition memory: Revisiting the complementary learning systems model, Hippocampus, 20(11):1217-1227.
Outlines the focus on hippocampus for discriminating between studied items and related lures. Patterns become less identifiable using this method as items become more similar, and the hippocampus model starts to produce similar results to a cortical model for these comparisons.
2010 (Sep 10). Hubert AB and M van Veldhoven.
Risk sectors for undesirable behaviour and mobbing, European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 10(4):415-424.
"The main conclusion of this study is that there are large differences in the occurrence of undesirable behaviour between sectors."
2010 (Aug). Griffiths TL et al.
Probabilistic models of cognition: Exploring representations and inductive biases, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14(8):357-364.
"Cognitive science aims to reverse-engineer the mind..."
Once you're talking about probabilities, you're talking about variables which may be readily available for machine learning under machine trained optimization routines. However, I think his coverage is quite different from the sort of analysis that would come from, say, a single-channel event related potential spike train data.
2010 (Aug 31). Lopez-Larraz E et al.
Syllable-based speech recognition using EMG, Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE.
Presents a silent-speech interface based on electromyographic (EMG) signals recorded in the facial muscles based on the recognition of syllables instead of phonemes or words. This system transforms the EMG signals into robust-in-time feature vectors and used them to train a boosting classifier (mean classification rate of 70% among 30 syllables).
2010 (Jul 11-16). Terry PC .
Music applications for athletes, USQ ePrints.
First, individualized links between neural activity and best shots (a shooting sport) was estimated, and then neurofeedback training was used to promote this activity. Next, use of music associated with winning was used to condition a neurofeedback response. Presents evidence of integrated multimedia approaches along these lines, to serve as a guide for sports psychology practitioners.
2010. Tufail Y et al.
Transcranial pulsed ultrasound stimulates intact brain circuits, Neuron, 66(5):681-694.
In a study on mice, finds that transcranial pulsed ultrasound in living mice had spatial resolution of about 2mm.
2010 (Apr). Denby B et al.
Silent speech interfaces, Speech Communication, 52(4):270-287.
Seems to be a decent outline of EMG technologies itself, as well as interconnected issues. "The article first outlines the emergence of the silent speech interface from the fields of speech production, automatic speech processing, speech pathology research, and telecommunications privacy issues, and then follows with a presentation of demonstrator systems based on seven different types of technologies..."
2010 (Apr). Huebera T et al.
Development of a silent speech interface driven by ultrasound and optical images of the tongue and lips, Speech Communication, 52(4):288-300.
Uses ultrasound and optical images (a CCD camera) for a silent speech interface. "The system is built around an audio-visual dictionary which associates visual to acoustic observations for each phonetic class. Visual features are extracted from ultrasound images of the tongue and from video images of the lips using..."
One hour of speech was used as the data input.
2010 (Apr). Jorgensen C and S Dusan.
Speech interfaces based upon surface electromyography, Speech Communication, 52(4):354-366.
Discusses use of surface electromyography (EMG) to recognize and synthesize speech, with attention to high noise situations (e.g., firefighters in a fire) which interfere with command recognition.
2010 (Apr). Lin JC and Z Wang.
Acoustic pressure waves induced in human heads by RF pulses from high-field MRI scanners, Health Physics, 98(4):603-613.
2010 (Apr). Schultz T and M Wand.
Modeling coarticulation in EMG-based continuous speech recognition, Speech Communication, 52(4):341-353.
"Electromyographic signals captured at the facial muscles record the activity of the human articulatory apparatus and thus allow to trace back a speech signal even if it is spoken silently. ... allows to silently transmit [presumed] confidential information." The method has a 10% error rate on a vocabulary of 101 words. Life would be much easier if we only needed 101 words, wouldn't it?. How about start with "roll over"?
2010 (Mar 30). Kahnt T et al.
The neural code of reward anticipation in human orbitofrontal cortex, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(13):6010-6015.
This paper shows that fMRI imaging can be used to establish multivariate pattern classification can be used to decode the reward values associated with sensory stimulus from patterns in the orbitofrontal cortex. It also shows that the reward coding does not depend on whether the reward is actually received [this would be "useful" in figures out which carrots to dangle in front of you].
2010 (Jan). Fernandino L and M Iacoboni.
Are cortical motor maps based on body parts or coordinated actions? Implications for embodied semantics, Brain and Language, 112(1):44-53.
Action-related language comprehension is shown to activate parts of cortical motor areas associated movement of the same body parts.
2010 (Jan). Tyler WJ et al.
Pain: Noninvasive functional neurosurgery using ultrasound, Nature Reviews Neurology, 6:13-14.
Use of transcranial pulsed ultrasound for brain stimulation.
2010 (Jan). van Voren R.
Political abuse of psychiatry - An historical overview, Schizophrenia Bulletin, 36(1):33-35.
Mostly focused on Soviet Union, with thousands of verified cases and an estimated one-third of political prisoners involved in political abuse of psychiatry for detention (or worse) purposes.
2009. Duffy M.
Preventing workplace mobbing and bullying with effective organizational consultation, policies, and legislation, Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 61(3):242-262.
"A template for developing effective antimobbing/antibullying organizational policies is provided."
2009. D'Zmura M et al.
Toward EEG sensing of imagined speech, International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: New Trends, 40-48.
While EMG has long been known to be usable for subvocal speech, this study explores use of EEG, in particular identifying parts of the alpha, beta and theta bands that have related information from different subvocal syllables.
2009. Kaye JS.
Isolation, sensory deprivation and sensory overload: History, research, and interrogation policy, from the 1950s to the present, National Lawyers Guild Review, 66(2):?.
2009. Megret F.
Civil disobedience and international law: Sketch for a theoretical argument, Canadian Yearbook of International Law, 46:143-192.
"...argues that there is an increasing trend of civil society resorting to civil disobedience in relation to international legal values. ...seeks to establish some basic foundations for an international legal theory of legitimate civil disobedience."
2009. Toth AR et al.
Synthesizing speech from electromyography using voice transformation techniques, Interspeech 2009.
Works on methods to have higher accuracy in speech predictions used from mapping this activity related to muscle activation in subvocal speech.
2009. Wand M and T Schultz.
Speaker-adaptive speech recognition based on surface electromyography, International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies, 271-285.
Compares EMG and acoustic data for speech recognition.
2009 (Dec 7-10). Gong W et al.
Estimation of threshold noise suppression algorithm in microwave induced thermoacoustic tomography, APMC 2009. Microwave Conference, Asia Pacific.
This is probably of more medical than security relevance; an image reconstruction method after noise suppression (eliminating theoretically unrelated waves) is presented for thermoacoustic tomography.
2009 (Nov 30). Vernon D et al.
Alpha neurofeedback training for performance enhancement: Reviewing the methodology, Journal of Neurotherapy, 13(4):214-227.
Outlines methodological considerations in development of an alpha feedback neural stimulation training. Specifically: the NFT training schedule; the variety, basis, and setting of reward thresholds; the nature and modality of the feedback signal provided; unidirectional as compared to bidirectional NFT; the establishment of a target frequency range for alpha; whether NFT should be conducted with eyes open or closed; and the identification of a clear index of learning.
It mentions an interest in the potential, as opposed to results, indicating the state of this technology in the available scientific literature in 2009.
2009 (Nov 6-9). Gong W et al.
Amplitude characteristics of microwave induced thermoacoustic signals. 2009 International Conference on Microwave Technology and Computational Electromagnetics (ICMTCE 2009).
2009 (Oct). Wagner T et al.
Biophysical foundations underlying TMS: Setting the stage for an effective use of neurostimulation in the cognitive neurosciences, Cortex, 45(9):1025-1034.
"Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) induces electrical currents in the brain to stimulate neural tissue. This article reviews our present understanding of TMS methodology, focusing on its biophysical foundations..."
2009 (Oct 30). Hambling D.
Tech watch: Forecasting pain, Popular Mechanics, 183(12):32.
On some use of electromagnetic weapons which cause pain, e.g. by heating or affecting muscle contractions by blocking neurotransmission.
2009. Rejali D.
Torture and democracy: Princeton University Press.
"In an era when the United States officially sanctions and relies on torture in waging its "war on terror," the book is intended not only to inform readers about these tactics, but also to chance public debate and, ultimately, help end the use of torture." (book review by Lisa Hajjar, in The Arab Studies Journal)
2009 (Jun 7). Delgado JMR.
Biological effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields, Journal of Bioelectricity, 4(1):75-92.
2009 (Jun 5). Yitzhak NM.
Generalized model of the microwave auditory effect, Physics in Medicine and Biology, 54:4037.
2009 (Apr 24). Ichapurapu et al.
A 2.4GHz non-contact biosensor system for continuous vital-signs monitoring, IEEE 10th Annual Wireless and Microwave Technology Conference, 2009.
2009 (Apr 2). Harrison SA and F Tong.
Decoding reveals the contents of visual working memory in early visual areas, Nature, 458:632-635.
Was able to predict with 80% accuracy which of two orientations of a grating was held in memory on the basis of activity patterns in the visual cortex, even in the absence of a stimulus. In other words, it may be possible to access some information about things that have been stored in your brain without even thinking about them.
(However, in my experience, to the extent this may be possible, there are routinely efforts to manipulate whatever they know about you to misrepresent the truth and convince you of something else. Also, my understanding is that most of what they are up to is in fact based mostly on "real world" (non-brain monitoring) collections of information, for the purpose of convincing you that they can read everything from your mind, serving the dual purposes of a) you being consigned to just letting them invade your mind in whatever way they want because you think there's nothing you can do to stop it, and b) massive vulnerability to falsely planted memories if you believe that they "know" something which is in fact bullshit.)
2009 (Apr 4). Vaucelle C et al.
Cost-effective wearable sensor to detect EMF, CHI'09 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 4309-4314.
This does read somewhat like a marketing document. But what is relevant is that the "Electromagnetic Field Detector Bracelet" is able to read radiation patterns in a way that they explore for potential uses in identifying the location of anything with a known electromagnetic field.
(This sort of thing may be related to opinions that "unique brain frequencies" are the means via which tracking is done. However, on a few occasions when I've managed to be clueless, lost enough, or otherwise out of control of my decisions and where I was going to go next for them to already be waiting for me, etc., it was not until I went online or was otherwise identified via non-IT means, that the electronic harassment, etc., continued. However, this article demonstrates the theoretical ability to do such a thing, if indeed there is such a thing as a "unique brain frequency" for each individual. Practically speaking, however, even if that were possible, it would take quite a long time to do so after your location is lost, because they would have to basically metre by metre go through huge amounts of information, and even then would only have predictive guesses until they were to probe in ways liable to confirm reactivity they has associated to you.)
2009 (Feb). Ibey BL et al.
Plasma membrane permeabilization by 60- and 600-ns electric pulses is determined by the absorbed dose, Bioelectromagnetics, 30(2):92-99.
2009 (Jan 25-29). Li W et al.
Integrated wireless neurostimulator, IEEE 22nd International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, 2009.
Presents a system which remotely stimulates neural activity.
2008. Hueber T et al.
Phone Recognition from Ultrasound and Optical Video Sequences for a Silent Speech Interface, Interspeech 2008.
2008 (Nov). Baltag O.
Microwaves Doppler transducer for noninvasive monitoring of the cardiorespiratory activity, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 44(11):4484-4487.
2008 (Aug 12). Swicord M and Q Balzano.
Has electromagnetic energy in the band 0.1-100 GHz useful medical applications? A review of mechanisms and biological database offers dim prospects, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 36(4):1638-1649.
2008 (Aug 4). Coffey RJ.
Deep brain stimulation devices: A brief technical history and review, Artificial Organs, 33(3):208-220.
"Deep brain stimulation (DBS) ... is the application of implantable electrical stimulation devices to treat ...". In short, for those looking to explain remotely applied effects, the keywords "deep brain stimulation" are not likely of interest.
2008 (Jul). Jin X et al.
Effects of acoustic heterogeneities on transcranial brain imaging with microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography, Medical Physics, 35:3205.
Evaluates the propagation of thermoacoustic waves through the skull and wave reflection and refraction at the skull surfaces. Finds that neural imaging quality is higher when the target region is closer to the centre of the brain.
2008 (Jun 11-13). Omar C et al.
Policies for neural prosthetic control: Initial experiments with a text interface, American Control Conference.
Among other things, using EMG to measure subvocal speech, words are spelled using a menu of characters.
2008 (May). McKinley R.
Service to his fellow men, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 123(5).
An article on the 50 years Henning Von Gierke spent at the Air Force Research Laboratory. Bone conduction and microwave hearing are specified among his major contributions.
2008 (May). Soon CS et al.
Unconscious determinants of free decisions in the human brain, Nature Neuroscience, 11(5):543-545.
Shows that the outcome of a (simple) decision is encoded into brain activity up to 10 seconds before it enters awareness, and that this can be monitored externally.
2008 (May 27-30). Mendes JAG et al.
Subvocal speech recognition based on EMG signal using independent component analysis and neural network MLP, CISP'08 Congress on Image and Signal Processing.
Proposes a subvocal speech recognition system using EMG signal, obtaining a 94 percent accuracy rate on vowel phonemes.
2008 (May 19-21). Kubacki R.
Biological interaction of pulse-modulated electromagnetic fields and protection of humans from exposure to fields emitted from radars, 17th International Conference on Microwaves, Radar and Wireless Communications.
Among other things, observes that health and safety recommendations relating to microwave radiation are primarily concerned with total energy amounts of exposure, whereas with pulse modulations there can be major effects well under thresholds designed to reduce cancer risk associated with total radiative power exposure.
2008 (Apr). Brodsky W et al.
The mental representation of music notation: Notational audiation, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 34(2):427-445.
Takes EMG measures while people subvocally read music in their head from musical notation. Confirms that subvocal activity measurable by EMG is active while reading music. Therefore, measuring subvocal activity by EMG is possible.
2008 (Mar). Schlaghecken F et al.
No difference between conscious and nonconscious visuomotor control: Evidence from perceptual learning in the masked prime task, Consciousness and Cognition, 17(1):84-93.
Subjects are taught to become consciously aware of primes which are below perception levels. This is used to study whether the process of conscious decision to take an action is the same as when the same action is taken subconsciously. A control experiment shows differences between elicited actions from effectively masked priming and ineffective masking.
2008 (Mar 31-Apr 4). Omar C et al.
Querying the user properly for high-performance brain-machine interfaces: Recursive estimation, control, and feedback information-theoretic perspectives, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, 2008.
Uses EMG to spell words from a menu of characters.
2008 (Feb). Hardell and Sage.
Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards, Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 62(2):104-109.
2008 (Jan 14). Leymann H.
The content and development of mobbing at work, European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 5(2):165-184.
Introduces concept of workplace mobbing, not systematically researched until the 1980s. Describes stages based on 800 case studies.
2008 (Jan 14). Niedl K.
Organisational, work group related and personal causes of mobbing/bullying at work, International Journal of Manpower, 20(1/2):70-85.
"The results support other findings that mobbing has a negative impact on the well-being of the affected person."
2007. Barnes F and B Greenbaum.
Handbook of biological effects of electromagnetic fields, 3rd: CRC Press, 960p. QP82.2 .E43 C73
2007 (Dec). Gapeev AB et al.
Thermoelastic excitation of acoustic waves in biological models exposed to high-peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency, Biophysics, 52:611.
2007. Hynynen K and G Clement.
Clinical applications of focused ultrasound - The brain, International Journal of Hyperthermia, 23(2):193-202.
Apparently this provides various evidence of ultrasound penetrating the skull and having thermal and/or other excitatory effects, but I haven't checked the article yet.
2007. Weber A et al.
Mobbing--a work related risk factor of service-based society? (in German), Gesundheitswesen 2007; 69(5): 267-276.
Some discussion on what constitutes "mobbing" per se. Suggests that, for prevention, "mobbing has to be considered as a serious psychosocial health hazard conditioned by work."
2007 (Oct). Alhola P and P Polo-Kantola.
Sleep deprivation: Impact on cognitive performance, Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 3(5):553-567.
Discusses both partial and total sleep deprivation (SD). Both total and partial SD induce adverse changes in cognitive performance. First and foremost, total SD impairs attention and working memory, but it also affects other functions, such as long-term memory and decision-making. Partial SD is found to influence attention, especially vigilance. Studies on its effects on more demanding cognitive functions are lacking. Coping with SD depends on several factors, especially aging and gender. Also interindividual differences in responses are substantial. The article points to a need for better understanding of recovery from sleep deprivation.
(The main relevance I see of sleep deprivation is susceptibility to memories being planted, having difficulties staying on top of things when they are trying to extract false confessions, and reduced ability to pick up on manipulations which might be used to progressively alter memories, perspectives, values, opinion, desires, etc. This is obviously the case, but that is not a scientific statement.)
2007 (Oct). Polich J.
Updating P300: An integrative theory of P3a and P3b, Clinical Neurophysiology, 118(10):2128-2148.
The P300 an event-related potential (ERP) component elicited in the process of decision making (it is a wave, the magnitude and frequency of which can be evaluated remotely). The P300 potential is divided into P3a and P3b subcomponents, which are then localized within the brain. P3a originates from stimulus-driven frontal attention mechanisms during task processing, whereas P3b originates from temporal-parietal activity associated with attention and appears related to subsequent memory processing. [I assume that eliciting mimicry of these or related potentials is involved in some of the more invasive aspects of remote neural monitoring.]
2007 (Oct 19-21). Costin M et al.
Improving noninvasive monitoring in medical care, IEEE International Conference on Computational Cybernetics, 2007.
2007 (Sep). Bleszynski E et al.
Material identification algorithm: Monopole Research.
Radar for irregular scenes, uses fast Fourier transforms and other techniques; "the code implements regularization methods for handling of subwavelength electromagnetic radiation problems in the presence of materials".
2007 (Aug). Knake S et al.
Specific increase of human entorhinal population synaptic and neuronal activity during retrieval, Neuroimage, 37(2):618-622.
The method was able to identify certain differences in semantic and episodic retrieval, but some subcategory differences were not identifiable. Data suggests the entorhinal cortex is specifically engaged during a variety of memory retrieval activities.
2007 (Aug). Wagner T et al.
Noninvasive human brain stimulation, Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, 9:527-565.
"... Following an overview of the history and current applications of noninvasive brain stimulation, we review stimulation device design principles, the electromagnetic and physical foundations of the techniques, and the current knowledge about the electrophysiologic basis of the effects. ..."
2007 (Jul). Baslow MH et al.
Dynamic relationship between neurostimulation and N-acetylaspartate metabolism in the human visual cortex, Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, 32(3):235-245.
Detects changes in the concentrations of N-acetyl-l-aspartic acid in the visual cortex decline by 13% after 10 minutes of visual stimulation, and trends towards baseline in some minutes after. This is a specific example of a remotely applicable stimulus which has a measurable effect on neuron membrane chemistry (on time scales that are eons compared to the milliseconds or less used in measuring neuronal activity).
2007. Wolf RL and JA Detre.
Clinical neuroimaging using arterial spin-labeled perfusion magnetic resonance imaging, Neurotherapeutics, 4(3):346-359.
In comparing the two most common methods for measuring perfusion (which here refers to blood flow) using MRI techniques - one of which based on dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) and the other on arterial spin labeling (ASL) - , and in defending the use of the more poorly studied of these two techniques, an improved understanding of MRI techniques in general may be obtained from this article.
2007 (Jul 25). Yildirim A and D Yildirim.
Mobbing in the workplace by peers and managers: Mobbing experienced by nurses working in healthcare facilities in Turkey and its effect on nurses, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16(8):1444-1453.
"The term 'mobbing', which includes workplace terrorizing, pressure, frightening, belittling and psycho-terror, is defined as the presence of systematic, directed, unethical communication and antagonistic behaviour by one or more individuals. These actions that occur frequently and continue for a long time...."
Over 500 research participants, most of whom reporting mobbing in previous 12 months.
2007 (Jun). Lin JC and Z Wang.
Hearing of microwave pulses by humans and animals: Effects, mechanism, and thresholds, Health Physics, 92(6):621-8.
Evaluates thresholds of which microwave radiation frequencies (via pulse modulations of them) can beam voices into human and animal heads from a distance. It identifies the mechanism via which this effect operates. Namely, the microwave auditory phenomenon does not involve direct interaction with the auditory nerves or neurons, but rather, the microwave pulse, upon absorption by soft tissues in the head, launches a thermoelastic wave of acoustic pressure that travels by bone conduction to the inner ear. There, it activates the cochlear receptors via the same process involved for normal hearing.
2007 (Jun 1). Ekstrom A et al.
Contrasting roles of neural firing rate and local field potentials in human memory, Hippocampus, 17(8):606-617.
Used implanted electrodes during a virtual tax-drive task that included memory retrieval, however broadband responses did not correlate with item-specific neural responses. Other neuronal group specificity and more generalized observations of noted differences were also made.
2007 (May). Chan ED.
The FDA and the future of the brain-computer interface: Adapting FDA device law to the challenges of human-machine enhancement, John Marshall Journal of Computer & Information Law, 25(1):117-164.
Explores new safety risks and legal and ethical implications of neuroelectronic devices under U.S. Food & Drug Administration law, with a focus on the lack of lifetime consideration in the approval process and the lack of moral, ethical and social considerations in the "procedural" regulatory regime. Suggests that an appropriate regulatory environment can prevent backlash that could lead to a moratorium on further development, and proposes a new designation for neuroelectronic devices.
2007 (May 28). Regel SJ et al.
Pulsed radio frequency radiation affects cognitive performance and the waking electroencephalogram, NeuroReport, 18(8):803-807.
"... Pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure reduced reaction speed and increased accuracy in a working-memory task. It also increased spectral power in the waking electroencephalogram in the 10.5-11 Hz range 30 min after exposure. No effects were observed for continuous-wave radio frequency electromagnetic fields. ..."
2007 (May 22). Moore RC et al.
ELF waves generated by modulated HF heating of the auroral electrojet and observed at a ground distance of 4400 km, Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 112(A5).
2007 (May 1). Cantor C and J Price.
Traumatic entrapment, appeasement and complex post-traumatic stress disorder: Evolutionary perspectives of hostage reactions, domestic abuse and the Stockholm Syndrome, Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 41(5):377-384.
"... Victims of protracted traumatic entrapment under certain circumstances may display the Stockholm syndrome, which involves paradoxically positive relationships with their oppressors that may persist beyond release. Similar responses are observed in many mammalian species, especially primates. ..."
2007 (Apr 15-20). Hueber T et al.
Eigentongue feature extraction for an ultrasound-based silent speech interface, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, 2007.
Compares several methods to using ultrasound imaging for a 'silent speech interface': tongue contour, tongue projections into Eigenspaces, and curvature-based lip profile features.
2007 (Mar 27). Bashashati A et al.
A survey of signal processing algorithms in brain-computer interfaces based on electrical brain signals, Journal of Neural Engineering, 4(2).
A survey of all BCI designs using electrical signal recordings (not reading via wave interferometry, I highlight) published prior to January 2006. The subject at hand is the use of non-muscular channels to send commands to the real world. Detailed results from this survey are presented and discussed. The following key research questions are addressed: (1) what are the key signal processing components of a BCI, (2) what signal processing algorithms have been used in BCIs and (3) which signal processing techniques have received more attention? (The question of subversions for invasive monitoring, manipulations, etc., however, is not explored).
2007 (Mar). Basoglu M et al.
Torture vs other cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment is the distinction real or apparent?, Archives of General Psychiatry, 4(3):277-285.
This paper uses a survey of a total of 279 survivors of torture from the 1990s conflict in the Balkans. It finds that physical torture did not significantly relate to posttraumatic stress disorder. Rather, the traumatic stress impact of torture (physical or nonphysical torture and ill treatment) seemed to be determined by perceived uncontrollability and distress associated with the stressors. Since ill treatment during captivity, such as psychological manipulations, humiliating treatment, and forced stress positions, does not seem to be substantially different from physical torture in terms of the severity of mental suffering they cause, these procedures do amount to torture, thereby lending support to their prohibition by international law.
2007 (Jan). Chou C-K.
Thirty-five years in bioelectromagnetics research, Bioelectromagnetics, 28(1):3-15.
2006. Jou S-C et al.
Towards continuous speech recognition using surface electromyography, Interspeech 2006.
"Previous research on electromyographic speech recognition was limited to isolated word recognition because it was very difficult to train phoneme-based acoustic models for the electromyographic speech recognizer. In this paper, we demonstrate how to train the phoneme-based acoustic models with carefully designed electromyographic feature extraction methods."
2006 (Dec). Bettsa B et al.
Small-vocabulary speech recognition using surface electromyography, Interacting with Computers, 18(6):1242-1259.
Presents results of electromyographic (EMG) speech recognition on a small vocabulary of 15 English words, obtaining an overall average correct classification rate on the 15 words of 74%, after 150 repeats of each word to train the algorithm.
2006 (Winter). Keiper A.
The age of neuroelectronics, The New Atlantis, 11(Winter):4-41.
2006 (Nov 28). Jin X and LV Wang.
Thermoacoustic tomography with correction for acoustic speed variations, Physics in Medicine and Biology, 51:6437.
2006 (Aug 31). Gene-Cos N.
Post-traumatic stress disorder: The management of PTSD in adults and children in primary and secondary care, BJPsych Bulletin, 30(9):357.
2006 (Aug 30). Axmacher N et al.
Memory formation by neuronal synchronization, Brain Research Reviews, 52(1):170-182.
Covers timing specificity in neural functions, with particular treatment of neuronal synchronization in different frequency domains. Also has highly informed speculation regarding synchronization between regions of the brain. With many variations, this general sort of approach is very commonplace is more current research.
2006 (Jul-Sep). Bistolfi F.
Evidence of interlinks between bioelectromagnetics and biomechanics: from biophysics to medical physics, Physica Medica, 22(3):71-95.
Good review, including of cellular-level effects which are only sparsely covered here.
2006 (Jul). Haynes J-D and G Rees.
Decoding mental states from brain activity in humans, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7:523-534.
This article demonstrates an extension beyond remotely reading images to remotely decoding other experiences in the brain, such as covert attitudes. The threats to privacy of thought are highlighted.
2006 (Jun 9). Mainy N et al.
Neural correlates of consolidation in working memory, Human Brain Mapping, 28(3):183-193.
Reproduces a method which "revealed that the maintenance of information involves a distributed network of oscillations in the gamma band (>40 Hz)." Found increases in gamma band activity during encoding of sequences of letters into working memory. I gather basically that if you can identify something, it is theoretically possible to influence positively or negatively...
2006 (Jun 6). Kamitani Y and F Tong.
Decoding seen and attended motion directions from activity in the human visual cortex, Current Biology, 16(11):1096-102.
Uses methods of classifying responses within the visual cortex to demonstrate directional sensitivity. Namely, they were able to correctly decode the signals associated with one of eight possible motion directions being viewed. This seems positively archaic compared to the present studies being done in imaging (see "natural movie" reference below), but this seems reflective of the state of knowledge, at least in the civilian sector, in 2006.
(It also addresses adaptive responses to repeated exposures, which I believe might be relevant for understanding mechanisms which are likely to be involved in the use of gestures, visual associations, etc., in relation to conditioned responses, for example to induce fear or other emotional responses, or even to elicit involuntary evoked actions, etc., for example following a campaign against an individual which involves coordinated use of many technologies, to establish a conditioned response in an individual).
2006 (May 14-19). Denby B et al.
Prospects for a silent speech interface using ultrasound imaging, 2006 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, 2006.
The method used does not enable to decode subvocalization using ultrasound.
2006 (Mar). Piccione F et al.
P300-based brain computer interface: Reliability and performance in healthy and paralysed participants, Clinical Neurophysiology, 117(3):531-537.
Uses an oddball sequence of flashes to elicit a P300 response. The amplitude and latency of the P300 remained stable over 40 weeks.
2006 (Mar 6). Ku G and LV Wang.
Photoacoustic and thermoacoustic tomography with both optical and electrical contrasts, Proceedings of the Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2006: The Seventh Conference on Biomedical Thermoacoustics, Optoacoustics, and Acousto-optics.
"To acquire both photoacoustic and thermoacoustic images with multiple contrasts that reflect the absorption of electromagnetic energy, biological tissues are stimulated using laser and microwave pulses, respectively". Results are presented for a variety of tissue types.
2006 (Feb). Glannon W.
Neuroethics, Bioethics, 20(1):37-52.
2005. Beason RC.
Mechanisms of magnetic orientation in birds, Integrative & Comparative Biology, 45(3):565-573.
2005. Challis LJ.
Mechanisms for interaction between RF fields and biological tissue, Bioelectromagnetics, 26(S7):S98-S106.
2005. Lin JC.
Advances in electromagnetic fields in living systems: Springer.
2005. Loftus EF.
Planting misinformation in the human mind: A 30-year investigation of the malleability of memory, Learning & Memory, 12(4):361-366.
Warning! If you have suffered from planted memories and are also under remote neural monitoring, and decide to read the original article, be prepared to be under full attack for the entire duration of reading the article. Efforts are liable to be made to twist every word and concept in a way to reinforce the notion that each specific concept and type of evidence is precisely what allows them to "know" that the planted "memory" is in fact a true one.
A review relating to the "misinformation effect" wherein misinformation or suggestion has the effect of manipulating memory or introducing completely false memories. It explores conditions under which people are susceptible to misinformation (long time after original event meaning discrepancies won't be noticed; more likely if discrepancy is not immediately noticed, although does not guarantee that the misinformation will not eventual come to supplant the original recollection; less likely to recollect misinformation as real if asked shortly after misinformation is inserted in addition to the time when the misinformation was introduce; when under hypnotic effects) or resistant to misinformation (advance warning that misinformation might be introduced).
It also explores who is more likely to be susceptible. Young children are more susceptible than older children or adults, and the elderly are more susceptible than young adults. Self-reported lapses in attention and memory are also associated with susceptibility.
Explorations of processes via which people come to believe rich complex events that never in fact occurred. (Which is an entirely different question than progressively, via suggestion, projection of images, conditioned positive and negative associations, etc., to be able to trigger a false memory that a victim does not actually believe happened, but which an external observer via neural monitoring might be able to observe -- in short, someone plants it, then someone else finds it and maybe even believes it.)
Finally, the effects reported generally see "success" of planting misinformation in the range of 10-50% depending on the scenario. However, this involves precisely one exposure to misinformation and a simple yes/no/describe elicitation with regard to the planted misinformation. Many targeted individuals find themselves under psychological onslaught for months or years to convince them of the planted misinformation. The study cites recollections of alien abductions as a commonly known example of implausible or impossible recollections.
2005. Martinez CA and AN Cruz.
Emotion recognition in non-structured utterances for human-robot interaction, 2005 IEEE International Workshop on Robots and Human Interactive Communication.
2005 (Dec). NYAS.
Volume 1060: The neurosciences and music II: From perception to performance, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.
2005 (Dec 1). Tovino SA.
Currents in contemporary ethics, The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 33(4):844-850.
The cited uses of fMRI in studies or discoveries using the method is a good demonstration of relevance or what sorts of things may be measurable, even if different methods (other than fMRI) may be involved in different applications.
2005 (Nov 27-Dec 1). Maier-Hein L et al.
Session independent non-audible speech recognition using surface electromyography, 2005 IEEE Workshop on Automatic Speech Recognition and Understanding.
In studying a speech recognition system that handles both spoken and subvocal speech, issues which reduced the prediction accuracy between treatments such as electrode position, temperature, etc., were identified with some accuracy.
2005 (Oct). Galloni P et al.
Effects of 900-MHz electromagnetic fields exposure on cochlear cells' functionality in rats: Evaluation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions, Bioelectromagnetics, 26(7):536-547.
2005 (Oct). Horgan J.
The forgotten era of brain chips, Scientific American, 293(4):66-73.
2005 (Oct 30-Nov 2). Garg HK et al.
Wireless hearing aids system simulation, Conference Record of the Thirty-Ninth Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers.
Presents a system with decent performance for wireless hearing aids.
2005 (Oct 27). Stickgold R.
Sleep-dependent memory consolidation, Nature, 437:1272-1278.
Reviews literature on how memory consolidation depends on sleep. Presents converging evidence, from the molecular to the phenomenological, which leaves little doubt that offline memory reprocessing during sleep is an important component of how our memories are formed and ultimately shaped.
(This is obviously relevant for a major issue with sleep deprivation: if you are sleep deprived during the process of brainwashing, etc., it is difficult to remember what happened, and one is liable to be susceptible to suggestion that it never happened, or at the very least to be manipulated into incorrectly believing that it was all benign, a trivial occurrence that should be shrugged off. Also, when sleep deprived, it is likely to be more difficult to resist remotely administered interference designed to promote certain behaviours, a rightward twitch which may cause a car accident, or something more serious like an incitation to sexually assault or kill someone.)
2005 (Oct 25). Muller-Putz GR et al.
Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based communication: Impact of harmonic frequency components, Journal of Neural Engineering, 2(4):123-130.
Discusses how brain signals resulting from repetitive stimulation have the same fundamental frequency as the stimulation but also include higher harmonics. This study investigated how the classification accuracy of a 4-class BCI system can be improved by incorporating visually evoked harmonic oscillations.
It's not clear to me what exactly this might mean for the remote monitoring side of things, but it seems well within the realm of possibility that better modelling of repeatedly evoked potentials could lead to greater ease of memory implantation, or perhaps increase belief in the truthiness of an inserted suggestion or idea, by mimicking harmonics associated with a repeated stimulation (speculative, but it seems clearly possible to introduce an idea in a manner that suggests it has been present for quite some time, perhaps even self-evident in a sense - whether this is the general mechanism at play does not seem at all clear to me, however).
2005 (Oct 12-14). Gardiol F.
Biological effects of portable communication equipment - A review, 18th International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics and Communications.
2005 (Aug). Murata A et al.
Evaluation of mental fatigue using feature parameter extracted from event-related potential, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 35(8):761-770.
A specific method was developed to eliminate noise from cross-correlations between certain waveforms in order to have a more clean presentation of the P300 in identifying changes in peaks related to mental fatigue, although the remaining explanatory or predictive power was not broad.
2005 (Aug 23). di Pellegrino G et al.
Implicitly evoked actions modulate visual selection: Evidence from parietal extinction, Current Biology, 15(16):1469-1472.
Visual stimuli of a graspable object are associated with the beginning of neural activities which are basically priming the person to begin acting on it. For example, seeing a cup with a handle starts early processes of preparing to grasp it - in that case the rate at which the visually-related activity in the brain became non-detectable only varied with whether the cup had a left of right handle. In the absence of such a process beginning to grasp an object, a means of activating the beginning of specific action-oriented processes in the brain is proposed.
2005 (Aug 12). Luck SJ.
An introduction to the event-related potential technique, Cognitive Neuroscience, MIT Press.
The first comprehensive guide to the practicalities of conducting ERP experiments in cognitive neuroscience and related fields, including affective neuroscience and experimental psychopathology. The book can serve as a guide for the classroom or the laboratory and as a reference for researchers who do not conduct ERP. I haven't reviewed this book at all, but presumably it serves as a good compilation of civilian sector knowledge existing in this field at the time of publication.
2005 (Aug 3). Basoglu M.
Psychiatric and cognitive effects of war in former Yugoslavia - Association of lack of redress for trauma and posttraumatic stress reactions, Journal of the American Medical Association, 294(5):580-590.
Shows findings of psychological torture (during the period of conflict in Yugoslavia) having similarly severe long-term impacts as physical torture.
2005 (Jul). Haynes J-D and G Rees.
Predicting the stream of consciousness from activity in human visual cortex, Current Biology, 15(14):1301-1307.
Shows that externally analyzing spatial patterns of activity in the visual cortex can predict feature-specific stimulus representations for both visible and invisible stimuli. This research explores whether stream of consciousness can be predicted by the same means.
2005 (Jul 29). Sienkiewicz Z et al.
Neurobehavioural effects of electromagnetic fields, Bioelectromagnetics, 26(S7):S116-S126.
The specific treatment studied (exposure to low level electromagnetic fields) did not have much of an effect on neurobehavioural function.
2005 (Jun). Carter RL.
Microwave auditory effects and applications, Proceedings of the IEEE, 67(5):875-876.
2005 (Jun). Tokowicz N and B MacWhinney.
Implicit and explicit measures of sensitivity to violations in second language grammar: An event-related potential investigation, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27(2):173-204.
Identified specific differences in some event-related potentials associated with differences in sentence construction in different languages. The article suggests comparing event-related potentials and behavioural data could provide a sensitive method for measuring implicit processing.
(Personally, I've experienced heightened interest in my thinking processes when performing translations. The extent to which this is linked to trying to figure me out to "brainwash me better" and the extent to which this is associated with general purpose non-consensual and involuntary experimentation is not entirely clear. However, this study demonstrates an existing base of knowledge on event-related potentials in this regard in addition to an incomplete basis of knowledge in this regard - which clearly also remains fairly incomplete in the non-civilian sector.)
2005 (Apr 9). Mantzaridis H and GNC Kenny.
Auditory evoked potential index: A quantitative measure of changes in auditory evoked potentials during general anaesthesia, Anaesthesia, 52(11):1030-1036.
Evaluates differences in auditory evoked potentials under anaesthesia. A large difference is found between the evoked potentials under anaesthesia and afterwards. In addition to suggesting that evoked potentials could be used to ensure that anaesthetics are working properly (personally, I think I'd rather not agree to having my brain activity monitored like that), this may be comforting for those who are concerned about dream insertion (which I believe is actually achieved by bringing someone into a lucid state which you are likely to be somewhat aware of, and can write the main features down immediately after, rather than in the midst of deep sleep, say). It should be noted that the reduced in auditory evoked potentials is dramatic, but not complete. I DO wonder if some sort of psychic driving, suggestions, etc., may at times have been applied during sleep, but in retrospect many effects I had associated with this are likely to be achievable by other means.
2004. Moreno JD.
DARPA on your mind, Cerebrum, 162(2):219-255.
"... shifting the battlefield to our very brains. The national-security establishment - and particularly the Pentagon's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) - supports research at the intersection of neuroscience and national security that could ultimately enable authorities to do things like enhance (or muddle, or erase) memory, monitor crowds for individuals whose brain patterns correlate with aggressive behaviors, or control weapons from afar merely with thoughts. What are the dangers?"
2004. Schlaghecken F and M Eimer.
Subliminal stimuli can bias 'free' choices between response alternatives, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review -- Brief Reports, 11(3):463-468.
Investigates whether subliminal stimuli designed affects decisions which appear to have been decided upon independently. The expected effect is found, but the effect appears to differ depending on the task being manipulated by the subliminal stimuli.
2004 (Jun). Osepchuk JM.
Environmental standards: The new concept and key to international harmonization of safety standards for the safe use of electromagnetic energy, International Symposium on Technology and Society.
Peripheral to the general treatment, microwave auditory effect is mentioned among issues.
2004 (Jun). Pelayo FJ et al.
Translating image sequences into spike patterns for cortical neuro-stimulation, Neurocomputing, 58-60:885-892.
Uses measures of neural activity to calibrate treatment applied by neurostimulation. The method to apply the neural effect is by microelectrode, as compared to other neurostimulation methods which involved photons.
2004 (Jun). Schalk G et al.
BCI2000: A general-purpose brain-computer interface (BCI) system, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 51(6):1034-1043.
Develops a documented general-purpose brain-computer interface (BCI) research and development platform called BCI2000. BCI2000 can incorporate alone or in combination any brain signals, signal processing methods, output devices, and operating protocols. This report is intended to describe to investigators, biomedical engineers, and computer scientists the concepts that the BCI2000 system is based upon and gives examples of successful BCI implementations using this system. To date, we have used BCI2000 to create BCI systems for a variety of brain signals, processing methods, and applications. The data show that these systems function well in online operation and that BCI2000 satisfies the stringent real-time requirements of BCI systems.
2004 (Jun). Schlaghecken F and E Martin.
Masked prime stimuli can bias 'free' choices between response alternatives, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11(3), 463-468.
2004 (Jun 30). Liboff AR.
Toward an electromagnetic paradigm for biology and medicine, The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 10(1):41-47.
In addition to pointing to some possible medical benefits which may arise from understanding biological entities in their electromagnetic sense as opposed to as molecules, etc., and the methods which may be applied in consideration of that view, the following may be of interest in understanding some different imaging, diagnostic or measurement methods: "...Medical diagnostic procedures make use of infrared thermography for subcutaneous examination. Weak microwave signals are radiated by living things. However these cases, involving infrared and microwave detection, simply reflect the fact that any heated object will radiate. But animals also emit another type of electromagnetic signal. Superconducting quantum interference detection (SQUID) techniques routinely detect magnetic signals from the brain, the heart, and other endogenous current sources. Each of these signals is magnetically coherent, reflecting the fact that the currents in each source are in phase, with changes occurring simultaneously."
2004 (May 1). Birmingham JT et al.
Lymnaea stagnalis and the development of neuroelectronic technologies, The Journal of Neuroscience Research, 76(3):277-281
2004 (Apr). Lin JC.
Studies on microwaves in medicine and biology: From snails to humans, Bioelectromagnetics, 25(3):146-159.
2003. Adair ER and DR Black.
Thermoregulatory responses to RF energy absorption, Bioelectromagnetics, 24(S6):S17-S38.
2003. Bell V et al.
Beliefs about delusions, The Psychologist, 6(8):418-422.
2003. Chou C-K and JA D'Andrea.
Reviews of effects of RF fields on various aspects of human health: Introduction, Bioelectromagnetics, 24(S6):S5-S6.
2003. D'Andrea JD et al.
Behavioral and cognitive effects of microwave exposure, Bioelectromagnetics, 24(S6):S39-S62.
2003. D'Andrea JA et al.
Microwave effects on the nervous system, Bioelectromagnetics, 24(S6):S107-S147.
2003. Elder JA.
Ocular effects of radiofrequency energy, Bioelectromagnetics, 24(S6):S14-S161.
2003. Elder JA and CK Chou.
Auditory response to pulsed radiofrequency energy, Bioelectromagnetics, 24(S6):S162-S172.
Mentions frequency thresholds and types of sounds, as well as the thermoelastic expansion theory to explain RF hearing. "The auditory response has been shown to be dependent upon the energy in a single pulse and not on average power density."
2003. Lenhardt ML.
Ultrasonic hearing in humans: Applications for tinnitus treatment, International Tinnitus Journal, 9(2):69-75.
Among other things, a presentation on ultrasonic hearing includes much scientific documentation on the facts of ultrasonic hearing via bone conduction being possible.
2003 (Dec). Keysers C et al.
Audiovisual mirror neurons and action recognition, Experimental Brain Research, 153(4):628-636.
"Many object-related actions can be recognized both by their sound and by their vision. ... monkey ... These 'audiovisual mirror neurons' therefore represent actions independently of whether these actions are performed, heard or seen. ... two actions could be discriminated with 97% accuracy."
2003 (Jul 24). Rudolph A.
Military: Brain machine could benefit millions, Nature, 424(6947):369.
2003 (Jun 19). Editorial.
Silence of the neuroengineers, Nature, 423(6942):787.
2003 (Jun 19). Hoag H.
Neuroengineering: Remote control, Nature, 423(6942):796-98.
2003 (May). Tamaguchi H et al.
1439-MHz pulsed TDMA fields affect performance of rats in a T-maze task only when body temperature is elevated, Bioelectromagnetics, 24(4)223-230.
2003 (Jan). Hossman K-A and DM Herrman.
Effects of electromagnetic radiation of mobile phones on the central nervous system, Bioelectromagnetics, 24(1):49-62.
2002. Chan ADC et al.
Hidden Markov model classification of myoelectric signals in speech, IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, 21(5):143-146.
Compares performance of two methods to classify and discriminate within a dataset for speech recognition from EMG.
2002. Herrmann MJ et al.
Face-specific event-related potential in humans is independent from facial expression, International Journal of Psychophysiology, 45(3):241-244.
Emotional valence in stimuli causes differences in amplitude of spike trains as early as 100ms after a stimulus. This enables to test for whether face-specific EEG potentials are modified by emotional context in an image - they are not.
2002. Morsella E and RM Krauss.
Movement facilitates speech production: A gestural feedback model, Columbia University.
When speaking, magnitude of muscle activation (measured by EMG) was predicted by the word's concreteness and spatiality. Also, memory recall was reduced when gesturing was suppressed.
2002. Smith PD and SR Cloude.
Ultra-wideband, short-pulse electromagnetics: Springer. TK6573 .U5723
2002 (Dec). Canli T and Z Amin.
Neuroimaging of emotion and personality: Scientific evidence and ethical considerations, Brain and Cognition, 50(3):414-431.
2002 (Oct 23-26). Villapecellin-Cid MM et al.
Electromagnetic fields induced in anisotropic tissues by myelinated axons, 24th Annual Conference and the Annual Fall Meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society EMBS/BMES Conference.
Indicates that direction of axes is not particularly relevant in electromagnetic field induced in tissues surrounding a myelinated axon. I think this might be related to the question of whether direction/orientation of the head is highly relevant to decoding data streams of amplitude and frequency patterns decodable from the EM bath after interacting with the brain.
2002 (Aug 7). Lin JC.
Scientific literature on biological effects of radio frequency radiation: Criteria for evaluation, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 44(2):140-142.
2002 (Aug 6). Sienkiewic Z.
Biological effects of electromagnetic fields, Power Engineering Journal, 12(3):131-139.
2002 (Jul). Badin P et al.
Three-dimensional linear articulatory modeling of tongue, lips and face, based on MRI and video images, Journal of Phonetics, 30(3):533-553.
2002 (Jun). Lin JC.
Health effects: hearing microwaves: The microwave auditory phenomenon, IEEE Microwave Magazine, 3(2):30-34.
2002 (May 1). Di Luzio MAM and S Di Luzio.
Biological effects of electromagnetic fields, International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, 15(2):95-105.
2002 (Feb). Pakhomov AG et al.
Comparison of dose dependences for bioeffects of continuous-wave and high-peak power microwave emissions using gel-suspended cell cultures, Bioelectromagnetics, 23(2):158-167.
2002 (Jan 23). Cook CM et al.
Human electrophysiological and cognitive effects of exposure to ELF magnetic and ELF modulated RF and microwave fields: A review of recent studies, Bioelectromagnetics, 23(2):144-157.
2001 (Dec). Lin JC.
Hearing microwaves: The microwave auditory phenomenon, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, (43)6:166-168.
2001 (Dec). Suffczynski P et al.
Computational model of thalamo-cortical networks: Dynamical control of alpha rhythms in relation to focal attention, The International Journal of Psychophysiology, 43(1):25-40.
Alpha rhythms modulate as subjects perform certain tasks or respond to certain stimuli. In some instances there is synchronization of alpha waves after an event, and in some instances there is desynchronization, contributing to an observation of changes in amplitude of the alpha wave peaks -- this can be differentiated among specific frequencies. Discovery of distinct modules lead them to suggest that "cross-talk" between these distinct modules explains why paying attention to a certain stimulus (the focus) is coupled to inhibition of attention given to another (the surround).
2001 (Dec 21). Harland CJ et al.
Electric potential probes - new directions in the remote sensing of the human body, Measurement Science and Technology, 13(2).
Demonstrates the ability to measure electric potential in the heart and perform remote EEGs, up to a distance of 1 metre. It takes advantage of advances (by 2001) in ultra-low-noise, ultra-high-input-impedance probes. I highlight two things: a) this was demonstrated over 15 years ago already, and b) this research was performed in the civilian sector, which complies with ethical research standards according to the Nuremberg Code.
2001 (Oct 25). Huang J et al.
Comparing cortical activations for silent and overt speech using event-related fMRI, Human Brain Mapping, 15(1):39-53.
Spoken speech along with subvocal speech interferes with fMRI readings of the subvocalization, so they study techniques to reduce motion, and then conclude that means of data processing are needed to address this.
2001 (Sep). Adair ER et al.
Human exposure to 2450 MHz CW energy at levels outside the IEEE C95.1 standard does not increase core temperature, Bioelectromagnetics, 22(6):429-439.
Tests continuous wave microwave irradiation above safety standards, but body temperature does not rise. This can be contrasted with some indications from monkey studies (and others) that thermoregulatory behaviour can be affected by microwaves in other conditions.
2001 (Aug). Bacon C et al.
Acoustic waves generated by pulsed microwaves in viscoelastic rods: Modeling and experimental verification, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 110(3):1398.
2001 (Jul 19). Umilta MA et al.
I know what you are doing: A neurophysiological study, Neuron, 31(1):155-165.
Same mirror neurons are activated when the final part of an observed action is hidden, suggesting that "mirror neuron activation could be at the basis of action recognition". (This extends somewhat upon simply observing that some same neurons are involved in doing an action and observing it in others, which is the definition of a 'mirror neuron'.
2001 (Jul). Chan ADC et al.
Myo-electric signals to augment speech recognition, Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 39(4):500-504
Proposes the use of EMG signals to augment speech recognition in noisy environments. Hardware is built into the helmet and data processing methods are outlined, with classification errors in the 3-10% range in the study sample.
2001 (Jun). Lin JC.
The blood-brain barrier, cancer, cell phones, and microwave radiation, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 43(3):141-143.
2001 (Jun). NYAS.
Volume 930: The biological foundations of music, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.
2001 (May). Adair ER et al.
Partial-body exposure of human volunteers to 2450 MHz pulsed or CW fields provokes similar thermoregulatory responses, Bioelectromagnetics, 22(4):246-259.
2001 (May 20-24). Droitcour A et al.
A microwave radio for Doppler radar sensing of vital signs, IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest.
A microwave Doppler vital signs system operating up to one meter.
2001 (Apr). Herrmann CS.
Human EEG responses to 1-100 Hz flicker: Resonance phenomena in visual cortex and their potential correlation to cognitive phenomena, Experimental Brain Research, 137(3) 346-353.
Demonstrates that flickering visual phenomena are processed more quickly at certain firing rates, namely, in the range of 30-80 times per second. Clear resonancies were found around 10, 20, 40 and 80 Hz, suggesting much more than being processed faster, but that entire potential schematics of brain activity could be entrained on a certain frequency by virtue of applying such frequencies.
(Presumably this would be informative on the matter of subliminal programming, whether directly in front of the subject or "beamed in" from elsewhere via pulse modulated microwaves. The matter of neural activity becoming synchronized to firing rates is also likely to have some relevance to understanding the ways in which remote neural influencing technologies are being implemented. I assume that some means of synchronization is applied to increase the effectiveness of more targeted signals or efforts to "force" the brain of the individual into rates of oscillation which are more easily read for remote neural monitoring purposes.
Civilian sector technological context of this study: most people had not yet sent an email, and there was not yet any such thing as a smartphone.)
2001 (Apr 25). Huang X et al.
Spoken language processing: A guide to theory, algorithm and system development: Prentice.
2001 (Feb). Suaning GJ and NH Lovell.
CMOS neurostimulation ASIC with 100 channels, scaleable output, and bidirectional radio-frequency telemetry, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 48(2):248-260.
Tests a 100-channel integrated circuit for neurostimulation. Uses a worn transmitter and an implantable stimulator, to be used together in transmitting "data and power across tissue" by photons across these 100 channels. Mentions "paucity of data pertaining to the stimulation thresholds necessary in evoking a physiological response".
2001 (Jan). Farwell LA and SS Smith.
Using brain MERMER testing to detect knowledge despite efforts to conceal, Journal of Forensic Sciences, 46(1):135-143.
This experiment examined the accuracy and reliability of the memory and encoding related multifaceted electroencephalographic response (MERMER) technique for detecting information related to events subjects have experienced, despite subjects' efforts to conceal that knowledge. Information obtained through interviews was used to develop stimulus sets consisting of words and phrases presented to subjects visually by computer. Electrical brain responses to the stimuli were recorded and analyzed. MERMERs, (memory and encoding related multifaceted electroencephalographic responses), of which the P300 is a sub-component, were used to determine whether the subject had the relevant information stored in his brain (information present) or not (information absent), thus indicating whether or not each subject had participated in the real-life event in question. (Of course, this probably isn't sensitive to the difference to trying to refuse elicitation of a planted memory, a bullshit connection, etc., from actual concealment. Or the fact that someone who has been exposed to this repeatedly will have the habit of trying to uphold the privacy of their mind no matter what the cause. And never mind the fact that the right to remain silent is in fact a core principle of justice, at least in the West.)
2000. Pakhomov AG et al.
Comparative effects of extremely high power microwave pulses and a brief CW irradiation on pacemaker function in isolated frog heart slices, Bioelectromagnetics, 21(4):245-254.
2000. White E.
The state of unclassified and commercial technology capable of some electronic mind control effects.
This is a pioneering work in elucidating on many of the more technical and sci-fi like events and technologies defined in this glossary. Namely, it does not just describe abstract scientific experiments, but relates how they are being applied in a highly nefarious manner. A major point of reference for most targeted individuals who have a clue what is going on.
2000 (Dec 14). Bacon C et al.
One-dimensional prediction of the acoustic waves generated in a multilayer viscoelastic body by microwave radiation, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 238(5):853-867.
2000 (Nov). Lin JC et al.
Computer simulation and experimental studies of SAR distributions of interstitial arrays of sleeved-slot microwave antennas for hyperthermia treatment of brain tumors, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 48(11):2191-2198.
2000 (Nov). Watanabe Y et al.
FDTD analysis of microwave hearing effect, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 48(11):2126-2132.
2000 (Nov 1). Luck SJ et al.
Event-related potential studies of attention, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(11):432-440.
Isolates the operation of attention in specific cognitive subsystems such as perception, working memory, and response selection. In addition to a list of specific technical conclusions, it should be highlighted that the ability to identify attention-related event-related potentials implies an ability to influence such attention (whether positively or negatively).
2000 (Sep 21). Laurence JA et al.
Biological effects of electromagnetic fields -- Mechanisms for the effects of pulsed microwave radiation on protein conformation, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 206(2):291-298.
2000 (Sep 18). Friedman D and R Johnson.
Event-related potential (ERP) studies of memory encoding and retrieval: A selective review, Microscopy Research Technique, 51(1):6-28.
Shows good correspondence between ERP techniques and the results of studies that use imaging techniques.
2000 (Jun). Donchin E et al.
The mental prosthesis: Assessing the speed of a P300-based brain-computer interface, IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering, 8(2).
Describes a study designed to assess a brain-computer interface (BCI). The BCI presents the user with a matrix of 6 by 6 cells, each containing one letter of the alphabet. The user focuses attention on the cell containing the letter to be communicated while the rows and the columns of the matrix are intensified. Each intensification is an event in the oddball sequence, the row and the column containing the attended cell are "rare" items and, therefore, only these events elicit a P300. The computer thus detects the transmitted character by determining which row and which column elicited the P300. The authors report an assessment, using a bootstrapping approach, which indicates that an off line version of the system can communicate at the rate of 7.8 characters a minute and achieve 80% accuracy. The system's performance in real time was also assessed. The authors' data indicate that a P300-based BCI is feasible and practical. In the year 2000. 16 years ago. When the most powerful computer on the market was less powerful than most smartphones today, and when computer learning algorithms were in their infancy.
2000 (Jun). Marino C et al.
Effects of microwaves (900 MHz) on the cochlear receptor: exposure systems and preliminary results, Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 39(2):131-136.
2000 (Summer). Oleynikov PV.
German scientists in the Soviet atomic project, The Non-Proliferation Review, 7(2):1-30.
2000 (Jun 11-16). Kruger et al.
Thermoacoustic CT, IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest.
2000 (May). Geng K and WV Lihong.
Scanning thermoacoustic tomography in biological tissue, Medical Physics, 27(5):1195-1202.
Uses similar principles to that believed to explain microwave hearing (thermoacoustic expansion) along with an ultrasonic transducer, in a way that can generate multi-dimensional images from a one-dimensional system.
2000 (May 19). Kruger RA et al.
Thermoacoustic CT: Imaging principles, Biomedical Optoacoustics, 150.
2000 (Feb). Foster KR.
Thermal and nonthermal mechanisms of interaction of radio-frequency energy with biological systems, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 28(1):15-23.
2000 (Feb). Polk C.
Biological applications of large electric fields: Some history and fundamentals, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 28(1):6-14.
Outlines some literature and definitions of core concepts.
1999. Bersani F.
Electricity and magnetism in biology and medicine: Springer.
1999. Binghy VN.
A formula for frequency and amplitude windows of some ELF and null MF bioeffects follows from the Schroedinger equation, in F Bersani (ed) Electricity and magnetism in biology and medicine: Springer.
Suggests that physical resonant processes, namely "cyclotron resonance", popular at the time for explaining ELF bioeffects, failed to explain certain observations at subharmonic levels in cyclotron frequencies.
1999. Bortkiewicz A et al.
ECG abnormalities in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields at different exposure levels, in F Bersani (ed) Electricity and magnetism in biology and medicine: Springer.
Evaluate cardiovascular function in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields in an effort to understand effects/symptoms reported by the Soviets in the 1960s such as heart rhythm disturbances, impaired conduction, decreased amplitude of ECG records and blood pressure changes.
1999. D'Andrea JA.
Behavioral evaluation of microwave irradiation, Bioelectromagnetics, 20(S4):64-74.
1999. Luben RA.
Effects of extremely low frequency EMF on signal transduction pathways in vitro, in F Bersani (ed) Electricity and magnetism in biology and medicine: Springer.
Since electric field attenuation from outside the cell to its centre is about 1000 to 100,000 fold, it is surprising that low energy fields can affect the inside of the cell - signalling mediation across the membrane (e.g., transport proteins) is suggested as an explanation. However, this work may have some disconnect in terms of the differences between an electromagnetic field and (continuous or pulsed) radiated electromagnetic waves.
1999. Markov MS and AA Pilla.
Calcium ion binding is emerging as essential in the transduction of exogenous electromagnetic field (EMF) signals into physiological responses, in F Bersani (ed) Electricity and magnetism in biology and medicine: Springer.
"Calcium ion binding is emerging as essential in the transduction of exogenous electromagnetic field (EMF) signals into physiological responses...". Four other mechanisms identified from previous experimental evidence: 1) electrochemical changes at specific binding sites, 2) membrane-bound proteins signalling into the interior, and 3) coupling with cytoskeleton and other subcellular components. neuron firing.
1999. Mir LM.
Biomedical applications of short, intense electric pulses, in F Bersani (ed) Electricity and magnetism in biology and medicine: Springer.
"...there are also interesting biomedical applications of the use of short, intense electric pulses delivered for very short times. These electric pulses result in changes of cell membrane properties that have been termed electropermeabilization or electroporation".
1999. Nair I et al.
Biological electron transfer: A possible framework for some of the biological effects of ELF magnetic fields?, in F Bersani (ed) Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine: Springer.
Mentions calcium efflux among biological effects of ELF fields (which presumably can be approximated by some modulations, etc., of photon pulses). From physics perspective, highlights 1) responsive to energy levels which are low from thermal collision perspective and 2) the response is selective in many ways - for example with time characteristics seeming more important than the strength of the field.
1999. Nathel H.
Laser opt-acoustic imaging: Let there be light that sounds!, Optics and Photonics News, 10(6):27.
1999. Pillia AA et al.
EMF signals and ion/ligand binding kinetics: Prediction of bioeffective waveform parameters, in F Bersani (ed) Electricity and magnetism in biology and medicine: Springer.
Includes very brief historical overview relating to the field. "... This work considers the coupling of EMF signals to target kinetics and the choice of optimum waveform parameters using a tissue/cell impedance model7 through evaluation of the frequency response of the signal to thermal noise ratio (SNR) at the binding site. Application is made to Ca2+/CaM-dependent myosin phosphorylation."
1999. Shpinkova VN et al.
A weak magnetic field caused the increase of proteins in the brain, in F Bersani (ed) Electricity and magnetism in biology and medicine: Springer.
The goal was to find how weak disturbances of natural MF affect the protein metabolism in pyramidal neurons of sensomotor cortex.
I think a more interesting observation is "deep suppression of exploratory activity in unknown situation", with a brief external stimulation sufficient for majority of animals to start learning, although I'm not sure whether this is related to the observed changes in protein synthesis under the experimental conditions.
1999. Walleczek J.
Low-frequency-dependent magnetic field effects in biological systems and the radical pair mechanism, F Bersani (ed) in Electricity and magnetism in biology and medicine
"...radical pair recombination takes place in the nanosecond time domain, compared to the millisecond time scale of the low-frequency magnetic field oscillations"
Well, that limitation isn't relevant in many relevant research labs any more.
1999. Weaver JC et al.
Altered cumulative calcium influx for biological cells: An illustration of the theory of signal averaging by rectification of weak extremely low frequency electric fields, in F Bersani (ed) Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine: Springer.
"...there is no conceptual difficulty with the idea that a small number of molecules can lead to a biological response, but there is a fundamental limit on the ability of weak fields to create that molecular change. ..."
1999. Ziriax JM et al.
High peak power, low sar effects on memory task performance in rhesus monkeys, in F Bersani (ed), Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine: Springer.
1999 (Oct). Ruchkin DS et al.
Lexical contributions to retention of verbal information in working memory: Event-related brain potential evidence, Journal of Memory and Language, 41(3):345-364.
Memory recall is lower with pseudowords than with words. (Could this mean that recall of manipulated concept is reduced while using pseudowords compared to words? Then, is it the pseudowords themselves which are less easily recalled, or are the semantic associations alongside them possible retained while less easily remembering the non-word sounds associated with them?)
1999 (Sep). Lu S-T et al.
Ultrawide-band electromagnetic pulses induced hypotension in rats, Physiology & Behavior, 67(3):463-473.
1999 (Sep). Wang LV et al.
Microwave-induced acoustic imaging of biological tissues, Review of Scientific Instruments, 70(9):3744.
1999 (May 7). Skinner RD et al.
Reduced sensory gating of the P1 potential in rape victims and combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder, Depression and Anxiety, 9(3):122-130.
The P1 midlatency auditory evoked potential was studied in female rape victims with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and compared to an age-matched female control group; and in male combat veterans with PTSD and compared to three groups of age-matched male control subjects. The study finds reduced sensory gating associated with the P1 potentials.
This may be relevant in identifying PTSD victims who may be vulnerable for purposes of programming or manipulation, but my main interest in including this reference is the possibility that such effects may be remotely introduced in others, for example to induce fear, anxiety, paranoia, etc., whether in the immediate moment or in association with some memory (real or planted).
1998. Jauettem JR.
Health effects of microwave exposures: A review of the recent (1995-1998) literature, Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy, 33(4):263-274.
1998. Eichwald C and J Wallczek.
Low-frequency-dependent effects of oscillating magnetic fields on radical pair recombination in enzyme kinetics, The Journal of Chemical Physics, 107:4943-4950.
Theoretical work "using an approach that combines enzyme kinetics with magnetic field-sensitive spin kinetics".
1998. Llinas R et al.
The neuronal basis for consciousness, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 353(1377):1841-1849.
Explores evidence that the thalamus represents a hub from which any site in the cortex can communicate with any other such site or sites. Also, how temporal relations between specific and non-specific thalamic activity may generate the functional states that characterize human cognition.
1998. Ohta M and H Ogawa.
A methodological trial of regression analysis with higher order correlation between electromagnetic and sound waves leaked by a Vdt in an actual working environment, Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, 12(10):1357-1367.
1998 (Nov). Patel AD et al.
Processing syntactic relations in language and music: An event-related potential study, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 717-733.
Shows that musical and linguistic incongruities were statistically indistinguishable in the P600 event-related potentials. This may be related to the question of whether, or rather the extent to which, relationships between tonality, semantic meaning, etc., are related. Which, of course, is relevant to the manipulative experiences of many victims of electronic terrorism.
1998 (Nov 1). Jikang Z and W Baohua.
SAR calculation of electromagnetic pulse to a spherical head, Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference of the IEEE, Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.
1998 (Jul 17). Tarr MJ and HH Bulthoff.
Image-based object recognition in man, monkey and machine, Cognition, 67(1-2):1-20.
Perhaps a better indication of what was not established as known at that time than a positive statement of advancement. Works on models relating to 2D and 3D theories.
1998 (Jul 1). Sienkiewicz Z.
Biological effects of electromagnetic fields and radiation, Journal of Radiological Protection, 18:185.
1998 (Jun). Bennett WR.
Radio frequency hearing: Electrostrictive detection and bone conduction, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 103(4).
Acknowledges diverse bioeffects of microwaves, but suggests that fields commonly encountered "in the environment" should not be of much concern (from a traditional health perspective).
1998 (Jun). Grill-Spector K et al.
Cue-invariant activation in object-related areas of the human occipital lobe, Neuron, 21(1):191-202.
The location-oriented methods may not be highly relevant to many current potential applications (aside from the curiosity of stimulating the visual perception peripherally, used both in this study and also 'on the ground' these days with varying degrees of intentionality). Regardless, the commonality (without restriction on further specificity) between cue types (light- and motion-related, both of which visual stimuli) is an interesting observation.
1998 (Apr). Meric F et al.
Do radiofrequency radiation affect the auditory system of people with occupational exposure, Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 3(1):55-58.
1998 (Spring). Thomas TL.
The Mind Has No Firewall, Parameters, 84-92.
An early line is indicative of the content and tone, saying "We are on the threshold of an era in which ... the human body may be manipulated or debilitated", citing acoustic, microwave and laser weapons as among those usable to such ends. "This article examines energy-based weapons, psychotronic weapons, and other developments designed to alter the ability of the human body to process stimuli."
Cites the Joint Doctrine for Command and Control Warfare (C2W) as defining 'C2W' as "the integrated use of PSYOP, military deception, operations security, electronic warfare and physical destruction", where the presence of PSYOPs and electronic warfare in this definition can be highlighted. Cites the 7 July 1997 issue of U.S. News and World Report regarding some number of physiologically active weapons, as well "pulse weapons" liable to have more neural effects.
Methodologically speaking, the treatment of the individual human as an information processor is useful in making tangible the expression of some diversity of risks in the technological context being discussed. The human mind as the specific strategic target for remote manipulation can then be readily discussed. The systems approach is also enlisted to suggest that treating the human mind as an open system is an analytical approach that is useful in discussing important aspects of the topic: "The main target ... would be the consciousness of a person or a group of people". This journal article also mentions officially expressed disagreement with the most important source cited in the article.
Mentions Russian efforts to construct a firewall around the head of operators of strategic rocket forces. (Among other things, mutual knowledge of the ongoing certainty of the "mutual" part of "mutually assured destruction" (MAD) might tend to, in sum, promote international security, as compared to a situation where one or another party believed that they might be able to neutralize a counter-response by use of psychotronic weapons targeting missile systems operators.)
1998 (Mar). Florig HK.
The future battlefield: a blast of gigawatts? [microwave-based weapons], IEEE Spectrum, 25(3):50-54.
Haven't checked if this is more about things like "zapping weapons" or also more neural sorts of stuff.
1998 (Mar). Frey AH.
Headaches from cellular telephones: Are they real and what are the implications?, Environmental Health Perspectives, 106(3):101-103.
In addition to a concise outline of cell phone health hazards and microwave hearing, this bit is interesting, especially considering who pointed it out: "The transmitting frequencies are also in the band that has maximal penetration into the head".
1998 (Feb). Butler D.
Advances in neuroscience 'may threaten human rights', Nature, 391(316):
Mentions a conclusion from the French national bioethics committee to the effect of what the title reads.
1998 (Feb). Maddox L et al.
Acoustic wave dosimetry based on diazotized luminol solutions, Microchemical Journal, 58(2):209-217.
Covers the distinction between thermal heating of an incidence microwave pulse and the acoustic wave which may be promulgated from it.
1997. Bersani F et al.
Intramembrane protein distribution in cell cultures is affected by 50 Hz pulsed magnetic fields, Bioelectromagnetics, 18(7):463-469.
Outlines uses of functional electrical stimulation and functional neurostimulation. In terms of those use to influence cognitive or psychological functions, it mentions that "no such devices are clinically available as yet".
1997 (Sep 30). Makeig S et al.
Blind separation of auditory event-related brain responses into independent components, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 94(20).
1997 (Jun). Kanwisher N et al.
The fusiform face area: A module in human extrastriate cortex specialized for face perception, Journal of Neuroscience, 17(11):4302-4311.
The method is not suggestive of equivalent possibilities from single-channel measures related to spike trains (i.e., of electric activity), but if the location where this happens can be identified, future research can be assumed able to probabilistically estimate such activity with a fairly high degree of accuracy. 20 years later, this does not seem like a huge finding, but recall that notions of face recognition software, for example, were barely even in existence at that point.
1997 (Jun 1). Gevins et al.
High-resolution EEG mapping of cortical activation related to working memory: Effects of task difficulty, type of processing, and practice, Cerebral Cortex, 7(4):374-385.
A 115-channel EEG was combined with data from MRI, and identified differences in memory processes specific to which type of working memory task was being done.
1997 (Jan 23). Bezrukov SM and I Vodyanov.
Stochastic resonance in non-dynamical systems without response thresholds, Nature, 385:319-323.
Having gone to the level of "without response thresholds", this is basically just at the time of entering into the era of quantum exploration.
1997 (Jan 23). Jung P and K Wiensfeld.
Too quiet to hear a whisper, Nature, 385:291.
Develops a theoretical model to understand the possibility of there being no threshold process in the responses of dynamic systems to noise.
1996. Barbier E et al.
Stimulation of Ca2+ influx in rat pituitary cells under exposure to a 50 Hz magnetic field, Bioelectromagnetics, 17(4):303-311.
1996. Lai H.
Spatial learning deficit in the rat after exposure to a 60 Hz magnetic field, Bioelectromagnetics, 17(6):494-496.
Data indicates that "spatial learning deficit is caused by the effect of the field on cholinergic systems". While the microwave radiation frequency is the same as the frequency of fields from power lines, the levels are not the same.
1996. Zhongqi N.
Mechanism of generating acoustic signals for microwave auditory effects based on electric field stress, Chinese Journal of Biomedical Engineering, 15(1):67-74.
An early (English language) indication of knowledge about the microwave auditory effect among Chinese researchers.
1996 (Oct). Vander Vorst A and F Duhamel.
1990-1995 advances in investigating the interaction of microwave fields with the nervous system, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 44(10):1898-1909.
1996 (Oct 1). Postma A and C Noordanus.
Production and detection of speech errors in silent, mouthed, noise-masked, and normal auditory feedback speech, Language and Speech, 39(4):375-392.
Among other things, results are suggestive that error detection is lower with subvocal speech than with spoken speech.
I belief this is consistent with other treatments which are conducive to increasing vulnerability to involuntary thought reform.
1995. Alekseev SI and MC Ziskin.
Millimeter microwave effect on ion transport across lipid bilayer membranes, Bioelectromagnetics, 16(2):124-131.
In short, this provides evidence that millimetre waves, in the 30-300 GHz range, cannot penetrate biological materials deeply. This is consistent with the fact of studies on multicellular organisms generally being under the 10Ghz range of microwaves, and Safety Code 6 where 6Ghz is a threshold of interest.
If millimeter waves cannot penetrate deeply into biological tissue, then they should not be considered as of interest from the perspective of neurotechnology risks.
1995. Del Seppia et al.
Exposure to oscillating magnetic fields influences sensitivity to electrical stimuli. I. experiments on pigeons, Bioelectromagnetics, 16(5):290-294.
"...findings are in agreement with previous studies showing that magnetic treatments may alter pigeons' emotional state and some of their behavioral patterns."
1995. Malmivuo & Plonsey.
Principles and applications of bioelectric and biomagnetic fields: OUP.
1995. Papi F et al.
Exposure to oscillating magnetic fields influences sensitivity to electrical stimuli. II. experiments on humans, Bioelectromagnetics, 16(5):295-300.
Reduced a number of variables related to pain thresholds after two hours of exposure to a weak, oscillating magnetic field, in the "the first piece of evidence that weak alterations of the magnetic field may induce hyperalgesia in humans".
1995. Persinger MA.
On the Possibility of Directly Accessing Every Human Brain by Electromagnetic Induction of Fundamental Algorithms, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 80(3):791-799.
1995 (May). Luben RA.
Membrane signal-transduction mechanisms and biological effects of low-energy electromagnetic fields, Chapter 24, 437-450 in M Blank (ed) Electromagnetic Fields: Advances in Chemistry: ACS.
Tries to understand how the cell membrane can be overcome by very low energy EM fields.
1995 (Spring). Schiffer F et al.
Evoked potential evidence for right brain activity during the recall of traumatic memories, Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 7(2):169-75.
Shows specific differences in left-right brain activity in victims of trauma, uncovered by comparing brain activities relating to neutral memories and unpleasant memories. This might be relevant for understanding how mining for potentially traumatized victims who might be susceptible to programming by playing on traumatic memories (real or planted) or manipulating the victim by associating grievances associated with the trauma to broader cross-sections of society, over whom the victim may then wish to assert "power". Among other things, this may be relevant to uncovering whether the memory has had a traumatic effect or not.
1995 (Apr 25). Astumian RD et al.
Rectification and signal averaging of weak electric fields by biological cells, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 92(9):3740:3743.
Offers some explanations for how oscillating weak extremely low frequency electric fields can have biological effects (which are surprising for a number of reasons), but acknowledges that "it is difficult to reconcile biological effects with low field strengths".
1995 (Apr 1). Peterson C et al.
Learned helplessness: A theory for the age of personal control: Oxford University Press.
1995 (Jan). Jacobs WJ and JR Blackburn.
A model of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in representations of the unconditional stimulus, Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 30(1):12-33.
1994. Blanchard JP and CF Blackman.
Clarification and application of an ion parametric resonance model for magnetic field interactions with biological systems, Bioelectromagnetics, 15(3):217-238.
1994. Brown DO et al.
Characteristics of microwave evoked body movements in mice, Bioelectromagnetics, 15(2):143-161.
Among other things, claims the ability to elicit movements by as much as a single microwave pulse. Also tests for movement in pulsed and continuous wave conditions across various energy levels.
1994. D'Andrea JA et al.
Rhesus monkey behavior during exposure to high-peak-power 5.62-GHz microwave pulses, Bioelectromagnetics, 15(2):163-176.
Finds levels at which exposure to microwave radiation affects performance on a somewhat complicated task to obtain food.
1994. Lai H et al.
Microwave irradiation affects radial-arm maze performance in the rat, Bioelectromagnetics, 15(2):95-104.
"After 45 min of exposure to pulsed 2450 MHz microwaves (2 microsecond pulses...), rats showed retarded learning...indicating a deficit in spatial "working memory" function".
1994. Lai H.
Neurological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation, in JC Lin (ed) Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems: Springer. QP82.2 .E43 A29
1994. Lin JC (ed).
Advances in electromagnetic fields in living systems: Springer.
1994 (Nov). Pilla AA et al.
Gap junction impedance, tissue dielectrics and thermal noise limits for electromagnetic field bioeffects, Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, 35(1-2):63-69.
1994 (Oct 31). Mikulincer M.
Human learned helplessness: A coping perspective: Springer.
"The phenomenon of learned helplessness is studied in an experimental setting, labeled the LH paradigm. This paradigm consists of two phases, the training phrase and the test phrase. In the training phrase, the subject is exposed to uncontrollable outcomes. In the test phase, his or her performance in a related task is assessed to see whether and how it may have been affected by the previous encounter with uncontrollable outcomes."
Also discerns between learned helplessness and feelings of helplessness in general.
1994 (Jun). Fujimaki N et al.
Event-related potentials in silent speech, Brain Topography, 6(4):259-267.
12 scalp measures and three measures of eye and throat movements were used, and one of the measures showed a notable difference in event-related potential (ERP) activity between subvocalization and spoken speech.
1994 (May). Blank M et al.
Changes in polypeptide distribution stimulated by different levels of electromagnetic and thermal stress, Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, 33(2):109-114
Low frequency EM fields have similar effects to heat shock at orders of magnitude lower energy in terms of distribution of proteins in salivary gland cells of a type of gnat. The effects of heat and EM treatment are not additive.
1994 (Mar). Falkenstein M et al.
Effects of choice complexity on different subcomponents of the late positive complex of the event-related potential, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology/Evoked Potentials Section, 92(2):148-160.
Identifies specific subcomponents of the 'late positive complex' which vary as a function of choice complexity. Namely, the P-SR (part of the spike train wave linked to simple choices) was not responsive to increased choice complexity and the P-CR (linked to complex choices) was responsive to increased choice complexity (about 100 ms longer). The ability to discern this difference was enhanced by use of visual and auditory stimuli because the P-SR is modality dependent.
1994 (Feb). Colebatch JG et al.
Myogenic potentials generated by a click-evoked vestibulocollic reflex, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 57:190-197.
Subjects were exposed to very brief (0.1 ms) clicks at 85 to 100 dB above the perception threshold for sound. The mean latency of the earliest reproducible changes in the EMG recording was 8.2 ms. The earliest change in evoked potential was a biphasic positive-negativity (p13-n23, or 13 ms for positive potential and 23 ms for negative potential difference) that occurred in all subjects, but later potentials were not universal across all subjects.
Among other things, this is suggestive of an identifiable evoked potential with very low latency, in the range of 10-40ms, far shorter than the 300ms peak which gives the P300 decision-oriented potential its name.
1993. Field AS et al.
The effect of pulsed microwaves on passive electrical properties and interspike intervals of snail neurons, Bioelectromagnetics, 14(6):503-520.
1993. Hucho F (ed.).
Neurotransmitter receptors, Vol 24 in A Neuberger and LLM van Deenen (eds.) "New Comprehensive Biochemistry": Springer. QD415 .N48
Decent for background on a variety of biochemistry concepts relating to neural transmitters. Many biochemistry and any decent human physiology text should have similarly decent treatment.
1993. Raslear TG et al.
Temporal bisection in rats: The effects of high-peak-power pulsed microwave irradiation, Bioelectromagnetics, 14(5):459-478.
"The effects of high-peak-power, pulsed microwaves on a time perception and discrimination task were studied in rats ... ". A battery of tests across energy levels found effects well under SAR levels, which were independent of covarying sonic or x-ray exposures.
1993 (Oct). Friederici AD et al.
Event-related brain potentials during natural speech processing: Effects of semantic, morphological and syntactic violations, Cognitive Brain Research, 1(3):183-192.
Identifies differences in neural activity depending on whether a mistake in a sentence is semantic (word choice), morphological (verb usage) or syntactic (phrase structure), which could be specified temporally and by wavestream.
This may be of particular interest, as it may indicate the extent to which further manipulations away from established language are actually understood in the process of, say, manipulating from calls of "rape" (as in 'he's a rapist' sort of thing) to "rate" (like, say, it's because you're so amazing that we want to rate you, and rate you highly, oh no, would never ever have done such a thing as those previous things people might claim something about.) So, then, the person who was actually believing, a likely extremely strong indicator of brainwashing extent, would then perhaps be highly unresponsive according to these anomalies which might be expected in one whose thought processes had been less manipulated and/or are presently less under control. Also, for example, with non-auditory semantic microwave associated with auditory stimulus, some analogue of this finding might indicate the extent to which the pliant puppets/zombies/whatever are readily believing and going along with this reformed way of thinking, speaking, etc., even from the perspective of the most internal workings of their mind.
So, perhaps, it could be possible to derive a numerical index of just how brainwashed someone is, with respect to numerous subversion campaigns. However, a proper control data may be difficult to find, since most people have been at least somewhat subjected to these, and data was much more sparse before nefarious usage of such technologies became more widespread (for a time, which is not yet over).
1993 (Oct 31). Raslear TG and Y Akyel.
Microwave-evoked whole-body movements in rats: Statistical characteristics, Proceedings of the 15th Annual International Conference of the IEEE, Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.
Finds that whole body movement is elicited, dependent on power levels.
1993 (Jul). O'Keefe J and ML Recce.
Phase relationship between hippocampal place units and the EEG theta rhythm, Hippocampus, 3(3):317-330.
Finds specific patterns of neural activity relating to 1) location within an environment, and another type of pattern involving 2) a class of movements that change a rat's location in an environment.
1993 (Jul). Teissie J and MP Rols.
An experimental evaluation of the critical potential difference inducing cell membrane electropermeabilization, Biophysics Journal, 65(1):409-413.
1993 (Jun). Orlowski S and LM Mir.
Cell electropermeabilization: A new tool for biochemical and pharmacological studies, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Biomembranes, 1154(1):51-64.
To mention one of the more obvious potential applications of such knowledge ...
1993 (Jun 1-15). Schwarzkopf SB et al.
Concurrent assessment of acoustic startle and auditory P50 evoked potential measures of sensory inhibition, Biological Psychiatry, 33(11-12):815-828.
Studies subjects with no diagnosis of abnormal psychology to pinpoint the evoked potentials associated with certain types of sensory inhibition. This was done by measuring reduction of acoustic startle response (ASR) over multiple trials (habituation), prepulse inhibition (PPI) of ASR (decrease in ASR caused by low intensity prepulses) and P50 suppression (P50 midlatency auditory evoked potentials (AEP) amplitude reduction in a paired-click paradigm).
Presumably this implies the ability to remotely administer equivalent effects to achieve rapid habituation to a new stimulus (as in, you don't find something out of the ordinary when in fact it is). Also, inhibition of auditory stimulus is shown, which may be applied to reduced interest in a stimulus that one would probably actually do well to pay attention to. Presumably if the effect can be achieved in the one direction, it can also be achieved in the other direction, for the purpose of heightened sensitivity. It seems that stimulating, rather than inhibiting, senses is far more relevant to the current situation of electronic torture, neurowarfare, etc. How, then, is disinhibited interest being achieved?
1993 (Jan). Reiter RJ.
A review of neuroendocrine and neurochemical changes associated with static and extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure, Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 28(1):57-75.
1992. Allen MJ et al.
Charge and field effects in biosystems--3: Springer. QP517 .B53 I573
1992. Bernhardt JH.
Non-ionizing radiation safety: Radiofrequency radiation, electric and magnetic fields, Physics in Medicine and Biology, 37:807.
1992. Blank M.
Na,K-ATPase function in alternating electric fields, Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 6:2434.
Demonstrates effects of electric fields on membrane transport proteins.
1992. Blank M and L Soo.
Threshold for inhibition of Na,K-ATPase by ELF alternating currents, Bioelectromagnetics, 13(4):329-333.
1992. Guy AW.
Electromagnetic fields and health: Some thoughts about the past and future, Bioelectromagnetics, 13(6):601-604.
1992. Lai H.
Research on the neurological effects of nonionizing radiation at the University of Washington, Bioelectromagnetics, 13(6):513-526.
1992. Lin JC.
Microwave sensing of physiological movement and volume change: A review, Bioelectromagnetics, 13(6):557-565.
Presents evidence of several remote sensing approaches which consist of a microwave generator, a sampling device, a transmitting-receiving antenna, a set of signal-conditioning and processing devices, and a display unit. They operate at continuous-wave frequencies between 1 and 35 GHz and make use of amplitude and phase information derived from the received signal. The average power density of energy radiated by present systems ranges from approximately 0.001-1.0 mW/cm2. These systems are capable of registering instantaneous changes in fluid volume, pressure pulse, heart rate, and respiration rate in contact with body surface or at distances greater than 30 m, or behind thick layers of non-conductive walls.
(The internet didn't even exist then. Nor did cell phones. And computers on the market were less powerful than the cheapest smartphones on the market today. However, if I understand correctly this involves differences in reflection due to changes in volume -- this might be relevant for evaluating certain things involved in electronic harassment, but not remote neural monitoring. Which is not to say that roughly similar technologies have not been applied for different analytical means to read evoked potentials remotely. It may be worth noting that this demonstrates a long-existing capacity to give precise measures of both amplitude and frequencies relating to vital signs -- perhaps this would be obvious to someone with long experience in radar though. Significant other research on this question can be easily found, and methods have advanced significantly.)
1992. Marsh JH et al.
Femtosecond techniques for the characterization of nonlinear and linear properties of waveguide devices and studies of all optical switching, in JH Marsh et al (eds) Waveguide Optoelectronics: Springer. TA1750 .N38
In case there is any question about, say, micro or nano scale resolution and/or outgoing pulses, here we have work, a full 25 years ago, which deals with measures already a million times more precise than that.
1992. Polk C.
Dosimetric extrapolations of extremely-low-frequency electric and magnetic fields across biological systems, Bioelectromagnetics, 12(S):205-208.
"...Systems that are to be compared usually differ substantially in size, chemistry, and physiology. Therefore we must first understand how field generated biological effects, such as enhanced cellular transcription and altered polypeptide synthesis [refs], nerve generation [refs], or enhanced intercellular matrix synthesis [refs] are produced, before we can predict how different systems will react to field exposure. ..."
1992. Schwan HP.
Early history of bioelectromagnetics, Bioelectromagnetics, 13(6):453-467.
A long time researcher in the field outlines early development in the field of bioelectromagnetics.
1992 (Oct). Ginsburg KS et al.
Microwave effects on input resistance and action potential firing of snail neurons, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 39(10):1011-1021.
1992 (Oct 29-Nov 1). Raslear TG et al.
CW microwave fields evoke body movements in bilaterally cochleotomized rats, 14th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.
Positive relationship between one second microwave pulses and power is similar between deafened and hearing rats, thus eliminating microwave hearing as a possible mechanism.
1992 (Jun). Ruchkin DS et al.
Distinctions and similarities among working memory processes: An event-related potential study, Cognitive Brain Research, 1(1):53-66.
Was able to differentiate between visual and phonological (related to words) use of short-term memory during a 5-second interval). "The difference emerged during early encoding stages and continued through later retention stages."
1992 (Mar). Schenck JF.
Health and physiological effects of human exposure to whole-body four-tesla magnetic fields during MRI, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 649:285-301.
Among other things, mentions that magnetophosphenes were reported at some intensities of magnetic fields for MRI, but did not occur at a lower level.
1992 (Jan 1). Boemke W et al.
Electromyography of the larynx with skin surface electrodes, Folia Phoniatrica 44(5):220-230.
The method was used, and therefore it exits. Also, EMG differences on the left and right side of the larynx mean that the method should not be used to test for paralysis of the larynx.
1991. Akyel Y et al.
Immediate post-exposure effects of high-peak-power microwave pulses on operant behavior of Wistar rats, Bioelectromagnetics, 12(3):183-195.
1991. Lippman M.
Towards a recognition of the necessity defense for political protestors, Washington & Lee Law Review, 48:235-?.
"Ironically, while American political leaders generally have praised, supported, and encouraged non-violent movements abroad, they often have condemned, frustrated, and attacked such movements at home."
Discusses rejection of entering guilty pleas in cases of civil disobedience, in favour of claiming rights under international law contrary to a criminal state (which at times may appropriately framed as criminal acts perpetrated by actors embedded within the state).
From a first quick look, it seems that what rights to civil disobedience are upheld by the judiciary, at least in the US, are not attributed on the basis of international law, such as that inherited from the Nuremberg [Principles] tradition.
1991. Pakhomov AG.
Absence of non-thermal microwave effects on the function of giant nerve fibers, Journal of Bioelectricity, 10(1-2):185-203.
Earthworm nerves do not appear sensitive to microwave effects, except for temperature effects.
1991 (Dec). Hulme C et al.
Memory for familiar and unfamiliar words: Evidence for a long-term memory contribution to short-term memory span, Journal of Memory and Language, 30(6):685-701.
Finds that memory span is shorter for non-word audio memory representation, and also that the memory span of both words and non-words was a linear function of "rehearsal".
1991 (Oct). Roschmann P.
Human auditory system response to pulsed radiofrequency energy in RF coils for magnetic resonance at 2.4 to 170 MHz, Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 21(2):197-215.
Uses a less common method relating to RF hearing ("optimized surface coils"). Presents some thresholds, including estimates relating to maximum power of MRI machines to avoid sound discomfort (however, I've never heard of successful application of this negative possibility, despites efforts).
1991 (Sep 10). Kitchen SS and CJ Partridge.
A review of microwave diathermy, Physiotherapy, 77(9):647-652.
1991 (Sep 9-12). Guo TC and WW Guo.
A remote sound source by microwave-induced acoustic effects at medium interface, 21st European Microwave Conference.
"It is found that the coupling may arise from thermoacoustic effect, electrostrictive effect, and electromagnetic energy of dielectric polarization."
1991 (Jan 1). Porteous W.
Membrane transport and information storage, volume 4 in Advances in membrane fluidity: Experimental Physiology.
1990. Blackman CF et al.
Importance of alignment between local DC magnetic field and an oscillating magnetic field in responses of brain tissue in vitro and in vivo, Bioelectromagnetics, 11(2):159-167.
1990. Blackwell RP.
The personal current meter-A novel ankle-worn device for the measurement of RF body current in a mobile subject, Journal of Radiological Protection, 10:109:114.
1990. Chive M.
Use of microwave radiometry for hyperthermia monitoring and as a basis for thermal dosimetry, in M Gautherie (ed) Methods of Hypothermia Control: Springer.
1990. Dantas RO and WJ Dodds.
Effect of bolus volume and consistency on swallow-induced submental and infrahyoid electromyographic activity, Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 23(1):37-44.
Apparently EMG can be used to monitor the consistency and quantity of stuff that goes down your throat, e.g., while eating and swallowing saliva.
1990. Grandolfo M et al.
Magnetic resonance imaging: Calculation of rates of energy absorption by a human-torso model, Bioelectromagnetics, 11(2):117-128.
The specific method is not so much of interest as is the general matter of energy deposition modelling, also related to modelling thermoacoustic waves from pulsed electromagnetic waves.
1990. Lippman M.
The right of civil resistance under international law and the domestic necessity defense, Dickinson Journal of International Law, 8(3):349-373.
Opens with the following excerpt from W Shawn's "On the context of the play": "Morality, if it survives, could protect us from horror, but very little protects morality. And morality, besides, is hard to protect, because morality is only a few thoughts in our heads. And just as we quickly grow accustomed to brutal deeds and make way before them, so we are quickly stunned into foggy submissions by the brutal thoughts which, in our striving for comfort, we have allowed into our minds and which can snuff the life out of morality in a matter of moments if we happen to look the other way. And all the time we are operating under the illusion that we, mere individuals, have no power at all over the course of history, when that is in fact (for better or worse) the very opposite of the case".
1990. Misakian M and WT Kaune.
Optimal experimental design for in vitro studies with ELF magnetic fields, Bioelectromagnetics, 11(3):251-255.
1990. Schwartz J-L et al.
Exposure of frog hearts to CW or amplitude-modulated VHF fields: Selective efflux of calcium ions at 16 Hz, Bioelectromagnetics, 11(4):349-358.
1990. Seaman RL.
Model for auditory-neuron thresholds to microwave pulses, Journal of Bioelectricity, 9(2):151-157.
1990 (Dec). Silberstein et al.
Steady-state visually evoked potential topography associated with a visual vigilance task, Brain Topography, 3(2):337-347.
1990 (Dec 1). Korba RJ.
The rate of inner speech, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 7(3):1043-1052.
"Rates of inner speech were correlated with physiological measurements of subvocal activity during verbal problem solving ...". The method used EMG. The particular application is not of particular interest to the context; this is included in relation to the literature on subvocal speech and electromyography.
1990 (Nov). Ruchkin DS et al.
Short-term memory storage and retention: an event-related brain potential study, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 76(5):419-439.
Recorded ERPs when memorizing 1, 3 or 6 items of a stimulus, and a second condition to search for matches with previous items, in order to discern between ERP effects associated with a) perceptual complexity and b) retention of information. Identifiable differences could be discerned in comparing ERPs during the memory task and during the search task.
1990 (Nov). Wachtel H et al.
Comparison of the efficacy of pulsed versus CW microwave fields in evoking body movements, Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society- Images of the Twenty-First Century.
1990 (Oct 1). Walleczek J and RP Liburdy.
Nonthermal 60 Hz sinusoidal magnetic-field exposure enhances 45Ca2+ uptake in rat thymocytes: Dependence on mitogen activation, FEBS Letters, 271(1-2):157-160.
1990 (Sep). Aarons L.
The bilingual-dichotic method for learning a foreign-language vocabulary, Applied Cognitive Psychology, 4(5):383-392.
Analyzed learning of new vocabulary in a foreign language, depending on combinations of playing foreign and native language in right, left, both ears, etc. A difference was found, indicating that one was associated with higher vocabulary retention under a particular treatment among the study subjects.
1990 (Sep). Kohonen T.
The self-organizing map, Proceedings of the IEEE, 78(9):1464-1480
An indication of (limited) abilities in semantic mapping at the time.
1990 (Jun). D'Andrea JA et al.
No effects of high-peak-power microwave pulses at 2.36 GHz on behavioral performance in monkeys: Naval Aerospace Medical Research Lab.
The finding indicated in the title is later rejected for other frequencies.
1990 (May). Liu D-S et al.
Activation of Na+ and K+ pumping modes of (Na,K)-ATPase by an oscillating electric field, The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 265(13):7260-7267.
A demonstration of responsiveness of membrane transport proteins to changes in fields. (Presumably EM waves pulses might have related effects.)
1990 (Mar 1). Hannum H.
Autonomy, sovereignty, and self-determination: The accommodation of conflicting rights: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Outlines international legal context in relation to sovereignty and statehood (national self-determination), rights of minorities, indigenous rights and human rights. Then, presents nine case studies: Hong Kong, Punjab, Kurds, Atlantic Nicaragua, Northern Ireland, Basque and Catalonia, Sri Lanka and Sudan. It then presents a number of cases where federal types of structures have been adopted.
I.e., self-determination considered at the level of groups and subnational cultures more so than at the level of individuals.
1989. Lai H et al.
Low-level microwave irradiation and central cholinergic activity: A dose-response study, Bioelectromagnetics, 10(2):203-208.
1989. Lin JC.
Electromagnetic interaction with biological systems, Springer. QP82.2 .N64 E44
This book summarizes much literature relating to the use of microwave radiation in medical diagnostics. The book is indicative of what was readily available to civilian sector researchers at that time. If you are looking for more explanation at the level of biochemistry and physics, this is better than the more widely ranging 1993 WHO document included among official references below.
1989. Osepchuk JM.
Panel discussion on standards, in JC Lin (ed) Electromagnetic interaction with biological systems: Springer.
Suggests that power density and exposure duration are simplest (thus probably best) ways to express standards-making. Now that more knowledge on neural effects as compared to cancer-causing or genetic effects are present, clearly these are an insufficient grounding for sensible regulatory control over the air waves.
1989. Seaman RL and RM Lebovitz.
Thresholds of cat cochlear nucleus neurons to microwave pulses, Bioelectromagnetics, 10(2):147-160.
1989. Szmigielski S and T Obara.
The rationale for the Eastern European radiofrequency and microwave protection guides, in G Franceschetti et al. (eds) Electromagnetic Biointeraction: Springer.
1989. Tenforde TS.
Electroreception and magnetoreception in simple and complex organisms, Bioelectromagnetics, 10(3):215-221.
1989 (Dec). Brandeis D.
Segments of event-related potential map series reveal landscape changes with visual attention and subjective contours, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 73(6):507-519.
Differences could be identified in neural activity between paying attention (or not) to an object, with additional differences identified depending on the contours of the object.
1989 (Nov 9-12). Wachtel H et al.
Comparison of the efficacy of pulsed versus CW microwave fields in evoking body movements, Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Images of the Twenty-First Century.
1989 (Sep). Linsker R.
How to generate ordered maps by maximizing the mutual information between input and output signals, Neural Computation, 1(3):402-411.
1989 (May). Barnes FS.
Radio-microwave interactions with biological materials, Health Physics, 56(5):759-766.
Presents microwave hearing as the best understood bioeffect; says this affects current flows and chemical reaction rates. Discusses possible quantum effects (these are presumably not very relevant at very low levels...)
1989. Felice B.
Rights in theory and practice: An historical perspective, Social Justice, 16(1):34-56.
Mentions the following as conceptions of rights among theorists, reformists, etc., over the years: divine right, natural rights, inalienable rights, political rights, civil rights, and economic rights. Mentions incompletely developed terminology related to rights.
"Political rights extend to the right of revolution, in that all humans have a right to rebel when the general will has been violated..."
1988. Andreuccetti D et al.
Analysis of electric and magnetic fields leaking from induction heaters, Bioelectromagnetics, 9(4):373-379.
1988 (Dec). Lauterborn W and U Parlitz.
Methods of chaos physics and their application to acoustics, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 84(6):1975-1993.
Introduces a variety of approaches to modelling acoustics in chaotic systems.
1988. Dimbylow PJ.
The calculation of induced currents and absorbed power in a realistic, heterogeneous model of the lower leg for applied electric fields from 60 Hz to 30 MHz, Physics in Medicine and Biology, 33(12):1453-1468.
1988. Guy AW.
The bioelectromagnetics research laboratory, University of Washington: Reflections on twenty-five years of research, Bioelectromagnetics, 9(2):113-128.
1988. Halle B.
On the cyclotron resonance mechanism for magnetic field effects on transmembrane ion conductivity, Bioelectromagnetics, 9(4):381-385.
1988. Lai H et al.
Acute low-level microwave exposure and central cholinergic activity: Studies on irradiation parameters, Bioelectromagnetics, 9(4):355-362.
1988. Liboff AR and BR McLeod.
Kinetics of channelized membrane ions in magnetic fields, Bioelectromagnetics, 9(1):39-51.
1988. Lin JC.
Microwave-induced thermoelastic pressure wave propagation in the cat brain, Bioelectromagnetics, 9(2):141-147.
1988. Mitchell CL et al.
Some behavioral effects of short-term exposure of rats to 2.45-GHz microwave radiation, Bioelectromagnetics, 9(3):259-268.
1988. O'Conner ME and RH Lovely.
Electromagnetic fields and neurobehavioral function: Liss.
1988. Toler J et al.
Long-term study of 435-MHz radio-frequency radiation on blood-borne end points in cannulated rats. Part II: Methods, results, and summary, Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy, 23(2):105-136.
1988. Yee K-C et al.
Influence of microwaves on the beating rate of isolated rat hearts, Bioelectromagnetics, 9(2):175-181.
1988 (Nov-Dec). Lipman RM et al.
Cataracts induced by microwave and ionizing radiation, Survey of Ophthalmology, 33(3):200-210.
One of a number of articles on this topic, most of which not included because it is peripheral.
1988 (Nov 4-7). Wachtel H et al.
Single microwave pulses can suppress startle reflexes in mice, Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE.
1988 (Oct). Uzunoglu NK and SI Polycrhonopoulos.
Microwave-induced auditory effect in a dielectric sphere, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 36(10):1418-1425.
1988 (Aug 7). Tenforde TS.
Magnetic deformation of phospholipid bilayers: Effects on liposome shape and solute permeability at prephase transition temperatures, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 133(7):385-396.
1988 (Aug 1). Byus et al.
Increased ornithine decarboxylase activity in cultured cells exposed to low energy modulated microwave fields and phorbol ester tumor promoters, Cancer Research, 48:4222-4226.
1987. Allis JW and BL Sinha-Robinson.
Temperature-specific inhibition of human red cell Na+/K+ ATPase by 2450-MHz microwave radiation, Bioelectromagnetics, 8(2):203-212.
1987. Andersen JB.
Electromagnetic power deposition: Inhomogeneous media, applicators and phased arrays, in SB Field and C Franconi (eds) Physics and technology of hyperthermia, NATO ASI Series 127:159-188.
This shows efforts to understand how layers and shapes, etc., affect electromagnetic heating, including general backgrounders on some related technologies.
1987. Blank M and E Findl (eds).
Mechanistic approaches to interactions of electric and electromagnetic fields with living systems: Springer.
1987. Chiang H and GD Yao.
Effects of pulsed microwave radiation pre-and post-natally on the developing brain in mice, Journal of Bioelectricity, 6(2):197-204.
1987. Dimbylow PJ.
Finite difference calculations of current densities in a homogeneous model of a man exposed to extremely low frequency electric fields, Bioelectromagnetics, 8(4):355-375.
1987. Hand JW.
A review of RF and microwave applicators for localised hyperthermia, Physics and Technology of Hyperthermia, NATO ASI Series 127:189-210.
Outlines microwave heating from 500KHz to 2-3GHz and ultrasound heating using 500 KHz to 5 MHz. Refers to "non-invasive techniques" as being those of "a few MHz or higher", suggesting knowledge that lower frequencies are not bioeffective (at least in many relevant senses).
1987. Kaune WT et al.
Residential magnetic and electric fields, Bioelectromagnetics, 8(4):315-335.
1987. Kempen G.
Natural language generation: New results in artificial intelligence, psychology and linguistics: Springer. P98 .N27
Mostly included as an indication of early interest in this subject; not sure why NATO would have been interested in artificial language generation in the 1980s.
1987. Lotz WG and JL Saxton.
Metabolic and vasomotor responses of rhesus monkeys exposed to 225-MHz radiofrequency energy, Bioelectromagnetics, 8(1):73-89.
1987. Michaelson SM and JC Lin.
Biological effects and health implications of radiofrequency radiation: Springer. QP82.2 .R33 M53
1987. Seaman RJ and RM Lebovitz.
Auditory unit responses to single-pulse and twin-pulse microwave stimuli, Hearing Research, 26(1):105-116.
Finds energy thresholds for effects, with response amplitude being proportional to pulse energy under a threshold. Observations are contrary to theory of head-level resonance as explanation.
1987. Smith SD et al.
Calcium cyclotron resonance and diatom mobility, Bioelectromagnetics, 8(3):215-227.
1987 (Dec). Guy AW.
Dosimetry associated with exposure to non-ionizing radiation: Very low frequency to microwaves, Health Physics, 53(6):569-584.
1987 (Dec 10). Foster KR and WF Pickard.
Microwaves: The risks of risk research, Nature, 330:531-532.
1987 (Nov). Guy AW et al.
Measurement of shielding effectiveness of microwave-protective suits, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 35(11):984-994.
Presents a method for testing suits, including use of a phantom model to measure effectiveness.
1987 (Nov). Roschmann P.
Radiofrequency penetration and absorption in the human body: Limitations to high-field whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, Medical Physics, 14(6):922-931.
1987 (Oct). Cain CD et al.
Evidence that pulsed electromagnetic fields inhibit coupling of adenylate cyclase by parathyroid hormone in bone cells, Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 2(5):437-441.
1987 (Oct 18-22). Guo TC and WW Guo.
Dielectric acoustic response to microwave pulses through thermoacoustic and electrostrictive effects, Conference on Date of Conference Electrical Insulation & Dielectric Phenomena - Annual Report 1987.
1987 (Jul). Papp MAD et al.
Doppler microwave: A clinical assessment of its efficacy as an arterial pulse sensing technique, Investigative Radiology, 22(7):569-573.
1987 (Jul 9). Gabriel C et al.
Microwave absorption in aqueous solutions of DNA, Nature, 328:145-146.
1987 (May). Lawrence AF et al.
The nature of phonons and solitary waves in alpha-helical proteins, Biophysical Journal, 51(5):785-793.
1987 (Mar). Lai H et al.
A review of microwave irradiation and actions of psychoactive drugs, IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, 6(1):31-36.
1987 (Feb). Su J-L and JC Lin.
Thermoelastic signatures of tissue phantom absorption and thermal expansion, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-34(2):179-182.
1987 (Jan). Chan KH and JC Lin.
Microprocessor-based cardiopulmonary rate monitor, Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 25(1):41-44.
1987 (Jan). Albert EN et al.
Effect of amplitude-modulated 147-MHz radiofrequency radiation on calcium ion efflux from avian brain tissue, Radiation Research, 109(1):19-27.
1987 (Jan). Besson M and F Macar.
An event-related potential analysis of incongruity in music and other non-linguistic contexts, Psychophysiology, 24(1):14-25.
Four experimental conditions: "1) sentences, 2) geometric patterns of increasing or decreasing size, 3) scale-notes of increasing or decreasing frequency, and 4) well-known French melodies. An N400 appeared only following semantic incongruities within sentences".
1987 (Jan 1). Amassian VE and RQ Cracco.
Human cerebral cortical responses to contralateral transcranial stimulation, Neurosurgery, 20(1):148-155.
For those not inclined to follow "do not try this at home" sort of advice, this might not be a bad point of reference if interested in transcranial magnetic stimulation.
1986. Baroncelli P et al.
A health examination of railway high-voltage substation workers exposed to ELF electromagnetic fields, American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 10(1):45-55.
1986. Blackwell RP and RD Saunders.
The effects of low-level radiofrequency and microwave radiation on brain tissue and animal behaviour, International Journal of Radiation Biology and Related Studies in Physics, Chemistry and Medicine, 50(5):761-787.
1986. Caddemi A et al.
Microwave effects on isolated chick embryo hearts, Bioelectromagnetics, 7(4):359-367.
1986. Cohen BH.
The motor theory of voluntary thinking, in RJ Davidson et al (eds) "Consciousness and Self-Regulation": Springer.
The existence of relationships between motor activity and neural activity leads to use of EMG methods which record signals sent to the throat for speech, but which remains subvocalized. The bibliography can be used of an indication of the state of knowledge on the subject at that time.
1986. D'Andrea JA et al.
Behavioral and physiological effects of chronic 2,450-MHz microwave irradiation of the rat at 0.5 mW/cm2, Bioelectromagnetics, 7(1):45-56.
1986. Hand JW and RH Johnson.
Field penetration from electromagnetic applicators for localized hyperthermia, Recent Results in Cancer Research, 101:7-17.
That electromagnetic propagation into a medium decreases with angular frequency and permittivity of a medium. This was done for localized heating as a part of cancer research, but more generally relates to figuring out how about electromagnetic waves diffusing through materials and fields.
1986. McDowall ME.
Mortality of persons resident in the vicinity of electricity transmission facilities, British Journal of Cancer, 53:271-279.
1986. McLeod BR and AR Liboff.
Dynamic characteristics of membrane ions in multifield configurations of low-frequency electromagnetic radiation, Bioelectromagnetics, 7(2):177-89.
1986. Roberts NJ et al.
The biological effects of radiofrequency radiation: A critical review and recommendations, International Journal of Radiation Biology and Related Studies in Physics, Chemistry and Medicine, 50(3):379-420.
1986. Santi T et al.
Effects of continuous low-level exposure to radiofrequency radiation on intrauterine development in rats, Health Physics, 51(4):489-499.
1986. Spiegel RJ et al.
Measurement of small mechanical vibrations of brain tissue exposed to extremely-low-frequency electric fields, Bioelectromagnetics, 7(3):295-306.
Finds some interesting vibrational properties of (after death) brain tissues at very low frequencies (especially under 200Hz).
1986. Tenforde TS.
Thermoregulation in rodents exposed to high-intensity stationary magnetic fields, Bioelectromagnetics, 7(3):341-346.
1986. Thomas JR.
Low-intensity magnetic fields alter operant behavior in rats, Bioelectromagnetics, 7(4):349-357.
1986 (Dec). McRee DI and H Wachtel.
Elimination of microwave effects on the vitality of nerves after blockage of active transport, Radiation Research, 108(3):260-268.
If it doesn't have the effect when a particular means of that effect happening is blocked, then that particular means starts to stand out. This confirms much research relating to effects on ion transport (related to ion balances, etc., involved in neural signals).
1986 (Oct). Roschmann P and R Tischler.
Surface coil proton MR imaging at 2 T, Radiology: 161(1):251.
1986 (Sep 8-12). Bernardi P et al.
Effects of modulated microwave and RF fields on the membrane of neuronal cells, 16th European Microwave Conference.
1986 (Aug). Kok A.
Effects of degradation of visual stimuli on components of the event-related potential (ERP) in go/nogo reaction tasks, Biological Psychology, 23(1):21-38.
Presented clear and unclear stimuli in a go / nogo situation to press a button. Reactions to clear stimuli had identifiably larger late-positive components and smaller slow wave components, with the effect being more clear in the nogo condition.
1986 (Aug). Stuchly MA.
Human exposure to static and time-varying magnetic fields, Health Physics, 51(2):215-225.
Magnetic fields have not turned out to be as easily used in neural manipulation than some might have thought, but regardless, this is an indication of the state of development at that time in fields of frequency zero to hundreds of kHz.
1986 (Jul). Tousignant J et al.
Discrepancy detection and vulnerability to misleading postevent information, Memory and Cognition, 14(4):329-33.
Shows that when people are exposed to misleading details after a witnessed event, they often claim that they saw the misleading details as part of the event. This is referred to as the misinformation effect. Experimental evidence shows greater resistance to misinformation when reading more slowly.
1986 (Jul). Byrne W et al.
Adaptive filter processing in microwave remote heart monitors, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-33(7).
1986 (Jul). Chen K-M et al.
An X-Band microwave life-detection system, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-33(7).
1986 (Jul). O'Neill WD et al.
Estimation and verification of a stochastic neuron model, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-33(7):654-666.
1986 (Jul). Stuchly SS.
Energy deposition in a model of man: Frequency effects, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-33(7):702-711.
1986 (Jun). Adey WR.
The sequence and energetics of cell membrane transductive coupling to intracellular enzyme systems, Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, 15(3):447-456.
1986 (Jun). Fitzsimmons RJ et al.
Embryonic bone matrix formation is increased after exposure to a low-amplitude capacitively coupled electric field, in vitro, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 882(1):51-56.
1986 (Jun). Larsen LE and JH Jacobi.
Medical applications of microwave imaging: IEEE. RC78.7 .M53 M43
1986 (Jun 26). Stolz JF et al.
Magnetotactic bacteria and single-domain magnetite in hemipelagic sediments, Nature, 321:849-51.
1986 (May). Franconi C et al.
Low-frequency RF twin-dipole applicator for intermediate depth hyperthermia, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 34(5):612-619.
1986 (May). Jouvie F et al.
Discussion of capabilities of microwave phased arrays for hyperthermia treatment of neck tumors, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 34(5):495-501.
Explores numerical modelling techniques for microwave phased arrays to calculate the power deposited by complete or limited annular arrays in cylindrical neck cross sections. Among other things, phased arrays provide better uniformity and larger penetration depths (this knowledge of penetration depth would later be relevant for neuro effects of microwaves).
1986 (May). Turner PF.
Mini-annular phased array for limb hyperthermia, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 34(5):508-513.
Explores issues related to power density in different methods of using phantom (fake) limbs or bodies to test for effects of frequency and tissue conductivity on the final power density in the targeted regions.
1986 (May). Sathiaseelan V et al.
Theoretical analysis and clinical demonstration of the effect of power pattern control using the annular phased-array hyperthermia system, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 34(5):514-519.
At 60MHz radiofrequency, finds that 30 degree phase changes and 20 percent amplitude changes have relevant impacts on the total received bioeffect of the microwave radiation.
1986 (Feb). Gandhi OP and A Riazi.
Absorption of millimeter waves by human beings and its biological implications, IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, 34(2):228-235.
"...This paper gives the millimeter-wave absorption efficiency for the human body with and without clothing."
1986 (Jan). Stuchly MA et al.
Exposure of man in the near-field of a resonant dipole: Comparison between theory and measurements, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 34(1):26-31.
1986 (Jan 30). Bocquest et al.
Visibility of local thermal structures and temperature retrieval by microwave radiometry, Electronics Letters, 22(3):120-22.
1985. Arber SL and JC Lin.
Microwave-induced changes in nerve cells: Effects of modulation and temperature, Bioelectromagnetics, 6(3):257-270.
1985. Blackman CF et al.
A role for the magnetic field in the radiation-induced efflux of calcium ions from brain tissue in vitro, Bioelectromagnetics, 6(4):327-337.
1985. Blackman et al.
Effects of ELF (1-120 Hz) and modulated (50 Hz) RF fields on the efflux of calcium ions from brain tissue in vitro, Bioelectromagnetics, 6(1):1-11.
1985. Blackman et al.
Calcium-ion efflux from brain tissue: Power-density versus internal field-intensity dependencies at 50-MHz RF radiation, Bioelectromagnetics, 1(3):277-283.
1985. Chiabrera A (ed).
Interactions between electromagnetic fields and cells: Springer. QH656 .I57
1985. Fren AH.
Psychophysical analysis of microwave sound perception, Journal of Bioelectricity, 4(1):1-14.
1985. Grandolfo M et al.
Biological effects and dosimetry of static and ELF electromagnetic fields: Springer. QP82.2 .E43 I58
1985. Kono S et al.
Some consideration on the auditory perception of ultrasound and its effects on hearing, Journal of the Acoustical Society of Japan, 6(1):3-8.
1985. Oleson JR et al.
Results of a phase I regional hyperthermia device evaluation: Microwave annular array versus radio frequency induction coil, International Journal of Hyperthermia, 2(4):327-336.
Compares effects of microwave annular arrays and magnetic induction coils - the microwave array is found to be more effective in having its effect in deep pelvic tumours.
1985. Wilson BS and WT Joines.
Mechanisms and physiologic significance of microwave action on the auditory system, Journal of Bioelectricity, 4(2):495-526.
1985 (Dec). Liboff AR.
Geomagnetic cyclotron resonance in living cells, Journal of Biological Physics, 13(4):99-102.
1985 (Nov). Hagmann MJ et al.
A comparison of the annular phased array to helical coil applicators for limb and torso hyperthermia, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-32(11):916-927.
The specific applications for studying hyperthermia may not be of huge interest, but the study of the different effects between annular phased array and coils may be relevant. (The second of these, I believe, is related to what is now called 'transcranial magnetic stimulation', and my understanding is that this is only effective at proximate distances and that control from a distance would be essentially impossible for most practical purposes.
1985 (Nov). Stenfelt S and R Goode.
Bone-conducted sound: Physiological and clinical aspects, Otology & Neurotology, 26(6):1245-1261.
Among other things, mentions knowledge of the phenomenon since the 19th century, from which the term "bone conduction" comes from.
1985 (Oct). Barregard et al.
Cancer among workers exposed to strong static magnetic fields, The Lancet, 326(8460):892.
1985 (Oct). Okamoto et al.
Intelligibility of bone-conducted ultrasonic speech, Hearing Research, 208(1-2):107-113.
Performs a study using ultrasound hearing aids operating via bone conduction.
1985 (Oct). Seaman RL.
Biological effects of electromagnetic radiation, Proceedings of the IEEE, 73(10):1532-1532.
1985 (Sep). Bernardi P et al.
Response of a neuronal membrane to applied sinusoidal currents, Cell Biophysics, 7(3):185-195.
1985 (Sep). Stuchly MA et al.
Exposure of human models in the near and far field - A comparison, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-32(8):609-616.
1985 (Aug). Bottomley et al.
Estimating radiofrequency power deposition in body NMR imaging, Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 2(4):336-349.
1985 (Aug). Carstensen EL et al.
Sensitivity of the human eye to power frequency electric fields, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-32(8):561-565.
1985 (Aug 1). Tenforde TS and TF Budinger.
Biological effects and physical safety aspects of NMR imaging and in vivo spectroscopy, Conference: American Association of Physicists in medicine summer school.
1985 (Jul). Maskell SJ.
RF susceptibility of an EEG and considerations for attenuating RFI in hospitals, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, IA-21(4):876-881.
Findings reject the need for shielding in hospitals in order to have good EEG readings, but presents an inexpensive system developed by the US Veterans Administration.
1985 (Jun). Arber SL and JC Lin.
Extracellular calcium and microwave enhancement of membrane conductance in snail neurons, Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 24(2):149-156.
1985 (Jun). Edwards GS et al.
Microwave-field-driven acoustic modes in DNA, Biophysical Journal, 47(6):799-807.
1985 (Jun). Guo TC et al.
Microwave induced thermoelastic process in dielectrics - Theory and experiments, International Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, 6(6):405-422.
1985 (Jun 4-6). Bardati F et al.
Inversion of microwave thermographic data by the singular function method, Microwave Symposium Digest, 1985 IEEE MTT-S International.
1985 (May). Blinowska KJ and W Lech.
Cell membrane as a possible site of Frohlich's coherent oscillations, Physics Letters A.
1985 (May). Delgado JM et al.
Embryological changes induced by weak, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields, Journal of Anatomy, 134(Pt3):533-551.
1985 (May). Ioale P and D Guidarini.
Methods for producing disturbances in pigeon homing behaviour by oscillating magnetic fields, Journal of Experimental Biology, 116:109-120.
"...initial orientation was strongly affected when the oscillation of the artificial magnetic field was square-shaped, whereas a triangular or sine-shaped variation had no effect"
I believe similar effects to have been reported in other papers with regard to microwave pulses, but will have to check back on this.
1985 (Apr). Taflove A and KR Umashankar.
Distributions in finely discretized inhomogeneous models of biological bodies (comments), IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 33(4):345-346.
1985 (Mar). Scott RS et al.
Transient microwave induced neurosensory reactions during superficial hyperthermia treatment, International Journal of Radiation Oncology *Biology* Physics, 11(3):561-566.
1985 (Feb). Hill DA and JA Walsh.
Radio-frequency current through the feet of a grounded human, IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, EMC-27(1):18-23.
In particular, just looking at the title from this high quality source, you can see that the nature of energy diffusion/circulation/current/..., well, this shows that a number of related debates were not yet settled. (E.g., radiofrequency can affect current, but does not itself constitute a "current".)
1985 (Feb). Lin JC.
Frequency optimization for microwave imaging of biological tissues, Proceedings of the IEEE, 73(2):374-375.
1985 (Feb). Saha AR and BC Mazumder.
A microprocessor-based frequency-to-code converter, Proceedings of the IEEE, 73(2):375-377.
An indication of processing abilities at that time.
1985 (Jan). Lacourse JR et al.
Effect of high-frequency current on nerve and muscle tissue, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-32(1)82-86.
"...There was no frequency below tissue destruction threshold values where excitable tissue cannot be stimulated if the current intensity is great enough." This suggests that it's total energy amounts more so than frequency dependency which can have effects on nerve and muscle tissues, although this may not be relevant in cases where stimulation of the brain itself is the primary means of end effects.
1984. Adey W (ed).
Nonlinear electrodynamics in biological systems: Springer. QP341 .I58
1984. Casaleggio et al.
Evaluation of ionic fluxes in a cell, with non linear membrane. Stimulated by an electric field, Journal of Bioelectricity, 3(1-2):305-328.
1984. Chiabrera A et al.
Interaction between electromagnetic fields and cells: Microelectrophoretic effect on ligands and surface receptors, Bioelectromagnetics, 5(2):173-191.
1984. De Lorge JO.
Operant behavior and colonic temperature of Macaca mulatta exposed to radio frequency fields at and above resonant frequencies, Bioelectromagnetics, 5(2):233-246.
"Observing-response performance was impaired at increasingly higher power densities as frequency increased from the near-resonance 225 MHz to the above-resonance 5.8 GHz. The threshold power density of disrupted response rate at 225 MHz was...". In short, their actions while hungry to perform a task which indicated food availability was reduced.
1984. Dutta SK et al.
Microwave radiation-induced calcium ion efflux from human neuroblastoma cells in culture, Bioelectromagnetics, 5(1):71-78.
1984. Hill DA.
The effect of frequency and grounding on whole-body absorption of humans in E-polarized radiofrequency fields, Bioelectromagnetics, 5(2):131-146.
Absorption rates of EM waves differed by orientation (much smaller when grounded, indicating that electric current is somehow related), with effecting varying as a function of wave frequency (for a same total energy absorption).
1984. Millar DB et al.
The effect of exposure of acetylcholinesterase to 2450-MHz microwave radiation, Bioelectromagnetics, 5(2):165-172.
1984. Schwan HP.
Frequency selective propagation of extracellular electrical stimuli to intracellular compartments, in AH Frey (ed) Nonlinear electrodynamics in biological systems: Springer.
1984. Yee KC et al.
Effect of microwave radiation on the beating rate of isolated frog hearts, Bioelectromagnetics, 5(2):263-270.
1984 (Dec). Berman E et al.
Growth and development of mice offspring after irradiation in utero with 2450-MHz microwaves, Teratology, 30(3):393-402.
1984 (Dec). Maffeo S et al.
Lack of effect of weak low frequency electromagnetic fields on chick embryogenesis, Journal of Anatomy.
1984 (Oct). Gandhi OP et al.
Impedence method for calculation of power deposition patterns in magnetically induced hyperthermia, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-31(10):644-651.
I'm not sure of the relevance of the impedence method for this, but it should be noted that the ability to model energy deposition would be informative from the perspective of thermoacoustic wave origination.
1984 (Oct). Milligan AJ.
Whole-body hyperthermia induction techniques, Cancer Research, 44(Supp):4869s-4872s.
Heat from non-ionizing radiation distributed to first few cm of surface and then heat is distributed by blood flow, with the benefit of less extreme surface temperature differences required to achieve a given total amount of heating.
1984 (Oct). Ruggera PS and G Kantor.
Development of a family of RF helical coil applicators which produce transversely uniform axially distributed heating in cylindrical fat-muscle phantoms, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-31(1):98-106.
Is able to achieve uniform effects at distances under the surface, without excessive surface heating.
1984 (Oct 1). Aristizabal SA and JR Oleson.
Combined interstitial irradiation and localized current field hyperthermia: Results and conclusions from clinical studies, Cancer Research, 44(10S):4757s-4760s.
This line of research demonstrates, among other things, the existence of known heating responses to microwave radiation.
1984 (Sep-Oct). O'Neill WD and JC Lin.
An information channel model of a neuron encoder and possible microwave radiation effects on capacity, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC-14(5):717-725.
1984 (Sep). Ueno S et al.
Magnetic nerve stimulation without interlinkage between nerve and magnetic flux, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 20(5):1660-1662.
1984 (Aug). Guo TC et al.
Microwave-induced thermoacoustic effect in dielectrics and its coupling to external medium-A thermodynamical formulation, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 32(8):835-843.
1984 (Aug). Haslam NC et al.
Aperture synthesis thermography-A new approach to passive microwave temperature measurements in the body, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 32(8):829-835.
1984 (Aug). Kraszewski A et al.
Specific absorption rate distribution in a full-scale model of man at 350 MHz, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 32(8):779-783.
Emphasis on "distribution", in understanding what broader technical relevance such work might have.
1984 (Aug). Lin JC and KH Chan.
Microwave thermoplastic tissue imaging-system design, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 32(8):854-860.
1984 (Aug). Slaney M et al.
Limitations of imaging with first-order diffraction tomography, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 32(8):860-874.
Demonstrates availability of hardware and also software abilities for 3D imaging to model diffraction tomography.
1984 (Aug). Turner PF.
Hyperthermia and inhomogeneous tissue effects using an annular phased array, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 32(8):874-875.
Shows ability to achieve uniform heating under 70 MHz and local heating above 70 MHz, with orientation (e.g. perpendicularity) of low-dialectic (low insulating) internal and surface anatomical features found to cause field perturbations.
1984 (Jul). Bernardi P and G D'Inzeo.
A nonlinear analysis of the effects of transient electromagnetic fields on excitable membranes, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 32(7):670-679.
1984 (Jul). McGuigan FJ.
How is linguistic memory accessed? A psychophysiological approach, The Pavlovian journal of biological science: Official journal of the Pavlovian, 19(3):119-136
Presents several reasons that several previous understandings related to the role of subvocalization are in fact wrong. "Rather, data support the generalization that covert speech is present during all cognitive functioning and that its specific topography is discriminatively related to the class of phoneme being processed...". They theorize about how this could be linked to memory-related processes, included other-than-commonly-anticipated ones.
1984 (May). Williams WM et al.
Effect of 2450-MHz microwave energy on the blood-brain barrier to hydrophilic molecules. A. Effect on the permeability to sodium fluorescein, Brain Research Reviews, 7(2):165-170.
Under the experimental conditions, microwave irradiation had an impact (greater than that of an equivalent heat treatment) on a certain type of molecule traversing the blood-brain barrier.
1984 (May). Williams WM et al.
Effect of 2450-MHz microwave energy on the blood-brain barrier to hydrophilic molecules. B. Effect on the permeability to HRP, Brain Research Reviews, 7(2):171-181.
Did not raise permeability of the blood brain barrier to HRP.
1984 (May). Williams WM et al.
Effect of 2450-MHz microwave energy on the blood-brain barrier to hydrophilic molecules. C. Effect on the permeability to [14C]sucrose, Brain Research Reviews, 7(2):183-190.
In this third experiment, microwaves decreased permeability to sucrose (a small molecule) in a 30 minute treatment without apparent decrease in 90 minute treatment.
1984 (May). Williams WM et al.
Effect of 2450-MHz microwave energy on the blood-brain barrier to hydrophilic molecules. D. Brain temperature and blood-brain barrier permeability to hydrophilic tracers, Brain Research Reviews, 7(2):191-212.
In this fourth experiment, temperature dependence on changes to blood-brain barrier permeability were found.
1984 (May). Zecker SG et al.
Subvocal motor activity and contextual processing, Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 13(3):177-193.
Absence or presence of trying to suppress subvocal speech when with or without presence of a contextual constraint showed differences. Which suggests that subvocal activity is related to processing context. With a minor contextual constraint, detection of mispronounced words may be slower but more accurate.
1984 (Apr 26). Schaller G.
Inversion of radiometric data from biological tissue by an optimisation method, Electronics Letters, 20(9):380-382.
1984 (Mar). Berman E and HB Carter.
Decreased body weight in fetal rats after irradiation with 2450-MHz (CW) microwaves, Health Physics, 46(3):537-542.
1984 (Mar 29). Enel L et al.
Improved recognition of thermal structures by microwave radiometry, Electronics Letters, 20(7):293-94.
1984 (Feb). Sperber et al.
Magnetic field induced temperature change in mice, Naturwissenschaften, 71(2):100-101.
1984 (Jan). Gibbs FA et al.
Regional hyperthermia with an annular phased array in the experimental treatment of cancer: Report of work in progress with a technical emphasis, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-31(1):115-119.
The annual phased array technology shows developments in abilities to lined up multiple origins of radiofrequency to have a specific outcome which is related to their phase.
1984 (Jan). Samaras GM.
Intracranial microwave hyperthermia: Heat induction and temperature control, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-31(1):63-69.
While this article is on microwave heating, it appears to be an early foray which required development of regionally specific microwave irradiation (e.g., depth and location) into the brain.
1983. Adair E.
Microwaves and thermoregulation: Springer. QP135 .M465
1983. Basar E et al (eds).
Synergetics of the brain, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Synergetics at Schloß Elmau, Bavaria.
1983. Epstein BR and KR Foster.
Anisotropy in the dielectric properties of skeletal muscle, Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 21:51.
1983. Frohlich H and F Kremer.
Coherent excitations in biological systems: Springer. QP363 .C57
1983. Gandolfo G (ed).
Biological effects and dosimetry of nonionizing radiation - radiofrequency and microwave energies, NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series (49). QP82.2 .M5 N37
This book is a fairly comprehensive compilation of literature already existing in 1983 on how electromagnetic waves affect the brain and the body. I am not aware of a better compilation of the existing level of knowledge on these technologies in the early 1980s.
1983. Genzel L et al.
Millimeter-wave and far-infrared spectroscopy on biological macromolecules, in H Frohlich and F Fremer (eds) Coherent excitations in biological systems: Springer.
This is much higher frequency (mm waves and infrared) than are likely to be relevant for neural effects of interest here, but of interest is the specific identification of a bond-type within proteins that may be the sub-molecular mechanism behind observed effects.
1983. Olsen RG and JC Lin.
Acoustical imaging of a model of a human hand using pulsed microwave irradiation, Bioelectromagnetics, 4(4):397-400.
1983. Paust JJ.
The human right to participate in armed revolution and related forms of social violence: Testing the limits of permissibility, Emory Law Journal, 32:545-581.
"... Criteria regarding permissibility are explored as well as the nature of a process of authority."
1983. Petersen RC.
Bioeffects of microwaves: A review of current knowledge, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 25(2):103-109.
1983. Tenforde TS et al.
Cardiovascular alterations in macaca monkeys exposed to stationary magnetic fields: Experimental observations and theoretical analysis, Bioelectromagnetics, 4(1):1-9.
1983 (Winter). Chang FR.
Mental Processes in reading: A methodological review, Reading Research Quarterly, 18(2):216-230.
Reviews methodological procedures that have been used to study mental processes in reading. This is related to works on subvocalization, but primarily studies memory processes and coded memory representation.
1983 (Oct). Gordon CJ.
Behavioral and autonomic thermoregulation in mice exposed to microwave radiation, Journal of Applied Physiology, 55(4):1242-1248.
1983 (Sep). Adams AJ.
Nonionizing radiation: Appropriate topic in a physics curriculum, American Journal of Physics, 9:807.
Among other things, suggests that the microwave auditory effect is suitable for a physics curriculum.
1983 (Sep). Grundler W and F Kellman.
Sharp resonances in yeast growth prove nonthermal sensitivity to microwaves, Physical Review Letters, 51:1214.
So, that settles that. The theoretical possibilities in this direction are not zero.
1983 (Jun). Goodman R et al.
Pulsing electromagnetic fields induce cellular transcription, Science, 220(4603):1283-1285.
This is on a somewhat longer timeframe than relevant to the sort of pulses which almost directly cause neural effect, but plausibly in some "biochemically medium-term" (range of seconds to hours) this could be relevant.
1983 (May). Lebovitz RM.
The influence of chronic exposure to low level pulsed microwave radiation on performance and cognitive behavior: Texas University Health Science Center.
"...the aim of our effort was to develop a consistent set of conclusions regarding the dose/response relationships between MWR exposure and behavioral alterations".
1983 (Mar). Gaffey CT and TS Tenforde.
Bioelectric properties of frog sciatic nerves during exposure to stationary magnetic fields, Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 22(1):61-73.
1983 (Jan). Armitage DW et al.
Radiofrequency-induced hyperthermia: Computer simulation of specific absorption rate distributions using realistic anatomical models, Physics in Medicine and Biology, 28(1):31.
Relatively early foray in using computer assistance to model temperature effects of microwave radiation on humans.
1983 (Jan). Stewart-DeHaan PJ et al.
In vitro studies of microwave-induced cataract: Separation of field and heating effects, Experimental Eye Research, 36(1):75-90.
1982. Adey WR et al.
Effects of weak amplitude-modulated microwave fields on calcium efflux from awake cat cerebral cortex, Bioelectromagnetics, 3(3):295-307.
1982. Barsoum YH and WF Pickard.
The vacuolar potential of characean cells subjected to electromagnetic radiation in the range 200-8200 MHz, Bioelectromagnetics, 3(4):393-400.
1982. Berman E et al.
Reduced weight in mice offspring after in utero exposure to 2450-MHz (CW) microwaves, Bioelectromagnetics, 285-291.
1982. Berman E et al.
Observations of Syrian hamster fetuses after exposure to 2450-MHz microwaves, Journal of Microwave Power, 17(2):107-112.
1982. Buchwald JS and NS Squires.
Endogenous auditory potentials in the cat: A P300 model, in CD Woody (ed) Conditioning: Springer. QP416 .C66
Endogenous evoked potentials are those determined by the psychological context rather than the stimulus itself. "For example, if a subject is asked to count a click of one intensity which occurs only infrequently during a series of clicks of another intensity, only the rare, unexpected click produces endogenous wave forms."
1982 (Jun). Chou C-K and AW Guy.
Auditory perception of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 71(6):1321-1334.
This article is suggestive of an emerging consensus that thermoacoustic expansion underlies the microwave hearing phenomenon.
1982. Dixey R and G Rein.
3H-noradrenaline release potentiated in a clonal nerve cell line by low-intensity pulsed magnetic fields, Nature, 296:253-256.
1982. Guy AW et al.
Determination of electric current distributions in animals and humans exposed to a uniform 60-Hz high-intensity electric field, Bioelectromagnetics, 3(1):47-71.
Presents a method to test 60 Hz fields (this the frequency of changes in power distribution systems), namely, the effects on electric behaviours in physical models across a spectrum of properties (including good prediction of effects in ankles).
1982. Lawrence AF and WR Adey.
Nonlinear wave mechanisms in interactions between excitable tissue and electromagnetic fields, Neurological Research, 4(1-2):115-153.
1982. Lin-Liu S and WR Adey.
Low frequency amplitude modulated microwave fields change calcium efflux rates from synaptosomes, Bioelectromagnetics, 3(3):309-22.
Rates of calcium (45Ca2+) flows between neural tissues were studied. When 16-Hz sinusoidally amplitude modulated 450-MHz microwave field (maximal incident intensity 0.5 mW/cm2, modulation depth 75%) was applied during the second phase, the rate constant increased by 38%. Unmodulated or 60-Hz modulated signals were not effective.
1982. Marsh JL et al.
Health effect of occupational exposure to steady magnetic fields, American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 43(6):387-394.
1982. Merritt JH et al.
Attempts to alter 45Ca2+ binding to brain tissue with pulse-modulated microwave energy, Bioelectromagnetics, 3(4):475-478.
1982. Olsen RG.
Generation of acoustical images from the absorption of pulsed microwave energy, in JP Powers (ed) Acoustical Imaging: Springer.
1982. Thomas JR et al.
Comparative effects of pulsed and continuous-wave 2.8-GHz microwaves on temporally defined behavior, Bioelectromagnetics, 3(2):227-235.
1982 (Dec). Blackman et al.
Effects of ELF fields on calcium-ion efflux from brain tissue in vitro, Radiation Research, 92(3):510-520.
1982 (Dec 1). Lotz WG and RP Podgorski.
Temperature and adrenocortical responses in rhesus monkeys exposed to microwaves, Journal of Applied Physiology, 53(6):1565-1571.
"... It was concluded that the temperature and adrenocortical responses to microwave exposure of the rhesus monkey are similar to the corresponding responses of other animals."
Presumably, this would mean no need to do lots of tests on monkeys under some assumption that this would make a big difference in getting a more accurate picture of the case for humans.
Biological effects and medical applications of RF electromagnetic fields, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 30(11):1831-1847.
1982 (Nov 26). Kalmijn AJ.
Electric and magnetic field detection in elasmobranch fishes, Science, 218(4575):916-918.
1982 (Oct). Oleson JR.
Hyperthermia by magnetic induction: I. Physical characteristics of the technique, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, 8(10): 1747-1756.
As opposed to approaches which used non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation for localized heating to try to treat tumours, this approach used magnetic fields. Power densities and frequencies alternations in the fields are relevant, as they are with electromagnetic radiation.
1982 (Sep). Adey WR and SM Bawin.
Binding and release of brain calcium by low-level electromagnetic fields: A review, Radio Science, 17(5S):149S-157S).
1982 (Sep). Brown PVK and NC Wyeth.
Laser interferometer for measuring microwave-induced motion in eye lenses in vitro, Review of Scientific Instruments, 54(1):85-89.
1982 (Sep-Oct). Chou C-K et al.
Effects of continuous and pulsed chronic microwave exposure on rabbits, Radio Science, 17(5S):185S-193S.
1982 (Sep-Oct). Guy AW and C-K Chou.
Effects of high-intensity microwave pulse exposure of rat brain, Radio Science, 17(5S):169S-178S.
1982 (Sep-Oct). Justesen DR.
Scientific and hygienic issues in biological research on microwaves: Toward rapprochement between East and West, Radio Science, 17(5S):1S-12S.
1982 (Sep). Kaplan J et al.
Biological and behavioral effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to 2450-MHz electromagnetic radiation in the squirrel monkey, Radio Science, 17(5S):135S-144S).
1982 (Sep-Oct). Lin JC et al.
Comparison of measured and predicted characteristics of microwave-induced sound, Radio Science, 17(5S):159S-163S.
1982 (Sep 13-17). Caspers F and J Conway.
Measurement of power density in a lossy material by means of electro-magnetically induced acoustic signals for non-invasive determination of spatial thermal absorption in connection with pulsed hyperthermia, 12th European Microwave Conference, 1982.
"For non-invasive determination of the spatial power density distribution during RF- and microwave..."
1982 (Aug). Storm FK et al.
Clinical RF hyperthermia by magnetic-loop induction: A new approach to human cancer therapy, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 30(8):1149-1158.
Attempts the use of magnetrode magnetic-loop induction to heat deep tumours.
1982 (Jul). McRee DI and H Wachtel.
Pulse microwave effects on nerve vitality, Radiation Research, 91(1):212-218.
1982 (Jul 22). Milham S.
Mortality from leukemia in workers exposed to electrical and magnetic fields, The New England Journal of Medicine, 307:249.
1982 (Jun). Chou C-K et al.
Auditory perception of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 71(6):1321-1334.
1982 (Jun 15-17). Seaman RL et al.
Changes in cardiac-cell membrane noise during microwave exposure, Microwave Symposium Digest, IEEE MTT-S International.
1982 (Apr 1). Adair ER and BW Adams.
Adjustments in metabolic heat production by squirrel monkeys exposed to microwaves, Journal of Applied Physiology, 52(4):1049-1058.
1982 (Mar). Polson MJR et al.
Stimulation of nerve trunks with time-varying magnetic fields, Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 20(2):243-244.
1982 (Mar 1). Yao KTS.
Cytogenetic consequences of microwave irradiation on mammalian cells incubated in vitro, Journal of Heredity, 73(2):133-138.
Genetic effects are not generally covered here, but a quick review of the methods should provide convincing evidence of the deleterious effects with respect to genetic integrity, in the experimental conditions.
1982 (Feb 5). Basseett CA et al.
Pulsing electromagnetic field treatment in ununited fractures and failed arthrodeses, Journal of the American Medical Association, 247(5):623-628.
1982 (Jan). Bromm B and E Scharein.
Principal component analysis of pain-related cerebral potentials to mechanical and electrical stimulation in man, Neurophysiology, 53(1):94-103.
Principle component analysis was used to analyze the separate parts of the EEG reading in response to various levels and brief durations of electric pain stimuli. I believe Fourier transforms and other techniques are now more common in processing such readings.
1982 (Jan 1982). Lin JC and MF Lin.
Microwave hyperthermia-induced blood-brain barrier alterations, Radiation Research, 89(1):77-87.
1981. Allis JW and BL Sinha.
Fluorescence depolarization studies of red cell membrane fluidity. The effect of exposure to 1.0-GHz microwave radiation, Bioelectromagnetics, 2(1):13-22.
1981. Athey TW.
Comparison of RF-induced calcium efflux from chick brain tissue at different frequencies: Do the scaled power density windows align?, Bioelectromagnetics, 2(4):407-409.
1981. Baddeley A et al.
The role of subvocalisation in reading, The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A - Human Experimental Psychology, 33(4):439-454.
"...when subjects were required to suppress articulation while reading, their ability to detect anomalous words or errors of word order in prose was markedly impaired although speed of reading was unaffected". A similar effect was found when trying to notice errors in prose while also suppressing subvocal speech and also in the presence of acoustic interference. "It is concluded that subvocalisation allows the creation of a supplementary articulatory code ..."
1981. Cain CA.
Biological effects of oscillating electric fields: Role of voltage-sensitive ion channels, Bioelectromagnetics, 2(1):23-32.
1981. Eibeck JC et al.
Pulse evolution on coupled nerve fibres, Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 43(4):389-400.
1981. Shelton WW and JH Merritt.
In vitro study of microwave effects on calcium efflux in rat brain tissue, Bioelectromagnetics, 2(2):161-167.
1981. Smialowicz RJ et al.
Biological effects of long-term exposure of rats to 970-MHz radiofrequency radiation, Bioelectromagnetics, 2(3):279-284.
Notable effects (in cell phone frequency band) in a variety of molecules from blood tests including indications of non-specific stress response, but easily observed aggregate measures were not changed.
1981. Way WI et al.
Comparison of the efficacy of pulsed versus CW microwave fields in evoking body movements, Bioelectromagnetics, 2(4):341-356.
1981. Taylor LS.
The mechanisms of athermal microwave biological effects, Bioelectromagnetics, 2(3):259-267.
1981 (winter). Myers RD and DH Ross.
Radiation and brain calcium: A review and critique, Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 5(4):503-543.
1981 (Dec). Raymond H et al.
Studies on acute in vivo exposure of rats to 2450-MHz microwave radiation: II. Effects on thyroid and adrenal axes hormones, Radiation Research, 88(3):448-455.
1981 (Nov). Edenhofer P.
Electromagnetic remote sensing of the temperature profile in a stratified medium of biological tissues by stochastic inversion of radiometric data, Radio Science, 16(6):1065-1069.
1981 (Nov). Hoff AJ.
Magnetic field effects on photosynthetic reactions, Quarterly Review of Biophysics, 14(4):599-665.
1981 (Nov). Lovsund P et al.
Influence on frog retina of alternating magnetic fields with special reference to ganglion cell activity, Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 19(6):679-685.
1981 (Oct). Olsen RG and JC Lin.
Microwave pulse-induced acoustic resonances in spherical head models, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 29(10):1114-1117.
1981 (Sep). Cacioppo JT and RE Petty.
Electromyographic specificity during covert information processing, Psychophysiology, 18(5):518-523.
"...depth of processing was associated with enhanced EMG activity of the speech muscles, but was unrelated to cardiac and nonoral EMG activity. Moreover, this association was observed only when subjects were covertly analyzing the stimuli."
1981 (Jul). Cairnie AB and RK Harding.
Cytological studies in mouse testis irradiated with 2.45-GHz continuous-wave microwaves, Radiation Research, 87(1):100-108.
1981 (Jun). Smialowicz RJ et al.
Chronic exposure of rats to 100-MHz (CW) radiofrequency radiation: Assessment of biological effects, Radiation Research, 86(3):488-505.
Relatively high-power doses in frequencies used by local radio stations were administered to rats for extended periods, and a large series of tests did not have notable effects, with the exception of "mean time to eye opening". (No idea what might be up with that eye opening finding ...)
1981 (May 29). Gould JL and KP Able.
Human homing: An elusive phenomenon, Science, 212(4498):1061-1063.
1981 (Apr). Kohli M et al.
Calculated microwave absorption of double-helical B-conformation poly(dG)·poly(dC), Biopolymers, 20(4):853-864.
1981 (Apr). McLaughlin S and MM Poo.
The role of electro-osmosis in the electric-field-induced movement of charged macromolecules on the surfaces of cells, Biophysical Journal, 34(1):85-93.
1981 (Feb). Milberg et al.
Role of subvocal motor activity in dichotic speech perception and selective attention, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 7(1):231-239.
Presents consonant and vowel sounds in right and left ears at the same time, and uses EMG to measure intentional efforts to reduce subvocalization which is elicited as a result.
1981 (Feb). Pickard WF and YH Harsoum.
Radio-frequency bioeffects at the membrane level: Separation of thermal and athermal contributions in the characeae, The Journal of Membrane Biology, 61(1):39-54.
1980. Adair ET and BW Adams.
Microwaves modify thermoregulatory behavior in squirrel monkey, Bioelectromagnetics, 1(1):1-20.
1980. Blackman CF et al.
Induction of calcium-ion efflux from brain tissue by radiofrequency radiation: Effect of sample number and modulation frequency on the power-density window, Bioelectromagnetics, 1(1):35-43.
1980. Chou CK et al.
Microwave radiation and heart-beat rate of rabbits, Journal of Microwave Power, 15(2):88-93.
1980. D'Andrea JA et al.
Physiological and behavioral effects of prolonged exposure to 915-MHz microwaves, Journal of Microwave Power, 15(2):123-125.
1980. De Lorge JO and CS Ezell.
Observing-responses of rats exposed to 1.28- and 5.62-GHz microwaves, Bioelectromagnetics, 1(2):183-198.
The behavioural response required higher total energy at 5.62 GHz than 1.28 GHz.
1980. Frohlich H.
The biological effects of microwaves and related questions, Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, 53:85-152.
1980. Lin JC.
Studies on microwave and blood-brain barrier interaction, Bioelectromagnetics, 1(3):313-323.
In short, it doesn't look like microwaves have relevant effect on blood-brain barrier permeability.
1980. Olsen RG and WC Hammer.
Microwave-induced pressure waves in a model of muscle tissue, Bioelectromagnetics, 1(1):45-54.
1980. Scrot J et al.
Modification of the repeated acquisition of response sequences in rats by low-level microwave exposure, Bioelectromagnetics, 1(1):89-99.
1980. Shepps JL and KR Foster.
The UHF and microwave dielectric properties of normal and tumour tissues: Variation in dielectric properties with tissue water content, Physics in Medicine and Biology, 25(6):1149-1160.
1980 (Dec). Chatterjee I et al.
Electromagnetic-energy deposition in an inhomogeneous block model of man for near-field irradiation conditions, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 28(12):1452-1460.
Among other things, in studying effects of phase variations, find that worst case scenario (maximum energy deposition) is always from the constant phase in the fields.
1980 (Dec). Wikswo JP and JP Barach.
An estimate of the steady magnetic field strength required to influence nerve conduction, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-27(12):722-723.
1980 (Nov). Lovsund et al.
Magneto- and electrophosphenes: A comparative study, Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 18(6):758-764.
1980 (Sep). Chou C-K et al.
Holographic assessment of microwave hearing, Science, 209(4461):1143-1145.
Disagreement that thermoelastic effects in skull and other tissues can be rejected as the explanation for microwave hearing, a conclusion that had suggested that this effect occurred within the cochlea itself.
1980 (Jul 24). Blakemore RP.
South-seeking magnetotactic bacteria in the Southern Hemisphere, Nature, 286:384-385).
This was relevant as an early demonstration of magnetic aspects of (or relations to) biological function at the cellular level.
1980 (Jun). McRee DI and W Wachtel.
The effects of microwave radiation on the vitality of isolated frog sciatic nerves, Radiation Research, 82(3):536-546.
1980 (May). Lovsund et al.
Magnetophosphenes: A quantitative analysis of thresholds, Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 18(3):326-334.
1980 (May). Olcerst RB et al.
The increased passive efflux of sodium and rubidium from rabbit erythrocytes by microwave radiation, Radiation Research, 82(2):244-256.
While effects on blood cells or production thereof are not generally included here, the specific work on membrane transport of salts/ions (which relates to initiation of neural signals) is of interest.
1980 (May 28-30). Carr KL et al.
Dual mode microwave system to enhance early detection of cancer, Microwave symposium Digest, 1980 IEEE MTT-S International.
1980 (May 8). Presti D and JD Pettigrew.
Ferromagnetic coupling to muscle receptors as a basis for geomagnetic field sensitivity in animals, Nature, 285:99-101.
1980 (Apr 14). Wilson BS et al.
Alterations in activity at auditory nuclei of the rat induced by exposure to microwave radiation: Autoradiographic evidence using [14C]2-deoxy-d-glucose, Brain Research, 187(2):291-306.
1980 (Mar 21). Adair ER and BW Adams.
Microwaves induce peripheral vasodilation squirrel monkeys, Science, 207(4437):1381-1383.
1980 (Feb). Cain CA.
A theoretical basis for microwave and RF field effects on excitable cellular membranes, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 28(2):142-147.
1980 (Jan). Adey WR.
Frequency and power windowing in tissue interactions with weak electromagnetic fields, Proceedings of the IEEE, 68(1):119-125.
1980 (Jan). Durney CH.
Electromagnetic dosimetry for models of humans and animals: A review of theoretical and numerical techniques, Proceedings of the IEEE, 68(1):33-40.
1980 (Jan). Iskander MF and CH Durney.
Electromagnetic techniques for medical diagnosis: A review, Proceedings of the IEEE, 68(1):126-132.
1980 (Jan). Justesen DR.
Microwave irradiation and the blood-brain barrier, Proceedings of the IEEE, 68(1):60-67.
1980 (Jan). Lin JC.
The microwave auditory phenomenon, Proceedings of the IEEE, 68(1):67-73.
1980 (Jan). Lu S-T et al.
Advances in microwave-induced neuroendocrine effects: The concept of stress, Proceedings of the IEEE, 68(1):73-77.
1980 (Jan). McCree DI.
Soviet and eastern european research on biological effects of microwave radiation, Proceedings of the IEEE, 68(1):84-91.
Is mentioned by Bolen (1994) relating to thresholds and effects related to microwaves causing effects on the heart, for example (referring to experiments on rabbits) to speed up or slow down the heart rate, or to cause low blood pressure.
"This literature reports changes in almost all biological systems at exposure power densities less than 10 mW/cm2."
1980 (Jan). Schwan HP and KR Foster.
RF-field interactions with biological systems: Electrical properties and biophysical mechanisms, Proceedings of the IEEE, 68(1):104-113.
1979. Adey WR.
Long-range electromagnetic field interactions at brain cell surfaces, in TS Tenforde (ed) Magnetic field effect on biological systems: Springer.
A good indication of the division between what was fact and speculation in understanding the mechanisms underlying neural effects of microwaves.
1979. Begin M.
White nights: The story of a prisoner in Russia: Harper & Row. DS125.6 .B33 A313
1979. Begleiter H.
Evoked brain potentials and behavior: Springer. QP360 .C66
An indication of the state of literature regarding the measure and/or manipulation of neural behaviour, as relates to methods involving evoked potential, event-related potentials, etc.
1979. Chou C-K and R Galambos.
Middle-ear structures contribute little to auditory perception of microwaves, Journal of Microwave Power, 14,(4):321-326.
1979. Davydov AS.
Solitons in molecular systems, Physica Scripta, 20(3-4):387.
1979. Foster KR et al.
Dielectric properties of brain tissue between 0.01 and 10 GHz, Physics in Medicine and Biology, 24(2):1177.
1979. Gage MI.
Microwave irradiation and ambient temperature interact to alter rat behavior following overnight exposure, Journal of Microwave Power, 14(4):389-398.
1979. O'Keefe J and L Nadel.
Précis of O'Keefe & Nadel's 'The hippocampus as a cognitive map', The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2:487-533.
Focused on the possibility that spatial perception and memory involves a Euclidean (i.e. 3-D point-specific) framework, this literature review and theoretical model (spatial maps in one hemisphere and sematic in another) identifies the hippocampus as the locus of these 3-D maps. It seems that quite a lot of details are imprecise and bordering towards incorrect. However, it may be a useful indication of the fairly large amount of research being produced on such questions at the time.
1979. Sutton S.
P300 -- Thirteen years later, in H Begleiter (ed) Evoked brain potentials and behavior: Springer.
Outlines the range (hundreds) of studies using P300-related approaches since initial observation of it 13 years earlier.
1979. Tenforde TS (ed).
Magnetic field effect on biological systems: Springer.
1979 (Dec). Frey AH and S Gendleman.
Motor coordination or balance degradation during microwave energy exposure, Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 14(6):442-444.
1979 (Dec). Adey WR.
Neurophysiologic effects of radiofrequency and microwave radiation, Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 55(11):1079-1093.
A fairly concise summary of the state of knowledge in 1979 relating to effects of electromagnetic radiation on processes in the brain.
Addresses the effects of electromagnetic radiation at certain frequencies and amplitudes on communication ion gradients and flows which are key for communication between cells in the brain. Hones in on the oscillations ("waves") associated with neural processes, as measured via EEG, and questions whether this reflects "noise of the motor" of processes in the brain or whether the "waves" themselves (their frequency and magnitude) are important in how those processes function. Presents relevant frequencies and intensities (including pulse modulations thereof) of such phenomena in a number of species. Also, explores the specific effects at cell surfaces in the brain which are likely to be involved in administering these influences on brain processes. Demonstrates the ability to administer these effects by radiowaves rather than direct stimulation (via electrode implant).
Presents evidence of a pain-reward system wherein failure to give the "desired" response to a stimulus within a given timeframe leads to rapid "learning" after which the pain-reward system is no longer necessary and the "desired" response is achieved without administering the reward -- the effect largely disappears within about a day, except if a radiofrequency signal modulated at the frequency of the particular brain signature is applied, in which case the "learning" effect is shown to persist at two months. Also, the ability to involuntarily move the focus of eyes by stimulation of the brain is cited.
1979 (Dec). Berhnhardt J.
The direct influence of electromagnetic fields on nerve- and muscle cells of man within the frequency range of 1 Hz to 30 MHz, Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 16(4):309-323.
1979 (Dec 7). Stern S et al.
Microwaves: Effect on thermoregulatory behavior in rats, Science, 206(4423):1198-1201.
1979 (Dec 1). Lotz WG and SM Michaelon.
Effects of hypophysectomy and dexamethasone on rat adrenal response to microwaves, Journal of Applied Physiology, 47(6):1284-1288.
Finds some indications of thresholds relating to how microwave effects on cortisol (adrenaline response-related) are influenced by other compounds (one with known pharmaceutical effects).
1979 (Nov-Dec). Allis JW and ML Fromme.
Activity of membrane-bound enzymes exposed to sinusoidally modulated 2450 MHz microwave radiation, Radio Science, 14(6S):85-91.
1979 (Nov). Blackman CF et al.
Induction of calcium-ion efflux from brain tissue by radio-frequency radiation: Effects of modulation frequency and field strength, Radio Science, 14(6S):93-98.
1979 (Nov-Dec). Chou C-K and AW Guy.
Microwave-induced auditory responses in guinea pigs: Relationship of threshold and microwave-pulse duration, Radio Science, 14(6S):193-197.
1979 (Nov-Dec). Frey AH.
Studies of the blood-brain barrier: Preliminary findings and discussion, Radio Science, 14(6S):349-350.
1979 (Nov-Dec). Gandhi OP et al.
Partbody and multibody effects on absorption of radio frequency electromagnetic energy by animals and by models of man, Radio Science, 14(6S):15-21.
1979 (Nov). Lin JC et al.
Effects of repeated exposure to 148-MHz radio waves on growth and hematology of mice, Radio Science, 14(6S):173-179.
1979 (Nov-Dec). Sheppard AR et al.
Models of long-range order in cerebral macromolecules: Effects of sub-ELF and of modulated VHF and UHF fields, Radio Science, 14(6S):141-145.
1979 (Nov). Thomas JR and G Maitland.
Microwave radiation and dextroamphetamine: Evidence of combined effects on behavior of rats, Radio Science, 14(6S):253-258.
Changes in training/reward behaviour (delay required to get food) in presence of different doses of a drug and/or microwave radiation explored for thresholds and effects.
1979 (Nov-Dec). Tyazheloc VV et al.
Some peculiarities of auditory sensations evoked by pulsed microwave fields, Radio Science, 14(6S):259-263.
1979 (Oct 12). Frey AH and E Coren.
Holographic assessment of a hypothesized microwave hearing mechanism, Science, 206(4415):232-234.
1979 (Sep). Hagmann MJ et al.
Head resonance: Numerical solutions and experimental results, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 27(9):809-813.
Among other things, finds greatest absorption at 375MHz, (whereas tinfoil hats tend to increase 'reception' around 2GHz - citation needed).
1979 (Sep). Walcott C.
Pigeons have magnets, Science, 205(4410):1027:1029.
1979 (Jun). Chan ACN et al.
Brain evoked potentials are functional correlates of induced pain in man, PAIN, 365-374.
In case it was not clear that pain is processed in the brain and that that can be measured ... an "evoked potential" study.
1979 (Jun). Lin JC et al.
Microwave apexcardiography, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 27(6):618-620.
1979 (Apr). Schwartz J-L.
Influence of a constant magnetic field on nervous tissues: II. Voltage-clamp studies, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-26(4).
1979 (Mar). Frankel RB et al.
Magnetite in freshwater magnetotactic bacteria, Science, 203(4387):1355-56.
1979 (Mar). Gaffey CT.
Changes in the electrocardiograms of rats and dogs exposed to dc magnetic fields: Berkley.
1979 (Mar). Stuchly MA.
Interaction of radiofrequency and microwave radiation with living systems, Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 16(1):1-14.
"A comprehensive review of basic biophysical interaction mechanisms between RF and microwaves in the frequency range between 10 MHz and 300 GHz and biological systems..."
1979 (Mar). Takashima S et al.
Effects of modulated RF energy on the EEG of mammalian brains, Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 16(1):15-27.
1979 (Mar 30). Thomas JR et al.
Microwave radiation and chlordiazepoxide: Synergistic effects on fixed-interval behavior, Science, 203(4387):1357-1358.
1979 (Feb). Berkowitz GC and FS Barnes.
The effects of nonlinear membrane capacity on the interaction of microwave and radio frequencies with biological materials, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 27(2):204-207.
1979 (Jan 10). Lin JC et al.
Microwave-evoked brainstem potentials in cats, Journal of Microwave Power, 14(3):291-296.
1978. Bawin SM et al.
Possible mechanisms of weak electromagnetic field coupling in brain tissue, Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, 5(1):67-76.
1978. Bini M et al.
Analysis of the effects of microwave energy on enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Journal of Microwave Power, 13(1):95-99.
This is included as an in-principle demonstration that enzymes can be affected, in at least some cases, by the appropriate frequency and intensity of microwave irradiation.
1978. Gould JL.
Bees have magnetic remanence, Science, 201(4360):1026-1028.
1978. Katkin ES et al.
Clinical applications of biofeedback: Current status and future prospects, in HL Pick et al (eds) "Psychology: From research to practice": Springer.
Reviews state of research relating to commercial claims and in professional journals with regard to biofeedback. No surprise then that the bibliography is worth mining for those with more interest in the subject.
1978. Lin JC.
Microwave auditory effects and applications, Charles C Thomas: Springfield USA. ISBN 0-398-0370403.
A fairly comprehensive presentation of the state of knowledge in 1978 relating to the microwave auditory effect. Also includes many references to other bioeffects of microwave radiations known at that time.
1978 (Dec 1). Bawin SM et al.
Ionic factors in release of 45Ca2+ from chicken cerebral tissue by electromagnetic fields, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 75(12):6314-6318.
1978 (Nov). N'Guyen et al.
Simultaneous microwave local heating and microwave thermography. Possible clinical applications, Journal of Microwave Power, 14(2):135-137.
1978 (Oct). Subramanian N et al.
Regional levels of histamine in rat brain after microwave irradiation: Evidence for artifacts in the enzymatic-isotopic assay, Agents and Actions, 8(5):488-490.
1978 (Oct 25). Bernhardt J.
The direct influence of electromagnetic fields on nerve- and muscle cells of man within the frequency range of 1 Hz to 30 MHz, Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 16(4):309-323.
1978 (Sep). Ueno S et al.
Capacitive stimulatory effect in magnetic stimulation of nerve tissue, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 14(5):958-960.
1978 (Jul). Ahrlin U.
Medical effects of environmental noise on humans, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 59(1):79-87.
1978 (Jul). Krichagin VJ.
Health effects of noise exposure, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 59(1):65-71.
1978 (Jun). Moore WH.
Some effects of progressively lowering electromyographic levels with feedback procedures on the frequency of stuttered verbal behaviors, Journal of Fluency Disorders, 3(2):127-138.
Biofeedback from EMG recording was used to decrease subvocal speech in three stutterers, and was able to have effect in changing their stuttering towards not stuttering.
1978 (Jun). Pockard WF and FJ Rosenbaum.
Biological effects of microwaves at the membrane level: Two possible athermal electrophysiological mechanisms and a proposed experimental test, Mathematical Biosciences, 39(3-4)235-253.
1978 (May). Cain CA and WJ Rissman.
Mammalian auditory responses to 3.0-GHz microwave pulses, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-25(3):288-293.
1978 (Mar). Choi C-W and AW Guy.
Effects of electromagnetic fields on isolated nerve and muscle preparations, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 26(3):141-147.
1978 (Mar 1). Lotz WG and SM Michaelson.
Temperature and corticosterone relationships in microwave-exposed rats, Journal of Applied Physiology, 44(3):438-445.
1978 (Feb). Abramson LY et al.
Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, (1):49-74.
1978 (Jan). Becker JF.
A linear dichroism study of the orientation of aromatic protein residues in magnetically oriented bovine rod outer segments, Photochemistry and Photobiology, 27(1):51-54.
Dichroism relates to different absorption, etc., in two-place polarized substances (especially crystals). Residues of certain cow eye rod proteins are compared; the dichroistic changes in one dichroism under bleaching are sufficient to account for observations of the protein's orientation in a homogenous magnetic field. This study demonstrates both that specific finding as well as knowledge of methods relating to determining specific absorption, etc., properties of biologically relevant molecules under photonic radiation.
1977. Cleary SF and DE Janes.
Biological effects of microwave and radiofrequency radiation, C R C Critical Reviews in Environmental Control, 7(2):121-166.
1977. Dodge CH and ZR Glaser.
Trends in nonionizing electromagnetic radiation bioeffects research and related occupational health aspects, Journal of Microwave Power, 12(4):320-334.
"...there is some recent evidence in the West which supports traditional Soviet and some European claims that EM fields can affect nervous system function and morphology in small mammals, birds and invertebrates at power levels below those defined as thermogenic in the West ..."
Of interest is the relative positioning with respect to Soviet Bloc claims.
1977. Dugard J.
International terrorism and the just war, Stanford Journal of International Studies, 12:21.
"... St. Thomas Aquinas, for example, required both fault on the part of the attacked party and a "right intention" (recta intentio), an intention to advance good or avoid evil, on the part of the belligerent claiming a just cause. Grotius was more specific: just causes were defense, recovery of property, and punishment; unjust causes included the "desire for richer land,", the "desire for freedom among a subject people," and the "desire to rule others against their will on the pretext that it is for their own good."
1977 (Dec). Schwan HP.
Field interaction with biological matter, Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 303:198-213.
1977 (Dec). Cole CS and JC Coyne.
Situational specificity of laboratory-induced learned helplessness, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 86(6): 615-623.
1977 (Nov). Barrett AH et al.
Detection of breast cancer by microwave radiometry, Radio Science, 12:167-171.
1977 (Nov-Dec). Chou C-K et al.
Characteristics of microwave-induced cochlear microphonics, Radio Science, 12(6S):221-227.
1977 (Nov-Dec). D'Andrea JA et al.
Behavioral and thermal effects of microwave radiation at resonant and nonresonant wavelengths, Radio Science, 12(6S):251-256.
1977 (Nov). Gandhi OP et al.
Deposition of electromagnetic energy in animals and in models of man with and without grounding and reflector effects, Radio Science, 12(6S):39-47.
1977 (Nov). Ho HS and WP Edwards.
Oxygen-consumption rate of mice under differing dose rates of microwave radiation, Bioelectromagnetics, 12(6S):131-138.
This basically shows that direct heating effects of the radiation are not the only thing going on. Metabolism (and/or thermoregulatory behaviour) are also influenced in this study.
1977 (Nov). Jervis BW.
Microwave Doppler effect particle flow measurement, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics and Control Instrumentation, IECI-24(4):322-327.
1977 (Nov-Dec). Lebovitz RM and RL Seaman.
Microwave hearing: The response of single auditory neurons in the cat to pulsed microwave radiation, Radio Science, 12(6S):229-236.
1977 (Nov-Dec). Liburdy RP.
Effects of radio-frequency radiation on inflammation, Radio Science, 12(6S):179-183.
1977 (Nov). Lin JC.
Further studies on the microwave auditory effect, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 938-943.
1977 (Nov-Dec). Lin JC.
Theoretical calculation of frequencies and thresholds of microwave-induced auditory signals, Radio Science, 12(6S):237-242.
1977 (Nov-Dec). Lu S-T et al.
Thermal and endocrinological effects of protracted irradiation of rats by 2450-MHz microwaves, Radio Science, 12(6S):147-156.
1977 (Oct). Lin JC et al.
Thermographic and behavioral studies of rats in the near field of 918-MHz radiations, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 25(10):833-836.
Finds thresholds for certain (reversible) feeding-related changes.
1977 (Sep). Barnes FS and C-LJ Hu.
Model for some nonthermal effects of radio and microwave fields on biological membranes, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 25(9):742-746.
1977 (Sep). Duncan-Johnson CC and E Donchin.
On quantifying surprise: The variation of event-related potentials with subjective probability, Psychophysiology, 14(5):456-467.
"...The amplitude of the P300 and slow wave components was inversely proportional to the a priori probability of task-relevant events", with some special features depending on the recent prior experience.
1977 (Sep 28). Seaman RK and H Wachtel.
Slow and rapid response to CW and pulsed microwave radiation by individual aplysis pacemakers, Journal of Microwave Power, 13(1):77-86.
"Specific absorption rates (SARs) of microwave energy that altered firing rates were determined for individual pacemaker neurons in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia californica. ...". Humans are not sea slugs, but interesting in-principle.
1977 (Sep 12). Garrity LI.
Electromyography: A review of the current status of subvocal speech research, Memory & Cognition, 5(6):615-622.
Presents the ability to measure subvocalization by EMG, with controls for nonspeech muscle artifacts associated with speech. Outlines existing knowledge on the subject in 1977.
1977 (Sep 5). Mamouni A.
A modified radiometer for temperature and microwave properties measurements of biological substances, Microwave Conference, 7th European.
1977 (Aug 19). Kutas M et al.
Augmenting mental chronometry: The P300 as a measure of stimulus evaluation time, Science, 197(4305):792-795.
1977 (Jul). Lin JC.
On microwave-induced hearing sensation, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 25(7):605-613.
1977 (Jul). Zuckerman DN and P Diament.
The method facilitates the analysis of waveguide discontinuity problems that resist ordinary methods of solution, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 25(7):613-619.
1977 (Jun). Pearne DH et al.
Biofeedback-assisted EMG relaxation for urinary retention and incontinence, Biofeedback and Self-regulation, 2(2):213-217.
8 months of biofeedback training was sufficient to 'train' a women to have bladder control after chronic incontinence since infancy.
1977 (May 6). Oscar KJ and TD Hawkins.
Microwave alteration of the blood-brain barrier system of rats, Brain Research, 126(2):281-293.
Finds temporary changes in blood-brain barrier permeability for small molecular weight saccharides (but not several other substances) which differed between pulsed and continuous energy of the same average power.
1977 (Apr). Adey WR.
Models of membranes of cerebral cells as substrates for information storage, Biosystems, 8(4):163-178.
1977 (Apr 29). Norman RJ et al.
Classical conditioning with auditory discrimination of the eye blink in decerebrate cats, Science, 196(4289):551-553.
Considering that cats are not normally big on learning, if they can 'learn' certain kinds of things from certain kinds of stimuli without the back part of the brain, then clearly such learning does not require the back part of the brain (which leaves the brainstem intact).
1977 (Mar). Achimowicz J et al.
Quantum cooperative mechanism of enzymatic activity, Physics Letters A, 60(4):383-384.
1977 (Mar). Stuchly SS et al.
Advances in monitoring of velocities and densities of particulates using microwave Doppler effect, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 26(1):21-24.
1977 (Jan). Baranski S and P Czerski.
Biological effects of microwaves: Dowden. QP82.2 .M5 B37
1976 (Nov). Squires KC and E Donchin.
Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology, 41(5):449-459.
Used data from single auditory stimulus to build a model that could accurately predict the instance of the single auditory stimulus 84% of the time, using stepwise discriminant analysis.
1976 (Oct). Voss W.
Biological effects of electromagnetic waves: A review of current research, Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium.
1976 (Sep). Spiegel RJ.
ELF coupling to spherical models of man and animals, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-23(5):387-391.
1976 (Sep 17). Squires KC et al.
The effect of stimulus sequence on the waveform of the cortical event-related potential, Science, 193(4258):1142-1146.
The study produces findings conducive to an understanding of specific waveforms of event-related potentials, including negative components, positive components and slow-wave forms. A quantitative model was developed relating the waveform changes to changes in event expectancy. For stimuli relevant to the task, the less expected the stimulus the larger the amplitudes of late components of the event-related potentials.
1976 (Aug). Ratner SC.
Kinetic movements in magnetic fields of chitons with ferro-magnetic structures, Behavioral Biology, 17(4):573-578.
1976 (Jul). Guru BS and K-M Chen.
Experimental and theoretical studies on electromagnetic fields induced inside finite biological bodies, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 24(7):433-440.
1976 (Jun). Bawin SM and WR Adey.
Sensitivity of calcium binding in cerebral tissue to weak environmental electric fields oscillating at low frequency, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 73(6):1999-2003.
Electromagnetic fields are demonstrated to affect the calcium flows in chick and cat tissues. Maximum decreases occurred at 6 and 16 Hz (12-15%). Thresholds were around 10 and 56 V/m for chick and cat tissues, respectively.
1976 (Mar). Bhaumik D et al.
On the possibility of 'Bose condensation' in the excitation of coherent modes in biological systems, Physics Letters A, 56(2):145-148.
1976 (Mar). Gomer FE et al.
Evoked potential correlates of visual item recognition during memory-scanning tasks, Physiological Psychology, 4(1):61-65.
P300 was unequivocally greater when presented with letters they were supposed to identify as being in the group they had already seen, as compared to the other letters. The effect on the peak of the wave was similar across all set sizes of previously shown letters, suggesting that minimum time to process the new input was involved.
1976 (Mar). Levee JR et al.
Electromyographic biofeedback for relief of tension in the facial and throat muscles of a woodwind musician, Biofeedback and Self-regulation, 1(1):113-120.
EMG biofeedback over 20 sessions with a woodwind musician dramatic reductions in tension levels of specific throat and facial muscles (which had been tense due to being a woodwind musician).
Presumably, then, some variety and degrees of such effects are possible.
1976 (Feb). Baum SJ et al.
Biological measurements in rodents exposed continuously throughout their adult life to pulsed electromagnetic radiation, Health Physics, 30(2):161-166.
1976 (Jan). Lenox RH et al.
A microwave applicator for in vivo rapid inactivation of enzymes in the central nervous system (short papers), IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 24(1):58-61.
Notable for a) in vivo, b) inactivation of enzymes, c) in the central nervous system. All of these are huge.
1976 (Jan). Lin JC.
Electromagnetic pulse interaction with mammalian cranial structures, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-23(1):61-65.
1976 (Jan). Tinnery et al.
Rate effects in isolated turtle hearts induced by microwave irradiation, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 24(1):18-24
1975. Barber P and C Yeh.
Scattering of electromagnetic waves by arbitrarily shaped dielectric bodies, Applied Optics, 14(12):2864-2872.
1975. Birenbaum L et al.
Microwave and infra-red effects on heart rate, respiration rate and subcutaneous temperature of the rabbit, Journal of Microwave Power, 10(1):3-18.
1975. Chou C-K et al.
Cochlear microphonics generated by microwave pulses, Journal of Microwave Power, 10(4):361-367.
Oscillations in guinea pig brain precede response of auditory nerve suggesting that the microwave auditory effect is accompanied by a mechanical disturbance of the hair cells of the cochlea.
1975. Michaelson S et al. (eds).
Fundamental and applied aspects of nonionizing radiation: Springer. QP82.2 .R3 R58
1975. Ward TR et al.
Measure of enzymatic activity coincident with 2450-MHz microwave exposure, Journal of Microwave Power, 10(3):315-323.
1975 (Dec). Lin JC et al.
Transmission of electromagnetic pulse into the head, Proceedings of the IEEE, 63(12):1726-1727.
1975 (Nov). Cole RA and M Young.
Effect of subvocalization on memory for speech sounds, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 1(6):772-779.
Sequences of 6 consonant-vowel syllables were ordered for recall. Participants were trained to suppress subvocalization which recalling the 6 syllables. Higher memory errors were found in the group that was trained to suppress subvocalization; certain aspects of the results suggested that this was independent of encoding of speech sounds in short-term memory.
1975 (Nov). Frohlich H.
The extraordinary dielectric properties of biological materials and the action of enzymes, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 72(11):4211-4215.
1975 (Nov). Gandhi OP.
Frequency and orientation effects on whole animal absorption of electromagnetic waves, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-22(6):536-542.
1975 (Oct). Blakemore R.
Magnetotactic bacteria, Science, 190(4212):377-379.
1975 (Oct). Lin JC.
Noninvasive microwave measurement of respiration, Proceedings of the IEEE, 63(10).
1975 (Oct 31). Brenner D et al.
Visually evoked magnetic fields of the human brain, Science, 190(4213):480-482.
An early demonstration of knowledge of specific neural activities evoked by visual stimulus. (This is different than the "wave"-based readings via EEG at the time, which I believe are more important to understanding the future development of electronic weapons, no matter that MRIs have been important in development much background knowledge in their more refined applications.)
1975 (Aug). Courchesne E et al.
Stimulus novelty, task relevance and the visual evoked potential in man, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 39(2):131-143.
An early demonstration of visually evoked potentials being found to have a degree of specificity. In this study, the waves (amplitudes and delay), of electric potentials were found to have specific features which differed by whether they were similar or novel within the series of images, and whether or not they were related to the task.
At that time, filling your hair with a tub of grease to lock it into a particular form had not yet fallen out of fashion, and the ability to insert even extremely low-grade lightening into video was considered as advanced special effects. Mobile phones were considered as science fiction, although Motorola had just produced one of the first models ever, weighing 1.1kg, 30 minutes talk time, taking 10 hours to charge, and with the sole feature of being able to transmit voice.
1975 (Jul). Janowitz M.
Sociological theory and social control, American Journal of Sociology (The University of Chicago Press Article), 81(1):82-108.
Discusses the history of the idea of social control. Classically, this referred to the ability of a society to regulate itself. It came to refer to either socialization or social repression -- if unable to reinforce the classical meaning, he proposes a need for a new term relating to self-regulation or socialization.
1975 (Jun 26). Melville D et al.
Direct magnetic separation of red cells from whole blood, Nature, 255:706.
1975 (Jun 25). Justesen DR.
Toward a prescriptive grammar for the radiobiology of non-ionising radiations: Quantities, definitions, and units of absorbed electromagnetic energy --an essay, Journal of Microwave Power, 10(4):343-356.
1975 (Jun). Blanchard EB and LD Young.
Biofeedback training: A review of evidence, Pediatrics, 55(6).
"Alpha wave control by EEG feedback has become a popular executive creativity induction method. In a careful review of the published papers with good controls clinical effectiveness has been established..."
1975 (May). Donchin E et al.
On the independence of the CNV and the P300 components of the human averaged evoked potential, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 38(5):449-461.
This represents developments in the ability to discern be identifiably different patterns in event-related potentials. The amplitude of the P300 remained similar in the presence of a warning stimulus, whereas other activity could be separately identified.
1975 (May). Hamid A and SS Stuchly.
Microwave Doppler-effect flow monitor, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics and Control Instrumentation, IECI-22(2):224-228
Capabilities and limitations of microwave Doppler radar for monitoring flow.
1975 (May). Hanna R et al.
A biofeedback treatment for stuttering, Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 40:270-273.
"Auditory feedback of laryngeal muscle tension was found to reduce stuttering dramatically in an exploratory study of a single patient. ..."
I'm not sure if this description implies the ability to measure by detection of surface changes due to subvocally-related muscle movements, as compared to measuring the EMG signal per se.
1975 (May). Lin JC.
Interaction of electromagnetic transient radiation with biological materials, IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, EMC-17(2):93-97.
1975 (May). Naatanen R.
Selective attention and evoked potentials in humans -- A critical review, Biological Psychology, 2(4):237-301.
A review of the knowledge on the relationship between evoked potentials and attentiveness by 1975. Discussing existing challenges to fully map out these relationships, including the lack, at that time, of research on psychological and behavioural phenomena such as importance, task-relevance, interest value, meaningfulness or significance of stimuli, which expressions. It should be rather obvious, to those who have experienced a diversity of applications of remote influencing neuroweapons, that the ability to influence things like attributed importance, task-relevance, interest value, meaningfulness, etc., have clearly been figured out in the non-civilian sector. Clearly someone(s) have filled in those gaps over the last 40 years. But that's not really interesting at all, isn't it? Hey look! A flashing image of genitalia of the opposite sex! I have to go check my Facebook now.
1975 (May 12-14). Lin JC.
Microwave measurement of respiration, IEEE-MTT-S International Microwave Symposium.
1975 (Apr). Fisher KD et al.
Sensitivity of auditory and vestibular systems to stimuli other than sound and motion: Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.
1975 (Apr). Frey A and SR Feld.
Avoidance by rats of illumination with low power nonionizing electromagnetic energy, Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 89(2):183-188.
Shows that rats, when irradiated with 1.2-GHz microwave energy, spent more time in the shielded portion of a box when the microwaves were pulsed, but not under continuous irradiation. (Apparently even rats don't like having their minds remotely tampered with, to the extent that the avoid it when they couldn't possibly have a clue what was going on.)
1975 (Apr). Squires NK et al.
Two varieties of long-latency positive waves evoked by unpredictable auditory stimuli in man, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 38(4):387-401.
Subjects were exposed to auditory stimuli, which unpredictably shifted in either intensity or tone, under two conditions: one not paying attention and performing another task, and a second specifically paying attention. An evoked potential at about 240 ms was recorded in both conditions, but a later component at about 350 ms only occurred in the case when the subject was specifically on the lookout for the stimulus.
This suggests the ability to determine whether or not an individual is actively paying attention to an auditory stimulus, since the later component will only occur when the individual is paying attention to the type of stimulus.
1975 (Apr 1). Phillips RD et al.
Thermoregulatory, metabolic, and cardiovascular response of rats to microwaves, Journal of Applied Physiology, 38(4):630-635.
1975 (Mar). Justesen DR.
Microwaves and behavior, American Psychologist, 30(3):391-401.
Discusses the study of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields, especially microwaves, in psychology. Some fundamental principles of wave theory and historical developments in the field are summarized, and methodological and instrumentation issues are examined. It includes evidence and discussion of the demonstration of voice to skull (synthetic telepathy) technologies by researcher Dr. Joseph Sharp in 1973.
1975 (Feb). Appleton B et al.
Investigation of single-exposure microwave ocular effects at 3000 MHz, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 247:235-134.
1975 (Feb). Baranski S and Z Edelwejn.
Experimental morphological and electroencephalographic studies of microwave effects on the nervous system, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 247:109-116.
1975 (Feb). Servantie B et al.
Synchronization of cortical neurons by a pulsed microwave field as evidenced by spectral analysis of electrocorticograms from the white rat, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 247:82-86.
1974 (Nov). Zimmerman U et al.
Dielectric breakdown of cell membranes, Biophysics Journal, 14(11):881-899.
In "plotting the pulse heights versus the electric field strength, a sharp bend in the otherwise linear curve is observed due to the dielectric breakdown of the membranes", in human, bovine and E. coli cell membranes.
1974 (Oct). Noyes RM and RJ Field.
Oscillatory chemical reactions, Annual Review of Physical Chemistry, 25:95-119.
1974 (Oct). Pilla A.
Electrochemical information transfer at living cell membranes, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 238:149-170.
Even with (or perhaps particularly due to) highly data-oriented modern technologies relating to the sorts of interactions explored in this relatively early work, I hesitate to call this "information transfer". I don't think this was talking about "information" in the data-oriented way we do today, but rather with a focus at the submolecular or subatomic level with the state of one thing influencing the state of some other thing, through some interaction.
Regardless, of historical interest, is the general fact of detailed exploration in this direction, both making use of established organic chemistry principles, data, etc., while making further investigative efforts inclusive of EM field effects on biological stuff.
1974 (Sep). Cory WE and CL Frederick.
Effects of electromagnetic energy on the environment - A summary report, IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, AES-10(5):738-742.
1974 (Aug). Lindauer GA et al.
Further experiments seeking evidence of nonthermal biological effects of microwave radiation (short papers), IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 22(8):790-793
Contributed to knowledge that non-thermal effects of microwaves on organisms is possible, which was debated at the time. (The specific case involved beetle pupae.)
1974 (Jul 12). Taylor EM and BT Ashleman.
Analysis of central nervous system involvement in the microwave auditory effect, Brain Research, 74(2):201-208.
Shows that cochlear damage eliminated auditory-linked neural activity in 3 typically active sites. Theorizes that this means the auditory effects are "mediated at the periphery", but comparisons to normal sound suggest the theoretical basis was not yet pinpointed.
1974 (Jul 1974). Clapman R and C Cain.
Absence of heart-rate effects in isolated frog heart with pulse modulated low-level microwave energy, IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Symposium Record.
1974 (Jul 19). Foster KR and ED Finch.
Microwave hearing: Evidence for thermoacoustic auditory stimulation by pulsed microwaves, Science, 185(1417):256-258.
1974 (Jun 12-14). Lin JC et al.
Microwave effect on rabbit superior cervical ganglion, S-MTT International Microwave Symposium Digest.
A broad range of power densities failed to significantly impact conduction latencies recorded from post-ganglioic fibres.
1974 (Jun 12-14). Weil CM.
Absorption characteristics of multi-layered sphere models exposed to UHF/microwave radiation, S-MTT International Microwave Symposium Digest.
1974 (May). Blanchard EB and LD Young.
Clinical applications of biofeedback training: A review of evidence, Archives of General Psychiatry, 30(5):573-589.
Discusses elimination of subvocal speech as among those with evidence supporting efficacy of "biofeedback training", as compared to other physiological and neural activities tested which were not. Also summarizes and reviews applications up to that point.
1973 (Dec). Kaczmarek LK and WR Adey.
The efflux of 45Ca2+ and [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid from cat cerebral cortex, Brain Research, 63:331-342.
1973 (Dec). Lords JL et al.
Rate effects in isolated hearts induced by microwave irradiation (short papers), IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 21(12):834-836.
1973 (Sep). Adams JC and DA Benson.
Task-contingent enhancement of the auditory evoked response, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 35(3):249-257.
1973 (Autumn). Mirkin HG.
Judicial review, jury review, & the right of revolution against despotism, Polity, 6(1):36-70.
Frames situations where "refusal to enforce particular legislation, that is, refusal to convict where the facts warrant conviction if the law were deemed valid" as being part of an act and also general principle of "right of revolution" against tyranny, as enacted by what he seems to assume would be a populist judicial interpretation "against despotic government".
The summary does not include any mention of "independence of the judiciary" or some analogue thereof, which is understood in many places in particular outside of the West as critically lacking for judicial appointees to play any such anti-tyranny role.
1973 (Aug 30). Bawin SM et al.
Effects of modulated very high frequency fields on specific brain rhythms in cats, Brain Research, 58(2):365-384.
1973 (Jul 27). Frey AH and R Messenger.
Human perception of illumination with pulsed ultrahigh-frequency electromagnetic energy, Science, 181(4097):356-8.
A psychophysical study of the perception of "sound" induced by illumination with pulse-modulated, ultrahigh-frequency electromagnetic energy indicated that perception was primarily dependent upon peak power and secondarily dependent upon pulse width. The average power did not significantly affect perception. Perceived characteristics of pitch and timbre appeared to be functions of modulation.
1973 (Jun 26). Lin JC et al.
Microwave selective brain heating, Journal of Microwave Power, 8(3):276-286.
1973 (Jun). Donchin E et al.
Graded changes in evoked response (P300) amplitude as a function of cognitive activity, Perception & Psychophysics, 14(2):319-324.
"Using a stepwise discriminant analysis, we demonstrate that the amplitude of P300 is a graded function of the complexity of information processing required of a S following a stimulus. ..."
The temporal aspect is now introduced to understanding evoked reactions. They surmise that the P300 is an indicator of "general-purpose cortical processor".
1973 (Jun 6). Guy AW et al.
Microwave interaction with the auditory systems of humans and cats, IEEE G-MTT International Microwave Symposium.
"Recordings from elements of the auditory system of cats in response to pulsed microwaves, as well as determinations of thresholds of audibility of humans to the pulses indicate that an auditory sensation may be elicited by pulse energies > 20..."
1973 (Jun 4-6). Chou CK and AW Guy.
Effect of 2450-MHz microwave fields on peripheral nerves, IEEE G-MTT International Microwave Symposium.
1973 (Jun 1). Schaefer S and RR Engel.
Operant control of autonomic functions: Biofeedback bibliography, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 36(3):863-875.
Organizes 280 references on "instrumental or operant learning", which is related to biofeedback, by type of publication.
1973 (Jan). Oberg PA.
Magnetic stimulation of nerve tissue, Medical & Biological Engineering, 11(1):55-64.
1972. Elul R.
The genesis of the EEG, International Review of Neurobiology, 15:227-272.
A basic explainer on the production of electrical activities which are recorded by an EEG.
1972 (Nov). Aslan E.
Broad-band isotropic electromagnetic radiation monitor, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 21(4):421-424.
Shows ability to have uniform measurements from all directions from 300 MHz to 18 GHz and 20 W/cm2 to 20 mW/cm2.
1972 (Nov). Glassman WE.
Subvocal activity and acoustic confusions in short-term memory, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 96(1):164-169.
Degree of subvocalization is manipulated using a self-conditioning procedure. The extent of subvocalization was related to the production of acoustic confusion of short-term memory, but minimization of subvocalization may lead to encoding in other ways.
1972 (Oct). Blank M.
Cooperative effects in membrane reactions, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 41(1):97-104.
1972 (Sep). Appleton B and GC McCrossan.
Microwave lens effects in humans, Journal of the American Medical Association - Ophthalmology, 88(3):259-262.
1972 (Jul 28). Paul DD and S Sutton.
Evoked potential correlates of response criterion in auditory signal detection, Science 177(4046):362-364.
1972 (Jun). Johnson CC and AW Guy.
Nonionizing electromagnetic wave effects in biological materials and systems, Proceedings of the IEEE, 60(6):692-718.
Expresses awareness of "a myriad of effects and responses in biological specimens". Seeks to explore if low-level effects are harmful, and reports on awareness of behavioural effects at low energy intensity.
1972 (May). Curtis GC.
Psychosomatics and chronobiology: Possible implications of neuroendocrine rhythms: A review, Psychosomatic Medicine, 34(3):235-256.
Generally deals with much longer temporal effects than are most relevant to the topic at hand (although certainly many other rhythms can be interrupted or changed temporarily by means which do not involve altering their underlying causes), but is perhaps indicative of the knowledge in this area at that time.
1971. Wulfsohn NL and A Sances (eds).
The nervous system and electric currents: Volume 2: Springer.
1971 (Oct). McGuigan FJ.
External auditory feedback from covert oral behavior during silent reading, Psychonomic Science, 25(4):212-214.
Describes biofeedback used to suppress subvocal speech: "High speech-muscle amplitude during silent reading produced a slightly noxious tone, and a reduction in amplitude removed the tone...". Point to a desire to have techniques which have more effect in controlling 'covert' speech (subvocalization).
1971 (Jul-Sep). Beck LW.
Kant and the right of revolution, Journal of the History of Ideas, 32(3):411-422.
1971 (Sep). Othmer HG and LE Scriven.
Instability and dynamic pattern in cellular networks, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 32(3):507-537.
1973 (Autumn). Mirkin HG.
Self-determination, The American Journal of International Law, 65(3):459-475.
"while the concept [of self-determination] lends itself to simple formulation in words which have a ring of universal applicability and perhaps of revolutionary slogans, when the time comes to put it into operation it turns out to be a complex matter hedged in by limitations and caveats. ..."
1971 (Apr). Eino EW and WL Castensen.
Low-frequency dielectric dispersion in suspensions of ion-exchange resins, The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 75(8):1091-1099.
"...the low-frequency dielectric constant of bacteria appears to be correlated with the cell wall conductivity (or the volume charge density within the wall) rather than the surface charge density of the cell".
This doesn't mean that cell wall conductivity itself is the explanatory mechanism, since the same properties that cause the conductivity could somewhat separately intermediate on the effect of the EM fields.
1971 (Feb). Frey AH.
Biological function as influenced by low-power modulated RF energy, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 16(2):153-164.
1971 (Feb). Shapiro AR et al.
Induced fields and heating within a cranial structure irradiated by an electromagnetic plane wave, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 16(2):187-196.
1971 (Feb). Schwan HP.
Interaction of microwave and radio frequency radiation with biological systems, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 16(2):146-152.
A survey of thermal and nonthermal effects...
"Several important conclusions are made. 1) Field-force effects cannot be enhanced by use of pulsed fields. 2) It is not possible to directly stimulate nerve membranes by microwave fields. 3) It is fluids and tissues..."
1971 (Feb 1). Conner JA and CF Stevens.
Inward and delayed outward membrane currents in isolated neural somata under voltage clamp, The Journal of Physiology, 213(1):1-19.
1971 (Jan). Keeton WT.
Magnets interfere with pigeon homing, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
1970. Kryter KD et al.
The effects of noise on man: Academic Press. BF205 .N6 K72
1970. Presman AS.
Electromagnetic fields and life: Springer. QH656 .P713
1970 (Aug). Bostock H and MJ Jarvis.
Changes in the form of the cerebral evoked response related to the speed of simple reaction time, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 29(2):137-145.
Reaction time to sound was itself related to another identified difference in neural activity. This did not differ by phase of the cardiac cycle (at what time in between heart beats) under these experimental conditions.
1970 (Jun). Engel J and G Schwartz.
Cooperative conformational transitions of linear biopolymers, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 9(6):389-400.
1970 (Mar). Gavalas RJ et al.
Effect of low-level, low-frequency electric fields on EEG and behavior in Macaca nemestrina, Brain Research, 18(3):491-501.
1970 (Feb). Shwartz G.
Cooperative binding to linear biopolymers: 1. fundamental static and dynamic properties, The European Journal of Biochemistry, 12:442-453.
1969. Cohen J.
Very slow brain potentials relating to expectancy: The CNV, in E Donchin and DB Lindsley (eds). Average evoked potentials: Methods, results, and evaluations: US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 400 pp.
Included out of interest that the conference these works were produced for had convened to discuss average potentials specifically, indicating that interest in spike trains, etc., following the identification of the P300, were barely on the horizon.
1969 (Nov). Berkhout J et al.
Alterations of the human electroencephalogram induced by stressful verbal activity, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 27(5):457-469.
"... it proved possible to separate subjectively stressful from non-stressful verbal stimuli, and to determine distinctive EEG responses to verbal stimuli of similar stress value differing only in semantic content." "Consistent over small populations", which means that with their small subject group, it looks like there is not large divergence in the effects.
1969 (Sep 17). Frey AH.
Effects of microwaves and radio frequency energy on the central nervous system: Randomline Inc.
Summarizes some discussions relating to the state of the art, and along the way mentions that the central nervous system was not completely understood as many might have believed, and so conclusions that RF energy had no neural effects were not sound (no specific claims were made, however).
1969 (Feb). Hardyck CD and LF Petrinovich.
Treatment of subvocal speech during reading, Journal of Reading, 12(5):361-368.
Discusses methods existing at that time to record subvocal speech, including inserting needle electrodes directly into the laryngeal muscles in order to record speech.
1968. Carpenter RL and CA Van Ummersen.
The action of microwave radiation on the eye, Journal of Microwave Power, 3(1):3-19.
Finds the cataract formation is in different locations/depths depending on the field type that the microwave is applied within.
1968. Harrington RF.
Field computation by moment methods: Wiley-IEEE Press. QC20.2 .H3
1968 (Oct). Delgado JM et al.
Intracerebral radio stimulation and recording in completely free patients, The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 147(4):329-40.
Among other things, finds that "Radio Stimulation on different points in the amygdala and hippocampus in the four patients produced a variety of effects, including pleasant sensations, elation, deep thoughtful concentration, odd feelings, super relaxation (an essential precursor for deep hypnosis), coloured visions, and other responses."
1968 (Sep). Frolich H.
Long-range coherence and energy storage in biological systems, International Journal of Quantitative Chemistry, 2:641-649.
"...The supplied energy is thus not completely thermalized but stored in a highly ordered fashion. ..."
I'm not sure whether this might be related to much study of temperature increases (which by exclusion might give indications of this additional energy storage), but I don't see much mention along this line in further research, so this might be a theoretical dead end. The paper also incorporates many aspects of organic chemistry (related to specific bonding properties, molecular resonance-related, etc.) which are accepted now and would have been cutting edge at the time.
1968 (May 24). Mast TE et al.
Attention and auditory evoked responses to low-detectability signals, Perception & Psychophysics, 4(4):237-240.
Responses to low level auditory stimuli were about double when counting the stimuli as compared to when reading. This was a larger relative increase than previously found, under higher volume sound.
1967. Brienza MJ and AJ DeMaria.
Laser-induced microwave sound by surface heating, Applied Physics Letters, 11(2):44.
1967 (Sep). Elazar Z and WR Adey.
Spectral analysis of low frequency components in the electrical activity of the hippocampus during learning, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 23(3):225-240.
1967 (Jun). Donchin E and L Cohen.
Averaged evoked potentials and intramodality selective attention, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 22(6):537-546.
Demonstrates specific differences in evoked potentials depending on whether the subject is attentive or not. I believe this belongs to the body of research which ultimately led to remote influencing technologies which interfere with attention.
1967 (May). Seligman ME and SF Maier.
Failure to escape traumatic shock, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74(1):1-9.
1966. Collin RE.
Foundations for microwave engineering, 1st: McGraw-Hill. TK7870.C55
1966 (Dec 16). Hardyck CD et al.
Feedback of speech muscle activity during silent reading: Rapid extinction, Science, 154(3755):1467-1468.
"Surface electromyograms of the laryngeal muscles were made while subjects read silently. Those who showed an increase in electrical activity over that at relaxation were provided with auditory feedback of the muscle activity. This treatment resulted in immediate and long-lasting cessation of the subvocalization. ..."
1966 (Jul). Donchin E.
A multivariate approach to the analysis of average evoked potentials, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-13(3):131-139.
"... An average evoked potential is assumed to be a sample from a multivariate normal distribution. ...". If you know where the technology is now, and have some vague notion of how it got there, you might easily understand how this common statistics assumption of a "multuvariate normal distribution" would be utterly fatal to efforts to use such methods in related areas of research.
1965 (Dec). Rodieck RW.
Quantitative analysis of cat retinal ganglion cell response to visual stimuli, Vision Research, 5(12):583-601.
This finding appears much earlier than probably most people might have thought.
1964. McGuigan F et al.
Covert language responses during silent reading, Journal of Educational Psychology, 55(6):339-343.
3 possible measures of "covert language behaviour" (!?) during silent reading were obtained. Perhaps fortunately for some, it took a while longer for something to pan out on this front.
1964 (Sep 12). Chapman RM and HR Bragdon.
Evoked responses to numerical and non-numerical visual stimuli while problem solving, Nature, 203:1155-1157.
Shows that event-related potential (P300) responses to visual stimuli differed depending on whether the stimuli had meaning or not by comparing responses to two kinds of visual stimuli: numbers and flashes of light. They were able to distinguish between the fact of sensory perception and the meaningfulness of the perception -- the meaningful stimulus elicited a neural response which peaked at 300 ms, and hence called the P300 ERP.
1964 (Aug). Garcia-Austt E et al.
Effects of attention and inattention upon visual evoked response, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 17(2):136-143.
Establishes patterns related to visually evoked potentials which are related to inattention. This may demonstrate a very early awareness of the likely ability to influence attentiveness by mimicking evoked potentials associated with inattention. (Which is perfectly consistent with stated MKULTRA research objectives to reduce the cognitive abilities of a target.)
1964 (Jul 10). Davis H.
Enhancement of evoked cortical potentials in humans related to a task requiring a decision, Science, 145(3628)L182-183.
At this stage, the experimental subject had to be required to make a rather difficult auditory discrimination for the response to be identified through EEG readings.
1964 (Jul 1). Nicholls JG and SW Kuffler.
Extracellular space as a pathway for exchange between blood and neurons in central nervous system of leech: Ionic composition of glial cells and neurons, Journal of Neurophysiology, 27(4):645-671.
1963. White RM.
Generation of elastic waves by transient surface heating, Journal of Applied Physics, 34(12):3559.
1963. Heath RG.
Electrical self-stimulation of the brain in man, The American Journal of Psychiatry, 120(6):571-577.
1963 (Oct 1). Robertson JD et al.
The ultrastructure of Mauthner cell synapses and nodes in goldfish brains, Journal of Cell Biology, 19(1):159.
1963 (Jun). Nakayama T et al.
Thermal stimulation of electrical activity of single units of the preoptic region, American Journal of Physiology, 204:1122-1126.
Neural activity stimulated in pre-optic region of brain upon microwave radiation, with the effect thought to be due to heating.
1962 (Nov). Furshpan EJ and T Furukawa.
Intracellular and extracellular responses of the several regions of the Mauthner cell of the goldfish, Journal of Neurophysiology, 25(6):732-771.
1962 (Jul). Frey AH.
Human auditory system response to modulated electromagnetic energy, Journal of Applied Physiology, 17(4):689-692.
An early experimental demonstration of the microwave auditory effect to beam sounds into people's heads remotely (several hundred feet) by use of pulse modulations of microwaves.
1962 (Apr). Cameron E et al.
The depatterning treatment of schizophrenia, Comprehensive Psychiatry,
"Summary: We have described a method of treatment of schizophrenia especially adapted to short-term hospitalization in the psychiatric divisions of general hospitals. This method of treatment consists of three components:
- a) the administration of intensive electroshock treatment;
- b) concurrent administration of continuous sleep;
- c) a two-year post-discharge follow-up phase of treatment."
1962 (Apr). Pressly TJ.
Bullets and ballots: Lincoln and the "right of revolution", The American Historical Review, 67(3):647-662.
Right of revolution presented as a main American contribution to civilization.
Claims of right of revolution presented in contradiction to arguments that where such a right were to exist, "for a society which acknowledged it could not stop at tolerating conspiracies to overthrow it, but must include their execution" (citing U.S. vs. Dennis et al., 183 F 2d 201, 213, as reported in NY Times, Aug 2, 1950).
1961. Michaelson SM et al.
Physiologic aspects of microwave irradiation of mammals, American Journal of Physiology, 201:351-356.
A variety of longer-term physiological changes (and lack thereof) noted in several mammal species after microwave radiation.
1961 (Jan 7). Leites FL and LA Skurikhina.
The effect of microwaves on the hormonal activity of the adrenal cortex, Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine, 52(6):1387-1390.
Following an initial stress response after a single exposure to microwave radiation, within 1.5-2 weeks a "distinct and statistically significant change in hormonal activity was noted in the adrenal cortex".
1960 (Sep 1). Lewy G.
Resistance to tyranny: Treason, right or duty?, Political Research Quarterly, 13(3):581-596.
The question of right of revolution, to resist tyranny, was a key point in whether acts of resisters on Hitler's life in July 1944 could legitimize slanderous statements made against them, on the basis of them having been "traitors" to Hitler. The Third Reich was ruled as representing a "state devoid of justice" (Unrechtsstaat), which thus attributed to resisters as being "entitled to self-defense against a state daily committing ten thousands of murders". The resisters were cleared of the accusation of high treason related to an attempt on the life of Hitler in July 1944, and charges of slander against the memory of resisters who died in the actions led to imprisonment of a high official of the former German Nazi party.
1959 (Jun). Delgado JM.
Division of instrumentation: Electronic command of movement and behavior, Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, 21(8-II):689-699.
1958. Faaborg-andersen et al.
Electromyography of intrinsic and extrinsic laryngeal muscles during silent speech: Correlation with reading activity: Preliminary report, Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 49(1):478-482.
"During "silent speech" an increase in electrical activity was found in the vocal and the mylohyoid muscle...".
1958. Fry FJ et al.
Production of reversible changes in the central nervous system by ultrasound, Science, 127(3289):83-84.
Among other things: "At acoustic intensities <500 mW/cm2, pulsed US can produce mechanical bioeffects without producing thermal effects or tissue damage ..."
1957. Schwan HP.
Electrical properties of tissue and cell suspensions, Advances in Biological and Medical Physics, 5:147-209.
1957 (May). Barlow JS.
An electronic method for detecting evoked responses of the brain and for reproducing their average waveforms, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 9(2):340-343.
An early technique in using EEGs to measure how neural activity responds to stimuli. In this case, averaged responses across many instances were used to find the effect. The fact of some automated aspects in the calculation were perhaps impressive at the time.
Among other things, early EEG findings indicate that surely much more lies down that road, so the main interest might often be what is being looked for, more so than techniques.
1956. Fricke H et al.
A dielectric study of the low-conductance surface membrane in E. coli, Nature, 177:134-135.
1955. Schwan HP et al.
The absorption of electromagnetic energy in body tissues. A review and critical analysis. Part 2: Physiological and clinical aspects, American Journal of Physical Medicine, 34(3):425-448.
1954. Dawson GD.
A summation technique for the detection of small evoked potentials, Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, (6):65-84.
Presents an automated method of making and adding measuring small responses to stimuli which may not have otherwise been identifiable using technologies of the day.
1952. Hodgkin AL and AF Huxley.
A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve, The Journal of Physiology, 117(4):500-544.
1951 (Oct). Peirson DH and E Franklin.
The dielectric behaviour of some types of human tissues at microwave frequencies, British Journal of Applied Physics, 2(10):295-299.
Mostly of interest as a topic of study that produced relevant principles which proliferated in a variety of relevant areas.
1950 (Sep 16). England TS.
Dielectric properties of the human body for wave-lengths in the 1-10 cm range, Nature, 166:480-481.
1949. Doob LW.
The strategies of psychological warfare, Public Opinion Quarterly, 13(4):635-644.
Discussion of structures of thinking to systematically consider possible responses of the target audience in order to limit the number of variables to be considered and identify the course of action most likely to achieve objectives. The need to inventory strategies in a manner conducive to examining major assumptions behind strategies is addressed.
1949. Silver S.
Microwave antenna theory and design: McGraw-Hill. TK6565 .A6 S5
1947 (Feb 1). Barlow et al.
Visual sensations aroused by magnetic fields, American Journal of Physiology, 148(372-375).
1946 (Jul). Roberts S and A Von.
A new method for measuring dielectric constant and loss in the range of centimeter waves, Journal of Applied Physics. 17)7):610-616.
1941 (Jul 20). Cole KS and RF Baker.
Longitudinal impedance of the squid giant axon, The Journal of General Physiology, 24(6):771.
1938. Liebesny P.
Athermic short wave therapy. Archiv Fur Physikalische Therapie (Chicago), 19:736.
This title is included for historical interest, namely, that human "therapies" using microwave radiation were already a subject of research interest on both sides of the Atlantic prior to the onset of WW2.
1935. Liebesny P.
Short and ultrashort waves in biology: Urban & Schwarzenberg, Munich.
This title is included for historical interest.
1919. Cleveland FA.
Popular control of government, Political Science Quarterly, 34(2):237-261
"Four conditions are essential to stable, effective democratic government: (1) consciousness of common ideals and purposes to be realized; (2) organization to secure these ends; (3) leadership, an essential to cooperation; (4) popular control to make the organization and leadership consistent with the conscious ideals and purposes of those who are served. ..."
1913. Pintner R.
Inner speech during silent reading, Psychological Review, 20(2).
Suggestive of an interest to eliminate subvocal speech when reading, with a belief that this would increase reading speed. (Retention does not appear to have entered into the consideration.)
1910 (Jul 21). Thompson SP.
A physiological effect of an alternating magnetic field, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Biology, 396-398.
In a repeatable manner, "described a flickering nimbus that consistently appeared when he, or a number of other volunteers, stuck their heads between the poles of a large, rapidly oscillating magnet" (quoting from WV Ellis, 1989, "Magnetic neuromuscular stimulation in humans" in CA Phillips (ed) "Effective upper and lower extremity prosthesis" p. 15).
1898 (Jun). Thorndike EL.
Animal intelligence: An experimental study of the associative processes in animals, The Psychological Review: Monograph Supplements, 2(4):i-109.
This is most included for historical interest as an indication of active research and interest in associative processes, viewed through the lens of animal studies.
1748. Hume D.
An enquiry concerning human understanding
Numerous earlier chapters try to reason through the chain from events and perception to cognition, enroute to trying to understand society from its fundamental constituents such as individuals, families, etc.
Most well-known for a justification of state authority under the assumption of generally being more secure and better off while accepting a leviathan that at least mostly returns the favour in exchange for complicity in upholding the state, this book also includes a great many chapters which try to present the links between perception and cognition.
Media and other civil society references
2017 (Nov 12). NCIS.
Extremists embedded in the military take over weapons of mass destruction to genocidally 'deal with the Muslim problem for good'. The common thread was a psychology professor at a military academy who gave surveys that were used to predict/profile political beliefs.
2017 (Aug 30). Dorsey S.
Infra- and ultrasonic waves thought to be responsible for Cuba attacks: CBS News.
In addition to the specific events reported, this article also states that use of microwave weapons against US embassy staff in Moscow had been occurring for 20 years when it was reported as happening in 1976.
2017 (Feb 25). Helbing D et al.
Will democracy survive big data and artificial intelligence: Scientific American.
Without getting too technical and certainly not at all 'hysterical', on an all-round basis I'd say that this is very possibly the best outline of societal risks associated with some classes of new technologies, inclusive of those which are only on the cusp of being perceived as open for public discussion. Among other things, it posits explanations for observed phenomena which do not require pointing to an external or internal enemy to justify forward action.
2016 (Oct 13). Krishnan A.
Military neuroscience and the coming age of neurowarfare: Routledge.
Neurowarfare in the first half of the 21st century "creates both humanitarian opportunities in making war less bloody and burdensome as well as some unprecedented threats and dangers in terms of preserving freedom of thought and will in a coming age where minds can be manipulated with great precision".
This guy's not dead, so welcome enforced lovingness towards the people who use mind control techniques and technologies for repression purposes, who cannot be that bad, since this guy's not dead, right? (I have not seen the movie.)
Avengers of ultron (film).
A Hollywood blockbuster including a robot invasion. Standout lines for those not impressed by 'mind control' include, when one of the heroes faces a character who specializes in neuro-electric interfacing, telekinesis and mental manipulation, upon jamming an arrow through her skull states "I've done the whole mind control thing. Not a fan."
Ex machina (film).
2015. Schneider RM.
Surveillance, torture and control in the modern world ...: A collection of links to inform the general public and targeted individuals about the crimes of organized stalking and electronic harassment.
2015 (Oct 30). Helbing D.
The automation of society is next: How to survive the digital revolution: CreateSpace.
"After the automation of factories and the creation of self-driving cars, the automation of society is next. But there are two kinds of automation: a centralized top-down control of the world, and a distributed control approach supporting local self-organization ..."
I would add that it is not necessarily the case that those who would wish to implement darker possibilities will wait until automated cars and factories are practicable, to push towards top-down digital control of society.
2014 (Nov 14-16). Krishnan A.
From psyops to neurowar: What are the dangers?, Paper to be presented at the ISAC-ISSS Conference in Austin, 14-16 November 2014.
A highly accessible and worthwhile read.
In closing the section on neurosecurity and neurodefense, which highlights detection, deterrence, reaction and adaptation as important concepts: "... Security services, law enforcement, and courts need to be sufficiently informed about the existence of potential neuroweapons technologies and need to be trained to investigate possible nefarious usage of such technology. The minds of soldiers and of political leaders might need to be shielded against attempts of remote influencing and remote mind control. More ambitiously, societies might even try to shape the neuroecology in a way that reduces opportunities for nefarious manipulation. These will be great challenges, but they are not insurmountable."
2014 (Mar 2). Valdez J.
Mind control in the 21st Century: Veteran's Today.
Among other things, mentions the creation of remote artificially stimulated 'hallucinations', rat experiments which show addiction to the extent of continuously repeated use of a 'pleasure button' until death, and cites the stated belief of a former Lockheed Martin [which has some more understandable or legitimate interest in related technologies for communications in warplanes] neural weapons designer that the technologies are not merely theoretical.
Worth repeating? "So even if a person wouldn't do something based on his personality, the key is to reset or disengage the person's personality (free will), and then repeatedly train either consciously or non-cognitively the person's brain to fire relentlessly ... to the point where you insert a new personality that acts upon the impulses emanating from the sex/ violence/ religious circuits." There is also reference to a sort of politically oppressive "thoughtcheck" operating like Microsoft Word's spellcheck, but in this case suppressing certain thoughts or fading/erasing certain memories.
Among risks cited, are risks to the mentally non-conformed "for example, brains with non-deferential attitudes towards authority or unsanctioned beliefs".
After attack from a reptilian alien species, youth are now winnowed through military training via continuous war games. In the process, they are explicitly allowed to disagree within the privacy of their mind, although outward compliance with norms seems strictly enforced. The relative humanity and limited draconianism in such hostile circumstances enduring very extended periods can be contrasted with unjustified promotion of viewing youth primarily for their future military qualities, including covert psychological warfare via
covert use of neuroweapons rather than innovation and truth seeking via good faith debate and competition.
A man falls in love with an intelligent computer operating system. Solace for those determined as a burden on the gene pool? Too many scary possibilities related to the premise of this romance film ...
The machine (film).
A researcher develops an 'AI' that "integrates information rather than processing terabytes of data, it relies on experience". She becomes involved in a plot to do good, at the wrong time. Technical details do not seem highly relevant to the context of this document, except as an expression of concern of what types of problems might arise from military research into intelligence.
The theme of vengeance towards those who used individuals as experimental subjects (etc.) might appeal to some.
2013. Welsh C.
Misled and betrayed: How US cover stories are keeping a Cold War weapon and illegal human testing secret, Torture: Asian and Global Perspectives, 2(2):44-73.
2013 (Aug 27). Armstrong D and M Ma.
Researcher controls colleague's motions in 1st human brain-to-brain interface: UW News.
"Using electrical brain recordings and a form of magnetic stimulation, Rajesh Rao sent a brain signal to Andrea Stocco on the other side of the UW campus, causing Stocco's finger to move on a keyboard." They believe it to be the first human-to-human brain interface ...
2013 (May 5).
Electronic harassment special: Coast to Coast.
2013 (Feb 14).
Covert harassment: Coast to Coast.
2013 (Feb 1). Sullivan E.
My life changed forever: The years I have lost as a target of organized stalking: Infinity.
The author's story about being forced to live under constant surveillance since 1994. It is a true crime exposé into the world of organized stalking, a form of organized crime. It often includes stalking, constant following, psychological harassment and mind games. It can also be called technological harassment.
2012 (Jun 23). Kasten L.
Mind control & the New World Order: New Dawn.
In addition to a general contextual outline, points to the codification of torture methods which followed mind control research, and includes a quote from a US congressman worth highlighting (it may also be worth noting that this statement preceded the Stanford Experiment): "As a result of spinoffs from medical, military aerospace and industrial research, we are now in the process of developing devices and products capable of controlling violent mobs without injury. We can tranquillise, impede, immobilise, harass, shock, upset, stupefy, nauseate, chill, temporarily blind, deafen or just plain scare the wits out of anyone the police have a proper need to control and restrain."
2012 (Apr 1). Leake C.
Putin targets foes with 'zombie' gun which attack victims' central nervous system: Daily Mail.
A reference relating to the general existence and/or usage of neural weapons in a context of 2011-2020 Russian military procurement, suggesting the end of the 2010s decade as the timeframe for application (contradicting widely diffused claims of the US embassy in Moscow having been targeted with such weaponry over 40 years previous).
2011 (Oct). Pittman R.
Remote brain targeting (mind control in America book 1).
Outlines some of the more common aspects to the various Stasi-style psychological attacks which have been and are being undertaken in part via use or complicity in use of electronic weapons and/or related systems.
2011 (Mar 17). Jarvis J.
Revealed: US spy operation that manipulates social media: The Guardian.
The automated aspect maybe doesn't pan out well in things that have such an easily identified record. What I would be more concerned about here is the background work required for this capacity to have effects regarding manipulation, with concerns related both to this specific application and redirection of such human resources to alternative uses.
2010 (Apr 1). Pfiffner JP.
Torture as public policy: Restoring U.S. credibility on the world stage: Paradigm Publishers (224p).
"...authoritatively examines the policy directives, operational decisions, and leadership actions ... that reversed centuries of U.S. policy on the treatment of enemy prisoners. He shows how the serious reservations of career military lawyers about these policies were overcome by the political appointees of the Bush Administration" (from product description)
On the premise that criminals and deviants are being planted with replicating cells which effectively take over their brains, a mastermind who wants to live in an 'I think it and you do it' kind of world of slave puppets faces a hero in a movie which recalls of Running Man (1987).
Potentials analogues in sequencing thought reform and programming including via electromagnetic neuroweaponry may be interesting food for thought in this context.
2009 (Jul 28).
Democracy Now! broadcast exclusive: Declassified docs reveal military operative spied on WA peace groups, activist friends stunned: Democracy Now.
2009 (Apr 14).
Mind control archive documents: wanttoknow.info.
Archive with links to all CIA mind control documents sent in response to a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request to the CIA. There are 1,778 documents with about 20,000 pages available in folders of declassified CIA documents.
This movie includes numerous disturbing features that will be familiar to at least some targets. Orders being given by phone, from some mysterious Orwellian Big Brother. Distraction and piercing painful stimuli associated with personal threats to enforce subservience to the voice. Getting some handful of details correct, which is then intended to persuade a target that Big Brother knows everything, and can thus be trusted as truthful on the basis of correctly determining some important detail. A centralized computer system that amasses data on consumer purchases, social media and other records for psychological and other profiling and analytical purposes.
2008 (Oct 13). Bland E.
Army developing synthetic telepathy: NBC News.
2008 (Sep 15). Giridharadas A.
India's use of brain scans in courts dismays critics: The New York Times.
"For years, scientists have peered into the brain and sought to identify deception. They have shot infrared beams through liars' heads, placed them in giant magnetic resonance imaging machines and used scanners to track their eyeballs. ..."
Refers to a case in Delhi, India, where there was a conviction using a 'guilty knowledge' test based on an EEG reading. The conviction was overturned on appeal, but "the EEG testing used was not referenced in the Judge's summing up in the appeal case" (quoting Royal Society, Dec 2011).
2008 (May 7). Fields RD.
Mind control by cell phone: Scientific American.
1) Electromagnetic waves at frequencies and strengths used by cell phones YES can affect brain activity. 2) However, the effects at the signal strength of a cell phone are not relevant for "mind control". 3) (However, the lack of effect at specific wavelength and energy level of a cell phone does not contradict demonstrated capability at wavelengths, or energy levels and in particular pulse modulations of them, to have more specific effects than the non-zero effect recorded in the study cited.)
2007 (Jul 8). Parker M.
CIA's Bourne identity plot: Express.co.uk
A reference relating to settlements and legal action related to mind control experiments performed in Canada and funded by the CIA, mentioning, among other things, 77 victims who were reduced to a permanent childlike state.
In a world where many people wear 'hoodie masks' that project shifting presentations of faces to thwart widespread facial recognition, a (spoiler) goes through many odd situations after beginning to consume "Substance D" in relation to (spoiler). He faces bizarre diagnostic procedures after becoming a habitual user and is ultimately (spoiler).
2006 (Dec). Phillips P et al.
US electromagnetic weapons and human rights: As study of the History of US intelligence community human rights violations and continuing research in electromagnetic weapons: Media Freedom Foundation.
Excellent as a historical backgrounder.
In a historical outline, mentions "information warfare" and "non lethal weapons" as relevant keywords. Refers to Operation Mockingbird as "a campaign that would lead to acceptance of blanket secrecy for "national security"." States that former Nazis 'recruited' into the US after the war "were put in charge of many of the most sensitive programs and facilities". Presents some of Tesla's speculations a century ago with regard to the use of electromagnetics means of engaging in conflict. Links TMS with DARPA "augmented cognition" research. Also cites a number of high-profile individuals whose position suggests high probability to have knowledge in relevant areas, and who express belief that concerns about neural effects in microwave and other wavelengths is a legitimate concern. Also, that positive applications of related areas of technology are suppressed for the fact of secrecy with regard to their negative applications.
In terms of victims of abuses of such technologies, mentions the following experiences as consistent with the technologies mentioned: hearing voices when no one was present; burning, itching, tickling or pressure sensations with no apparent cause; sleeplessness and anxiety (tinnitus related?); loss of bodily control such as a jerking motion; unexpected emotional states that pass as quickly as they arise.
Closes with a reminder of the right to revolution as set out in the 1776 Declaration of Independence of the United States.
2006 (Jan 1). Adams D.
The hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy (film).
Notable scenes include mind control helmets and even an explainer on it being normal to have paranoias. Mostly a whacky and entertaining movie, but clearly the 1978 origins in a radio series was at least somewhat informed about existing technological possibilities which have become more salient in the 40 years since.
The Manchurian candidate (film).
2004 (Oct 17). Goodwin K.
Brainwash victims win cash claims: The Times of London.
2004 (Aug 6). Babacek M.
Electromagnetic and informational weapons: The remote manipulation of the human brain: Centre for Research on Globalisation.
Among other things, has references relating to former eastern bloc, Russian and European endeavours relating to restrictions of psychophysical technologies, including a Russian law restricting use of such technologies, which to say the least should stand testament to their existence.
Closes with these words: "...any meaningful democracy in today's world could be disrupted, through secret and covert operations. It is not inconceivable that in the future, entire population groups subjected to mind control technologies, could be living in a "fake democracy" where their own government or a foreign power could broadly shape their political opinions by means of mind control technologies."
A couple gets an AI 'child' as a toy for their son. Includes some aspects which are of interest to the present context: the complete lack of consideration/awareness of a humanoid AI for basic matters of privacy; habits of copying common to humans while learning carried to insensitive extremes; sense of humour that isn't funny; general insensitivity to creepiness. It is notable as an example of a pre-smart phone age indication of what concerns people had regarding incipient technologies at that time (e.g., the lack of an off button) - in particular, the absence of wireless connectedness of the AI technology can be highlighted, which completely changes the potential scope of concern relating a 'Skynet tries to rule' sort of situation. As compared to many movies on AI from the 1950s, 60s, 70s and 80s which in at least some instances addressed neurotech- or mind control-related risks head on, this 2001 Hollywood output was essentially bereft of any such considerations.
2001 (Nov 1). Churchill W and J Vander Wall.
The COINTELPRO Papers: Documents from the FBI's Secret Wars Against Dissent in the United States, 2nd: South End Press.
1994. Chaitkin A.
British psychiatry: From eugenics to assassination, Executive Intelligence Review, 21(40).
Very interesting article which is not easily assessed for accuracy. Aside from numerous specific and general points of historical interest, it can be noted that the article expresses an apparent belief that Nazi- and eugenics-related influences in mental health fields are linked with Masonic influences involving Queen Victoria's son who was an international Masonic grandmaster with many connections in American and UK finance and in German industry (especially chemicals). Also, that many of the horrors described in the article were associated with intent of certain elements of British aristocracy to topple the American republic in a process that perhaps relatedly started as early as the incorporation of US military intelligence under the British spy service during the period of the First World War.
I'm inclined to take this relatively speaking at face value, with the additional specification of not reading more into the text that is there. In so doing, one may potentially understand the origins of relatively widespread theories relating to the role of "Masons", origins of the US Fed, Rockefeller, and linkages with Nazis, British monarchs and some Jews. This does not require taking such theories to logical absurdity for them to be relevant. For example, there is often more than one thing going on, and things that happened previously become different things after that.
1992 (Dec). Mckinney J.
Microwave harassment and mind-control experimentation: Electronic Surveillance Project, Association of National Security Alumni.
This brief document provides an overview of available technologies in 1992 including their application in what is referred to as a 'KGB mentality'. A description of some forms of harassment (and worse) used at that time is provided, in addition to objectives of said
It should be noted that the contents of this document is not easily verifiable, but is deemed extremely believable by targeted individuals.
1991 (Oct 28).
The game. Star Trek: The Next Generation (season 5 episode 6).
Riker returns from a vacation on Risa with a game that he is eager to share with the crew. Unfortunately, the game is psychologically addictive (making the crew suffer from Virtual Reality Addiction), and it quickly transforms virtually every member of the Enterprise's crew into a mind-controlled pawn of the Ktarians, who are using the devices to gain control of Starfleet. After Data (who, as an android, is unaffected by the game) inexplicably is 'incapacitated', only visiting Starfleet Academy cadet Wesley Crusher and young engineering ensign Robin Lefler stand in the way of the insidious scheme. The game rendered
them extremely susceptible to the power of suggestion, compelling them to aid the games' creators - the Ktarians - in an attempt to take control of the Enterprise (and eventually the Federation).
Among very many things that could be of interest in a 10-book series, here I highlight a) nexus of jobs and AI and b) the interesting fact of, in that alternate universe, the capacity for suffering and not intelligence as being a
basis for whether something it to be considered as a crime. The term 'neural lace' in an E Musk neurotechnology venture comes from this series.
A high school student is trying to hack computer game companies to play games and ends up dialling into a number that hosts a program that is connected to the nuclear military network and unknowingly starts a false scenario which shows up as real on NORAD screens. The program later tries several approaches to win the game, and in the process the film addresses some connected issues.
1980. Donner FJ.
The age of surveillance: The aims and methods of America's political intelligence system: Knopf.
1969. Delgado JM.
Physical control of the mind: Toward a psychocivilized society: CreateSpace.
Billion dollar brain (film).
From the perspective of 2017, "AI" aspects are cartoonish and barely more than a robotic voice. Beyond automated fingerprint and corneal biometric identification at some checkpoints, technologically speaking, this film is not informative of perspectives of the time which are of enduring importance.
Top quote: "Intelligence work is one thing, but using hooligans to break up a country is another". Also, in response to whether the main character was tortured by the Red Army: "more mentally than physically", an indication that it was well understood by the mid-1960s that psychological torture was real. (The fact that the character who minimized its relevance was a total nutjob is perhaps worth mentioning as well.)
NSC 5412, National Archives RG 273.
A reference for a quote on plausible deniability; covers 1951-1961 period.
The invisible boy (film).
From AI gone rogue to the use of mental health claims to prevent use of paranoia in frank risk assessment from being aired, this 1957 release is clearly well informed of the cutting edge at that time and where things might go. With the exception of some handful of mentions about time machines, nearly every situation and response is either indicative of a responsible disclosure mindset, which demonstrates understanding of some basic aspects of humanity which pose risks with technologies which were barely incipient in 1957.
For those who have not been pretending to have their heads stuck in the sand in recent years, strong bells ring throughout. Among other things, this movie may both reassure from the historical perspective, for example what should have been relatively transparent to parents about which aspects of the film aimed to draw youth interest in certain types of science or risk assessment problems, which suggests that the mainstream in 1957 was essentially well-intentioned without being naive about either foreign threats or risk of domestic subversion.
Gave rise to the term gaslighting with the meaning "a form of psychological abuse in which false information is presented to the victim with the intent of making him/her doubt his/her own memory and perception".
1944 film https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0036855
1940 film https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0031359
1938 play https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_Light
350 BCE. Aristotle.
On memory and reminiscence.
Mostly included for historical and philosophical interest. This is not of scientific value from the neurology perspective, but may be informative in philosophical underpinnings that may have been common in treatment of memory and reminiscence from the Enlightenment through to the present.
Official statements or publications
2013. Department of the Air Force.
Directed energy bioeffects research (DEBR), Solicitation Number: BAA-HPW-RHDR-2013-0002.
Provides some broad strokes to the tune of "yes, the military does research on bioeffects of microwaves".
2011. German Ministry of Interior.
Vierter Gefahrenbericht - Band 4 der reihe "Schriften der Schutzkommission" (Ministerial Commission for the Protection of the Civilian Population).
The threat report mentions "electromagnetic pulses" and "electromagnetic terrorism" as specific threats of concern (pages 31 and 119). An article by EveryDay Concerned Citizen questions changes to the reference between the 2001 version (2nd) and 2011 version (4th), for example focusing more on EMP threats to computers than threats to people.
UKUSA Agreement: The National Archives.
Contains details of the recently avowed UKUSA Agreement - the top secret, post-war arrangement for sharing intelligence between the United States and the UK.
2009 (Jul). Edited by WP Roach.
Radio frequency radiation dosimetry handbook (5th), Directed Energy Bioeffects Division - Radio Frequency Radiation Branch.
Mostly notable for its absence of reference to any behavioural effects or offensive uses related to monitoring; is mostly focused on safety standards aimed at preventing acute immediate health effects of relatively strong exposures, and irreversible diseases, etc., which may be caused by long-term exposure.
Among other things, provides reference to the main EMF standards (chapter 11) comprising related information for the general public on safety standards, in addition to tracing a historical overview (chapter 12) of EMF/RF safety standards, in the post-WWII period.
2008. National Research Council (USA).
Emerging cognitive neuroscience and related technologies: National Research Council.
According to "From psyops to neurowar: What are the dangers?" (Krishnan 2014), this report stresses: "This cognitive weapons market does exist...", but I haven't checked the context, etc., of that.
2007 (Jan 1). Jorgensen C and B Bradley.
Applications for subvocal speech, NASA Tech Briefs.
Outlines applications of subaudible EMG readings from the surface of the larynx and lingual areas of the throat. Situations of high acoustic interference or for silence/secrecy are mentioned as possible applications.
2003 (Dec 3). International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.
Case no. ICTR-99-52-T": United Nations.
Although not the main point of this document, I include this in relation to its documentation of dehumanization preceding a genocide, namely referring to another group as cockroaches over the radio waves.
2002 Media Guide to Disarmament in Geneva: United Nations.
Non-lethal weapons are listed on page 25. It is perhaps worth noting that C Welsh is indicated as a source. The following page deals more with cyber and informational aspects within the UNIDR framework.
Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: ICC.
Article 7(2)(e) defines torture as "the intentional infliction of severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, upon a person in the custody or under the control of the accused; except that torture shall not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to, lawful sanctions". Article 7 defines "crimes against humanity" more generally.
Space Preservation Act 2001, HR 2977 IH, 107th Congress.
2001 (Sep 10). Richelson JT.
Science, technology and the CIA, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 54.
1999 (Jan 14). European Parliament.
"Report on the environment, security and foreign policy" (select A005/A4 from the European Parliament website which archives previous texts).
Item 30 on "Legal aspects of military activities" specifies that the European Parliament "Calls in particular for an international convention for a global ban on all research and development, whether military or civilian, which seeks to apply knowledge of the chemical, electrical, sound vibration or other functioning of the human brain to the development of weapons which might enable any form of manipulation of human beings, including a ban on any actual or possible deployment of such systems".
Nonlethal weapons terms and references: US Air Force Academy.
Defines a number of terms related to non-lethal weapons, some of which did not pan out and some of which already existed. It provides a clear, concise and quasi-official definition of electromagnetic (RF) weapons, among others.
Chapter 3: Supreme Court Dissents Invoke the Nuremberg Code: CIA and DOD Human Subjects Research Scandals: Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments.
Mentions the difficult to categorically prove human radiation experiments performed by the CIA as a part of the MKULTRA program, which was addressed by the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments which had been created by the US president in 1994.
Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments.
After scandals in previous years (and decades), in 1994 a committee was convened to investigate human radiation experimentation.
1994 (Jun). Bolen SM.
Radiofrequency/microwave radiation biological effects and safety standards: A review, Air Force Materiel Command, NY.
"...RF frequencies greater than 3 GHz ... the likely depth of penetration is about 1-10 mm [citation]. At frequencies above 10 GHz the absorption of energy will occur mostly at the outer skin surface." I am not aware of this statement being rejected elsewhere, but if at a certain frequency most is absorbed, this does not mean that there is not other backscatter and/or transmission and/or re-emission at other frequencies, etc.
Contains a categorization of difference types of effects, including references related to effects on heart disturbances (faster/slower, lower blood pressure) and some effects on brain function which are caused by continuous wave treatment (as opposed to pulsed modulations which are of more relevance for behavioural/neural effects).
"Experimental results presented by R.D. McAfee in 1971 showed that anesthesized animals could be awakened by irradiation from a pulsed 10 GHz RF/MW source. ... In all cases, the arousal response was stimulated only when the head of the animal was irradiated".
Re: microwave hearing: "The auditory response has been observed only for pulsed modulated radiation emitted as a square-wave pulse train. The pulse width and pulse repetition rate are factors that appear to determine the type of sound perceived" (this seems far better understood in present literature than in 1994 ...). Citing Lin (1980; Microwave auditory phenomenon), mentions 0.1-300 mW/cm2 as the relevant power intensity and also mentions that "Auditory responses have been observed for a frequency range of 200-3000 MHz and for pulse widths from 1-100 microseconds.
On penetration: 3-10 cm wavelengths penetrate to about 1-10mm. Greatest depth of penetration is between 25 and 200 cm. At frequencies above 300MHz "it has been observed that the depth of energy penetration fluctuates rapidly with changes in frequency", which is possibly related to sub-molecular resonance factors which in some situations may explain highly frequency-dependent specific effects (such as that underlying the BOLD technique in MRI). Presents water content, for example due to dipoles which affect dielectric properties, as being very important in EM deposition, etc., related to the human body.
"Researchers have reported that the human body will absorb the greatest amount of RF/MW energy from sources radiating at the whole-body resonance frequency" (at about 60-80MHz). Not sure how relevant that is for understanding things, but interesting ... Also mentions "partial-body resonances", which are presumably related to the fairly large amount of literature on "head resonance" and models thereof.
As do other researchers, mentions the insufficiency of SAR for safety standards: "SAR does not encompass all of the important factors necessary to determine safe exposure levels. The modulation frequency and peak power of the incident EM field should also be considered." Also: "Behavioral effects were considered to be among the most serious consequences of exposure to RF/MW radiation."
1993. International Programme on Chemical Safety.
Electromagnetic fields (300 Hz to 300 GHz): Environmental health criteria 137, World Health Organization.
Provides a variety of resources in the process of assessing risks related to electromagnetic fields and radiation. Among a great many other things, it mentions (220.127.116.11) that despite knowledge of bioeffects from ultra-short pulses, that information at that time was not sufficient to define any safety/security limits. Amplitude modulations thought not to pose a risk, but insufficient information to be sure.
1990. Adair E.
Thermoregulatory consequences of resonant microwave exposure: US Air Force.
Of interest: "Even when no changes can be measured in the deep or peripheral temperatures of the body, sensitive thermoregulatory responses are mobilized to dissipate the heat generated in body tissues by the absorption of thermalizing energy from RF sources in the environment."
1985. Canadian Parliament.
Criminal Code (R.S.C., 1985, c C-46), Articles 264.1 (threats) and 346(1) (extortion).
Art 264.1: "Every one commits an offence who, in any manner, knowingly utters, conveys or causes any person to receive a threat: (a) to cause death or bodily harm to any person; ..." ..., and for some other kinds of threats ... can get up to 5 years.
It can also be noted that threat to psychological harm can be recognized as a "bodily harm" for purposes of applying this law (relevant legal precedents not presently cited).
Art 346(1): "Every one commits extortion who, without reasonable justification or excuse and with intent to obtain anything, by threats, accusations, menaces or violence induces or attempts to induce any person, whether or not he is the person threatened, accused or menaced or to whom violence is shown, to do anything or cause anything to be done."
Criminal Code (R.S.C., 1985, c C-46) http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/c-46
1977 (Aug 3). 95th US Congress, 1st session.
Project MKULTRA, The CIA's program of research in behavioural modification: Joint Hearing before the Select Committee on Intelligence and the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources - United States Senate
Among other things, has a reference to a 1955 document (p 167 in pdf) which lists a number of goals related to the (often illegal) research under the MKULTRA program.
1976 (Aug 16). Library of Congress.
Legislative history of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence.
1976 (Jan). Federal Commissioner for the Records of the State Security Service of the former German Democratic Republic.
Directive No. 1/76 on the development and revision of operational procedures -- Richtline Nr. 1/76 zur Entwicklung und Bearbeitung Operativer Vorgange (OV).
This document, in German, presents operational changes under the Stasi, and thus gives some view into what it was like.